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41 CHAPTER TEN NON-TRANSPORTATION CASE STUDIES There are many organizations worldwide implementing KM ings, serving as the human interface for learning and knowl- programs. For this research, the World Bank and NASA were edge sharing. One of their main functions is to provide a "one- chosen for further study because they were identified by the stop shop" to respond to information needs on various devel- literature survey as organizations that have developed active opment topics. These groups ensure that responses are given, KM programs over time. KM processes at the World Bank usually within 24 to 48 h, to internal and external queries. In have evolved over approximately 10 years from a central unit addition to human networks, there are multiple libraries, cata- providing KM services to a business process that is embed- logs, document repositories, and web portals. Readers are ded into the organization. NASA's KM program has a simi- urged to visit the website for a wealth of practical ideas on the lar history. In addition, the reader will find many references World Bank's formalization of KM efforts, implementation, to other organizations in the annotated literature survey. communities of practice, partnerships, leadership, training, technology, and measurement. The site offers exceptionally useful and informative videos of presentations by actual WBI KNOWLEDGE SHARING AT WORLD BANK KM leaders discussing their strategies over a period of approx- The introductory remark at the main page for knowledge imately 8 to 10 years to develop knowledge sharing within sharing at the World Bank states its philosophy succinctly their organization. Indeed, this historical approach is so help- and shows how it has evolved: http://web.worldbank.org/ ful because one can see the progression of ideas and strategies WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/0,contentMDK:20251495 over time. Also, the World Bank has published a number of menuPK:204788pagePK:209023piPK:207535theSitePK: useful reports, which are available either for free or at reason- 213799,00.html. able cost by means of download from the website. Knowledge sharing at the World Bank has evolved over time. In 2004, for the fifth consecutive year, the WBI Group has From an early emphasis on capturing and organizing knowledge, been named as one of the world's top 20 Most Admired its focus now is on adopting, adapting, and applying knowledge in Knowledge Enterprises. Teleos, an independent KM and a way that helps World Bank staff, clients, and partners work more effectively to reduce global poverty (World Bank Institute 2006). intellectual capital research company, which was discussed earlier in this report, made the award. WBI was the only non- Notice how the focus moved from internal emphasis to a private-sector company to have made the list in 2004. sharing of the broader organizational goal of supporting clients in their bid to reduce poverty. Under that umbrella, INTERVIEW WITH WORLD BANK KNOWLEDGE many different strategies and professional disciplines can MANAGEMENT OFFICER work together in one cohesive, all-encompassing approach. Erik Johnson, Knowledge Management Officer at the World Continuing from the website, the World Bank Institute's Bank, was interviewed on April 13, 2006. His remarks are (WBI) Knowledge Sharing program includes building net- summarized here. KM processes at the World Bank have works, including the global learning network, global devel- evolved over approximately 10 years from a central unit pro- opment network, global knowledge partnership, and world viding KM services to a business process that is embedded into links for development. Tools used include e-discussion the organization. Mr. Johnson commented that on the day he groups; a web casting service; a development issues gateway was interviewed, he had been reviewing World Bank staff for gaining access to information, tools, and resources; and performance evaluations and every one of them has KM as electronic newsletters. There is also an oral history project, one of its 4 to 6 core competencies and responsibilities. He which is in the main collection of the Bank Archives, com- commented that the term "knowledge management" is "seen prising interviews conducted with almost 120 World Bank everywhere." KM is a career track for a few individuals who staff. There are more than 80 internal COPs called "Thematic work in specific sectors and facilitate KM processes, whether Groups" made up of bank employees, plus another set of com- it is to get content on some topic or development area, facili- munities made up of bank clients, but facilitated by the WBI. tate a web portal, facilitate group learning, or build a document repository to support the unit's internal work. He sees as a sign Another WBI initiative is the Advisory Services Group, of success that the central KM unit that launched and grew KM which acts as the central hub of networks and other group- processes internally is no longer functioning as the central