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100 APPENDIX J Annotated Literature Survey: Standards and Guidance Documents Issued by International Standards-Developing Organizations Regarding Knowledge Management Australian Standard: Knowledge Management--A Guide management systems in Section 4.2, Documentation Require- AS 5037-2005 (2005) was released October 15, 2005, as a ments. It states: "that the quality management system be doc- nonprescriptive guide on knowledge management (KM). An umented" (p. 2). Included in the list of required documentation update to an earlier interim standard (AS 5037-INT) in 2003, are "documents needed by the organization to ensure the effec- the 2005 revision incorporates insights gained as a result tive planning, operation, and control of its processes" (p. 2). of feedback on the interim standard by many Australian and The standard allows documentation to be in any form or type international KM practitioners. The Standard provides guid- of medium. Furthermore, Section 4.2.3, Control of Documents, ance on what KM is and how it may be implemented using a requires a documented procedure be established for document flexible framework. It can be used by any individual, com- approval, review, updating, reapproving, version control, and munity, or organization. The document walks one through the legibility. Documents must be identifiable. Documents of steps and implementation options for KM to suit the require- external origin must be identified. Unintended use of obsolete ments of your own organization's context, capabilities, and documents must be prevented and obsolete documents must readiness. Perhaps the most useful feature is a listing and be suitably identified if they are retained at all (p. 3). descriptive details of 33 "enablers"; that is, tools, techniques, and activities for KM implementation. It also includes a In Quality Management Systems--Fundamentals and chapter on specific ways to evaluate and measure KM in Vocabulary, ISO 9000 (2000), under Section 2.7.2, Types of organizations. The document outlines an ecosystem model of Documents Used in Quality Management Systems, among KM based on relationships, networks, processes, content, others these types of documents are listed and technology. It is not hierarchy based. This document is, in the opinion of this author, the single most useful practical c) documents stating requirements . . . reference on KM reviewed in this report, especially in the d) documents stating recommendations or suggestions . . . initial phase when developing KM processes. guidelines . . . e) documents that provide information about how to per- Quality Management Systems--Guidelines for Perfor- form activities and processes consistently . . . proce- mance Improvements, ISO 9004:2000 (2000) includes, in dures, work instructions, and drawings Section 6.2.2.2, a recommendation to include tacit and explicit f ) documents that provide objective evidence of activities knowledge when planning for training and education of performed or results achieved . . . records . . . (p. 4). staff (p. 16). Section 6.5 specifies that the continual devel- opment of an organization's knowledge is essential for deci- In 2004, the European Committee for Standardization, sion making and innovation. It recommends identifying known by the acronym CEN issued a 5-part series of Work- information needs, identifying and accessing internal and shop Agreements entitled European Guide to Good Prac- external sources of information, converting information to tices in Knowledge Management. As with the Australian knowledge of use to the organization, and using knowl- standard described earlier, this series of documents provides edge to meet objectives (p. 18). ISO 9004:2000 specifically guidance and is not prescriptive. The Guide was written to describes in Section 4.2, Documentation, how the genera- give Europeans a practical guide to both mainstream think- tion, use, and control of documentation should be evaluated ing and emerging new thinking in KM. Although it is aimed with respect to the effectiveness and efficiency of the orga- at business environments, other organizations will find it use- nization against such criteria as functionality; user friendli- ful owing to its structured, practical approach. Because it ness; resources needed; policies and objectives; current and stresses the business focus, it puts KM in the value-adding future requirements to managing knowledge; benchmarking processes of an organization, and concentrates on critical of documentation systems; and interfaces used by the orga- knowledge. It also deals with processes that are part of nization's customers, suppliers, and other interested parties. interorganizational business networks, which include suppli- It recommends that access to documentation should be ers, partners, and clients. It describes three layers of activity: ensured for people in the organization and to other interested (1) the five core knowledge activities as identifying, creating, parties (p. 3). storing, sharing, and using knowledge; (2) the integration of these activities into an integrated framework by forming an Quality Management Systems--Requirements ISO 9001 integrated process; and (3) identifying and implementing the (2000) lays out the requirements of process-based quality right KM tools and methods within two main categories--

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101 personal and organizational--which complement each other. very useful document is also provided free-of-charge through Part 1 describes the overall KM framework. Part 2 discusses the website given in the References. It must be noted that, to organizational culture. Part 3, "SME Implementation," is the author's knowledge as of this writing, the U.S. standards- devoted to the SME (small and medium-sized enterprise), developing community, as generally coordinated by the because the Committee believed that knowledge in SMEs American National Standards Institute, has not published any tends to be tacit, informal, and not recorded; know-how in nationally recognized standards or guidelines dedicated to SMEs may not be valued as highly as it might be; SMEs KM. However, the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: An may use short-term approaches to knowledge gaps; and the American National Standard, ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2001, knowledge in SMEs may be more easily lost when an owner developed by the National Information Standards Organiza- sells the business or retires (pp. 56). One could substitute tion, is highly useful for KM content management applica- "CEO" or similar title for "owner." Part 4 spells out guide- tions. It provides a basic metadata element set of 15 descrip- lines for measuring KM. Part 5 is devoted to KM terminol- tors for cross-domain information resource description. This ogy. In short, all five parts of the Guide offer a wealth of standard has been applied, extended, and adopted by coun- distilled, structured, easy-to-read information on KM imple- tries and organizations. Simple and easy to apply, the 15 ele- mentation, albeit it for U.S. readers, with a slight European ments describe almost any resource adequately for discov- twist. Note that all five parts, although copyrighted, are avail- ery. Additional metadata schemes can be added to the basic able free of charge, as of this writing, on the CEN website set for richer description. The Dublin Core Metadata Initia- (see References). tive website (http://dublincore.org) offers a wealth of details about the development worldwide of the use of Dublin core. In 2001, the BSI Group, which issues British standards among other activities, published Knowledge Management-- On July 5, 2005, a brief report was issued as the collabora- A Guide to Good Practice, PAS 2001. PAS stands for "pub- tive product of a work group convened under the auspices of licly available specification," which indicates that the docu- the TRB Data and Information Technology Section (ABJ00) ment is, as is the case with the Australian and CEN documents, (2005). The Library and Information Science Committee not a "standard" in the usual sense, but a nonprescriptive guide (ABG40) from the Research and Education Section (ABG00) to practice. Written in cooperation with PriceWaterhouse- was a full partner. At their Section meeting on January 12, Coopers, the document disseminates KM good practices to 2005, data committee chairs agreed to examine options for a both United Kingdom and global audiences, gives case studies, Section-level focus on metadata specifically for transportation- and provides details about KM resources (http://www. related resources. The work group strongly recommended that bsi-global.com). Its target audience is broad and not limited to a data section, focused on metadata, is needed immediately, business and industry. Since the publication of PAS 2001, BSI and that a staged approach be used to institutionalize a meta- has issued six related detailed KM guides. data group within TRB with the aim of eventually issuing a metadata standard for transportation resources. Similarly, the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry pub- lished A Guideline for Intellectual Capital Statements: A Key Although not a standard, the Transportation Research to Knowledge Management (2001). Although the term "cap- Thesaurus (TRT) is a standardized metadata tool to improve the ital statements" might be confusing, the introduction makes indexing and retrieval of transportation information. The clear that the document is about knowledge resources and thesaurus covers all modes and aspects of transportation. how companies manage, deploy, and develop the resources, The TRT's purpose is to provide a common and consistent including their employees, customers, processes, and tech- language between producers and users of transportation nologies, and how they manage these resources. Seventeen information. Anyone needing keywords, categorization companies worked with the agency on the document. It is terms, or standard terminology in the field of transportation quite business oriented; however, it does contain numerous is a potential TRT user. The TRT is maintained on a regular examples of internal practices by the 17 companies. This basis and is available at http://trt.trb.org/trt.asp.