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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 570 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small- and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2007 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando VICE CHAIR: Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT, Concord EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT, Austin Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, Washington, DC Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, Atlanta Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT John A. Bobo, Jr., Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Carl A. Strock (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2007.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 570 Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small- and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Cambridge, MA WITH TRANSMANAGEMENT, INC. Bethesda, MD TRANSTECH MANAGEMENT, INC. Greensboro, NC AND KEVIN HEANUE Alexandria, VA Subject Areas Planning and Administration Design Operations and Safety Rail Freight Transportation Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2007 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 570 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 8-47 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-09873-1 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2007921916 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2007 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 570 Robert J. Reilly, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Manager, NCHRP Ronald D. McCready, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor Ellen Chafee, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 8-47 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning--Area of Forecasting Steven R. Kale, Oregon DOT (Chair) John A. Barton, Texas DOT Michael W. Gray, Virginia DOT Richard A. Nordahl, California DOT G. Wayne Parrish, Mississippi DOT Joel R. Phillips, Colorado DOT Jolanda P. Prozzi, University of Texas--Austin Suzann Rhodes, Wilbur Smith Associates, Prospect, OH Thomas TenEyck, Pennsylvania DOT Eloise Freeman-Powell, FHWA Liaison Elaine King, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Guidebook presented in this document was developed through NCHRP Project 8-47, led by Cam- bridge Systematics, Inc. Michael T. Williamson of Cambridge Systematics was the Principal Investigator and primary author. He was responsible for development of the technical approach, the data collection activities, and the Guidebook. He was supported by several key experts. Michael Fischer of Cambridge Sys- tematics served as the Principal in Charge, providing high-level guidance and advice to the project. James Brogan of Cambridge Systematics led development of the case studies and was a key contributor to the Guidebook development. Sarah Campbell of TransManagement, Inc., contributed to the development of case studies. Henry Canipe of TransTech Management, Inc., provided expertise in public/private partner- ships and industry outreach. Kevin Heanue, an independent consultant, contributed to the development of the self-assessment exercise and provided overall insight to the project.

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FOREWORD By Ronald D. McCready Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This guidebook provides the necessary resources to undertake freight transportation planning activities in small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas. This guidebook should be especially useful to small- and medium-sized Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), as well as their state and federal partners, as they work to effectively integrate freight into local and regional transportation systems planning, priority programming, and project development planning activities. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) and the Trans- portation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) emphasized the need for state and met- ropolitan multimodal and intermodal transportation policy, planning, and programming activities--including identification of specific freight transportation activities. Results of successful freight programs in some of the nation's larger metropolitan areas have been pre- sented at meetings and in publications of federal agencies, the Transportation Research Board, and other organizations. However, information about freight policy, planning, and programming activities in small-sized (less than 200,000 population) and medium-sized (200,000 to 1 million population) MPOs is more limited. Thus, there has been an ongoing need to systematically collect better information about freight programming activities in small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas, including freight movement on main trans- portation routes, intermodal connectors, and intermodal facilities and terminals. To support a better understanding of freight transportation, research is needed to (1) examine and analyze how state departments of transportation (DOTs) and MPOs are carrying out freight policy, planning, and programming activities; and (2) develop rec- ommended approaches for improving methods and processes aimed at defined freight objectives for small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas. The objective of this project was to develop a guidebook that can be used by practitioners and decision-makers to address freight issues in small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas. The guidebook describes how freight policy, planning, and programming processes can be most effec- tively designed, initiated, and managed. The research focused, in part, on lessons learned from experiences in small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas that resulted in more effective consideration of freight issues in policy, planning, and programming decisions. Under NCHRP Project 8-47, "Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Program- ming in Small- and Mid-Sized Metropolitan Areas," a research team lead by Cambridge Sys- tematics, Inc., carried out a comprehensive investigation into current and effective practices for considering freight in the policy, planning, priority programming, and project develop- ment activities undertaken in small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas. The project resulted in a practical handbook designed to provide users with substantial information to

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develop and tailor freight planning within the transportation planning processes of these metropolitan areas. The guidebook includes : (1) an introduction providing a brief back- ground on the importance of freight transportation planning for small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas; (2) instructions for the effective use of the guidebook; (3) a "Getting Started" module with a self-assessment exercise, evaluation steps to assess the nature of freight planning in the area, and identification of the appropriate mix of activities that can best achieve freight planning goals in the area; (4) specific guidance to stimulate freight pol- icy, planning, and programming activities within established MPO program functions, including long-range planning, transportation improvement programming, and unified planning work program development; (5) a comprehensive list of sequential steps that can be taken to establish an effective freight transportation planning program; and, (6) a freight reference module that includes data and analytical tools, training resources, case studies, available freight research, and freight glossary references. The guidebook should be of sig- nificant use to managers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in addressing freight within the planning processes of small- and medium-sized metropolitan areas.

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CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 Background 2 Purpose 2 Approach 1-1 Module 1 Using the Guidebook 1-1 Who Should Use This Guidebook? 1-1 How Should the Guidebook Be Used? 2-1 Module 2 Getting Started 2-1 Step 1. Freight Self-Assessment 2-3 Step 2. Definition of Your Freight Planning Program Stage 2-4 Step 3. Identification of Program Elements and Freight Planning Guidelines 3-1 Module 3 Integrating Freight into MPO Activities 3-2 Overview of Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming Guidelines 3-2 Developing a Freight Policy Directive 3-7 Developing a Regional Freight Profile 3-13 Identifying Freight Needs and Deficiencies 3-18 Developing a Freight Element of a Long-Range Plan 3-24 Identifying Freight Projects 3-28 Addressing Freight in Corridor Plans and Studies 3-32 Developing Freight Project Evaluation Criteria 3-36 Developing Freight Performance Measures 3-40 Identifying Innovative Funding and Financing Techniques 3-45 Assessing Freight Project Impacts 3-50 Data and Analytical Tools 3-55 Training and Education 3-59 Outreach and Partnerships 4-1 Module 4 Putting It All Together 5-1 Module 5 Identifying Freight Resources 5-3 Resources Available through FHWA's Freight Professional Development Program 5-7 Freight-Related Databases in the United States, Canada, and Mexico 5-21 Current Federal Funding and Financing Programs for Freight Improvements 5-25 Case Studies 5-27 Small/Medium MPO Case Studies 5-87 Large MPO Freight Planning Case Studies 5-111 Freight Glossary References