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Index A Abbreviations 201-202 Absorbed dose 52-55 Activation products 2, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31,34,35,96,111,162,165,187,188 Aircraft 56, 86, 93, 1 13, 115, 120, 121, 134, 160, 168, 171, 177 B-17 56,57 B-25 57,58 B-29 57,58 B-50 58 B-52 149 B-57 59 F-84 57, 58 T-33 57 Air Force 102,108,1 13,1 14,138, 149-151, 171, 183 Air Force Special Weapons Center 154 Alamogordo, NM 56, 75, 81, 82 ALARA principle 55 Alpha particles, see under Radiation American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 78 American Standards Association 22 ARGUS 59, 75, 76, 166-169 217 Armed Forces Special Weapons Project (AFSWP) 59, 97, 1()9, 138, 169 Army 107,109,149,150,154,156,157, 164, 183 Corps of Engineers 82 Signal Corps 40, 109 Atlantic Ocean 59, 75, 81, 166 Atmospheric nuclear tests, see Nuclear weapons test series Atomic Energy Corr~nission (AEC) 9, 36, 57, 81,101,107,111,113,114,127,133, 34, 138, 149, 151, 154, 156, 163, 169, 178, 182 Auger electrons 26 B Backscatter, see unpiler Radiological uncertainties Barbers Point 177 Battalion combat team (BCT) 108, 109 Beryllium, see under Film badge calibration source Bias, B 1-3, 6, 62, 63, 66-68, 72-74, 78, 80, 191 analysis (methodology) 1, 2, 80-185 combination of several 65

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218 estimate (quantification) of 1, 2, 6, 78, 84, 89, 94, 98, 99, 104, 110, 115, 117, 122, 129, 130, 131, 136, 142, 146, 151, 158, 164,168,172,179,184,187,188,191 sources of (see also Environmental, I~boratory, and Radiological uncertainties) 2 tables 80, 82, 84, 90, 94, 99, 104, 110, 116, 123, 131, 136, 143, 146, 152, 158, 164, 173, 179, 184 Big Bang (Task Force) 154 Bikini Atoll 39, 56, 58, 59, 81, 86, 87, 132, 133, 148-150, 160 Biographical sketches 209-216 Biological effects of radiation vii, 2, 3, 5, 11, 44,46,53,76, 190, 192 Body phantoms, see Phantoms Bone marrow (red) (dose equivalent) 55, 79 Bremsstrahlung, see under Radiation Bureau of Ships (BuShips) 114 BUSTER-JANGLE 39, 57, 97, 98, 106-112 C Calibration, see under Film badge Cancer 5,55,78 prostate 5 radiogenie 8, 55 CASTLE 58, 132-137, 149 Center(s) for Disease Control 4 Cesium, see under Film badge calibration source Christmas Island 60, 81, 174, 177-179 Christof~los theory 167 Civil Defense 148 Maims civilians' 8, 9 legal history 8 participants' 3, 191, 192 veterans' vii, 4, 5, 8 Cloud sampling 56, 57, 80, 102, 107, 113-115, 117, 120, 121, 133, 149, 151, 160, 171, 175, 180 Cobalt (see also under Film badge calibration source) 28 Cohort badging 83, 88, 102, 122, 150 Commander Joint Task Force (CJ1F)-7 58, 149 Committee vii, viii, 1, 2, 7 1984 5 members iii, 209-216 INDEX purpose vii, 1, 7 staff iii tasks vii, 7 Conclusions 2, 186-190 Conf~denee levels, see unpiler Deep-dose equivalent and Exposure Congress 8, 9 Congressional record 8 Conversion electrons 26 Court of Appeals 9 Court of Veterans' Appeals 9 Critical organ 54, 55 CROSSROADS 6, 36, 39, 40, 42, 56, 86-92, 188 D Davy Crockett weapon 182 Dray 108 Deep-dose equivalent, Hp. Hp(10) 1, 2, 3, 63, 77-79,84,85,90,95,99, 105, 111, 117, 124, 131, 136, 143, 146, 152, 158, 165, 173, 180, 185, 187-189, 191-192 ec~ldenee limits (95~o) 3, 61, 65, 85, 90, 95,99,105,111,117,124,131,136, 143,146,152,159,165,173,180,189, 191 -192 tables 80, 86, 91, 95,100,105,1 1 1, 1 17- 119,125,126,132,137,144,147,153, 159,166,174,181,185 Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) ii, vii, viii, 4 6, 113, 114, 134, 135, 186 Densitometer 16, 42, 49, 130, 142 Anseo 98,109, 122 Ansco Macbeth 140 Ansco Model 475 129, 140 Ansco-Sweet 109 Eberline Model FD-II 164,172,179, 183 FD-m 156 FS-3 163, 164 Ins Alamos Model FD-1 135, 140 Marshal 83 Weston 98,109, 122 Weston Model 877 103 Densitometry 15, 188 Depaltrnent of Defense (DOD) 4, 113, 127, 133, 138, 142, 145, 149, 151, 154, 181 Department of Energy (DOE) viii, 4, 5, 78, 86, 96,106,154,160,166,174,184,186

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INDEX Desert Rock Camp 4, 40, 56~0, 106-110, 113-115, 154, 156-158, 167,168 Exercise I 57, 81, 107 It 57, 81, 107 m 57,81,107 IV 81, 113 V 81, 127-129 VI 58, 81, 138 VII 81, 154, 157 VIII 81, 154, 157 Diagnostic radiology 76 Distribution 62 factor,F 62 lognormal 62-67, 72, 146, 188 nonfat 67, 69, 74, 189 symmetrical normal 62, 66,72,74 Division of Biology and Medicine, AEC 58,59, 127 DOMINIC I 60,174-181 DOMINIC II 60,76, 181 - 185 Dose, see Absorbed dose, Deep-dose equivalent, Dose equivalent, Effective dose equivalent, Organ-dose equivalent Dose determination study 5 Dose equivalent, H 52, 54,77 penetrating, see Deep-dose equivalent Dosimeter, see also Film badge self-reading pocket 43, 46, 94, 97, 108, 109, 114 thermoluminescent 53 Dosimetry, see also Film badge, Radiation, Records beta 89,98,142 neutron 22,23 Research Project (DRP) 4,5 Dupont film 37, 38, 42, 43, 69 packet type 509 134 552 83, 97 553 42,102,107,108,121 556 42, 176 558 42, 113, 120 559 42, 127, 138,140, 142, 145,149, 156,160,167,169,176,182 film type D-1 83 D-2 83, 84-86 219 502 37, 38, 42-45, 49, 69,70-72, 83, 97, 102, 107, 108, 113, 121,127, 134, 138, 140, 141, 145,149, 156, 160,167,169,172,176,177,182, 184 508 37,42,43,69, 113, 115,120 510 42, 83, 97, 102, 107 606 37, 42, 49, 69, 70, 102, 107,121, 127, 134, 135, 138, 140,141, 145, 149,156,167,174,176,181,185 834 37, 42, 45, 160, 169,174, 176, 177, 181, 182, 184, 185 1290 37, 42, 43, 69, 113, 115, 120 E Eastman-Kodak, see Kodak Effective dose equivalent, He 78, 79 Eisenbud Committee 5-7 Elmer Island 163 Emulsions 10,12, 13,17, 22, 23,37 Energy Engineering Board ii, iv, v, viii Enewetak Atoll 56-59, 81,91-93, 100, 101, 120, 121, 132,133, 148-151, 160 Enewetak Proving Ground (EPG) 162, 163 Environmental uncertainties (eonditic~ns, effects) 21, 23, 46, 48-52, 68,73-75, 80, 89, 94, 104,107,108,111,124,131,136,151, 158, 160, 162, 165, 172,176, 180, 184, 188 ageing 162, 176, 180 chemical sensitivity 49,52 latent image instability 14,15, 21, 23,49,50 light damage 21, 45, 46, 49-51,73, 102, 149, 176, 180 moisture Humidity) 21,49,50,51,73,74, 89,134,139,160,165,176,180 physical damage 49, 51, 102, 162, 176, 177, 180 pressure 21, 44, 49, 51 radioactive eontaminatial 48, 49, 51, 52, 73, 74, 103, 115, 135, 136 stake charge 21,49,52 storage 7,12,41, 103, 122, 135,140, 150 temperature ~eat) 21, 49, 73, 74, 89, 139, 162, 165, 176 Enya Island 150 Epidemiology 5 Events, see Nuclear weapons test series

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220 Executive summary 1-3 Exposure, E 1, 2,3, 11, 16-18,35-38,41-48, 51-55, 61, 63, 65-80, 82-90,92-98, 100 110, 113, 115, 118-124, 127-130, 134 136, 138-143, 145-147,149-154, 156 160, 162-166,168, 169, 171-185, 187 192 bias, see Bias ca~ldence limits (95%) 1, 61, 63, 65, 67 69,72,187,188 conversion to deep-dose equivalent 1-3, 52 55,7~80,82,85,90,95,99,105, 111, 117, 124,131, 136, 143, 146, 151, 159, 165, 173,177, 180, 185,187, 189-191 energy dependence 20, 38 geometry 53, 77, 78, 103,122, 141 limits 55~0 maximum peTmissable exposure (MPE) 56 60, 82, 85, 87, 92, 95, 97, 101, 107,108, 109, 113,122, 127, 138, 145, 149, 151, 154, 160, 168, 169, 172, 182 nununum detectable level IDA) 2, 3, 6, 7, 71, 72, 74, 83, 88, 90, 92, 109, 130,145, 169, 188, 189 treatment of lower values 2, 7, 71, 72, 75, 189, 191,192 standards 55 table 56-60 uncertainties, see Uncertainties zero, treatment of 2, 3,72,75,189-192 F.. Fallout 26, 28-30, 32, 48, 76, 82, 96, 101-105, 130,133,149,150,175 Federal Services lLco~porated (FSI) 156 Federation ofAmencan.Scientists viii f-factor 54 Film, see also Film badge base 12, 13, 22 buffers 14 control 15, 22,75, 103, 135,150, 157, 163, 168, 172, 178 dental 11 , . , development vii, 14, 15, 41, 68, 75, 88 dual coating 13 energy- or exposure-dependent response 1 16-20,35-37, 139 [ND FEY fixer 15 fog 10, 13, 16, 21, 22, 49, 66, 88, 122, 172, 183 grain size 12,13, 18 Hunter and Driffield (H & D) curve 16, 17, 22,76 manufacture 13, 14, 22 reciprocity (failure) 17 reducing agent 14, 15 retardants 12, 13 saturation density, see solarization sensitivity 13, 17 sensitizer 12, 13, 17 solanzation 16, 42~6, 48 speed 17 stabilizer 13 standard, see control stop bath 15 t-coat 13 types (see also Kodak, DuPont) 12, 37 wetting agent 15 Film badge (dosimet~y) (see also Environmental, Laboratory, Radiological uncertainties) vii, 7, 10-23, 35~0 calibration, processing, and interpretation vii,7,21,22,41,44,46,48,75, 80, 83, 88, 93, 98, 103, 108,114, 121, 128, 134, 140, 145,150, 157, 163,168, 172, 178, 183, 186 calibration sources 21, 35, 36, 39, 41, 48 beryllium 46, 83 cesium 22, 145 cobalt 36,37,41,45,46,75, 109, 121, 128, 134,139, 140, 141,150, 157, 163, 172,178, 183 radium 36,37,41,46,75,83,93,98, 103, 109, 114, 115, 121, 128, 134, 141, 145,150 strontium 145 uranium 142 capabilities 2, 7, 188 container, see package enclosure, see package filter 12, 18-22, 36-40,47,52,72,75, 80, 82, 84, 87-89,94,97,98, 102, 104, 107, 108, 110,113, 117, 121, 134, 139, 142, 145,156,162,169,172,176,183,188 geometry 47, 122, 141, 151

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INDEX history 1 1 . . . ~ . . Interpretation, see ear oration issue and e~cehange (collection) 83, 88, 93, 97,102,108,114,121,128,134,140, 145,150,156,162,168,170,177, limitations 2, 7, 188 multiple readings 3, 67, 192 numbers issued 87-89, 93, 96, 101, 107, 113,120,127,133,138,145,150,157, 160, 168, 172, 176, 182 open window 18, 20, 37, 38, 40, 97, 98, 113, 121, 156 original 1 1 overlap 41, 42, 69, 83, 91, 96, 100, 102, 105, 108, 112, 118, 119, 125-127, 132, 134, 140, 144, 153, 156, 159, 162, 166, 174,177,181,184,185 package 12, 21, 37, 40, 50, 51, 75, 88, 92, 102, 108, 113, 115, 121, 128, 134, 139, 145,149,156,160,162,169,176,180, 182, 188 processing, see calibration range 12, 13, 37, 41, 80, 83, 88, 92, 97, 102, 103,107,108,112,113.120,121,127, 134,140,144,156,160,162,169,176, 188 response 11, 16, 20, 36, 37 Filter, see under Filrn badge . . . . "lsslon device 25, 28, 34, 120 products 2,~ 25-32, 34, 35, 38, 111, 127, 162, 165, 187 Frenchman Flat 75, 96 Fusion device 26, 28, 34, 100, 120, 148 products 28,30,34 G Gamma rays, see unpiler Radiation Gelatin, see Emulsion General Aeeounting Office (GAO) viii, 6, 113, 115 Geometne standard deviation, see under Standard deviation Glossary 203-208 GNOME 76 Gray (Gy) (unit) 53 221 GREENHOUSE 57, 74, 100-105 Ground zero 82, 93, 96, 97, 129, 175 Gumey-Motttheo~y 14 H Half-life 28, 30-32, 36, 37, 141 HARDTACKI 59, 16~166, 175,176,178,180 HARDTACK II 59,169-174,182, 183 H-hour 134 Hiroshima 8 Holmes and Narver 59, 164, 178 Honolulu, 177-179 Hospital radiation 189 House of Representatives hearings on health effects of ionizing radiation 4 Rodgers subeanmittee 4 Huner and Driffield (H & D) curve, see under Film I Indian Springs Air Force Base 56, 107, 114, 140, 171, 183 indeed radioactivity 29 Initial radiation, see under Radiation Institute of Medicine ii Integral 115 Intemal dose 7 Intemational Atomic Energy Agency QAEA) 21,22 Intemational Business Machines (IBM) 704 EDPM 163 cards 156,163,170, 183 Intemational Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement aCRU) 2, 52, 54, 55, 77, 187 Intemational Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 56 60, 76-79 Intemational Standards Organization (ISO) 21 Ionization chamber 53, 103, 115 IVY 36, 57, 73, 74, 120-126 Ivy Flats (Exercise) 181, 183, 184 J Japtan Island 101 JAYCOR viii

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222 Johnston Island 59, 60, 81, 160, 174,177 Joint Chiefs of Staff aCS) 101 Joint Task Force (J 1~=) 149 3 101 7 162, 163 8 178 Joint Task Group 7.1 150, 162, 163 7.3 163 7.12 163 8.4 178 Joint Test Operation 128 K Kirtland Air Force Base 97, 107, 171,183 Kodak film,devel~per,fixer 37, 109, 114 film types A 92,93,95 K 37,39,40,42,83-85,87,92,93 Kwajalein 87, 89, 92, 93, 102, 121 L Laboratory uncertainties 46, 65, 68-72, 76, 188 errors Human) 20, 48, 103,150 film calibration, processing, interpretation (optical density reading) 41, 46, 48, 68, 70 standard value 71 Latent image (see also under Environmental uncertainties) 14, 15 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 141 Legal matters vii, 8 Leukemia 4,5, 8, 55 Lexington Signal (Blue Grass) Depot 40, 157, 167, 168 Iiverrnore National Laboratory 142 Lognorrnal distribution, see under Distribution Los Alamos Scientific (National) Laboratory (LASL) 39, 82-84, 97-99, 107-110, 113 115, 117,121, 127, 129,150, 157, 163, 164, 178 Lung (dose equivalent) 79 M Manhattan (Engineer) District, Project 11, 12, 82 Manne Corps 128, 149, 154 INDEX Marshall Islands 132 Maximum pemiissable exposure (MPE), see under Exposure Mean, m 62 Median,M 62 Mercury (Camp) 107, 171 Minimum Detectable Level (MDL), see under Exposure Monte Carlo simulation method 67 Mortality of nuclear weapons test participants (Report) 5 Multiple readings, see under Film badge N Nagasaki 8, 82 National Academy of. Engineering (NAE) ii National Academy of Sciences (NAS) ii, 5,39 National Bureau of Standards CUBS) 36,41,59, 75, 98, 109, 121, 139, 140, 157,163, 172, 178 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) 30, 55-60, 62 National Institutes of Health, 62 National Institute of Standards and Technology 22 National Research Council ii, vii, 5-7, 38 Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory (NDRL) 40, 145 NavMed 1432 forms 179 Navy 86, 88, 89, 97, 133, 135,149-151, 167, 175 Nellis Air Force Base 97 Neptunium 28-30, 32, 34 Net optical density 16-19, 22, 38, 39, 41, 45, 46,50,129,164,172,183 vs exposure 38-46,129, 141, 164 Neutron, see also under Radiation activation 22, 26, 29, 87, 96 Nevada Proving Ground~PG) 106-110,113 115, 117 Nevada Test Operation (NTO) 154, 156-158 Nevada Test Site (NTS) 4,5,3740, 49, 56-60, 74, 80, 81, 96, 97, 106, 112,126, 137, 138,148,154,156,157,167,170,172, 176, 178,179, 181-183 Normal distribution, see under Distribution Nuclear detonation, explosion 8, 24, 25, 27-29,34, 80

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INDEX medicine 76 power plants 76 reactor 189 Test Personnel Review (NTPR) 4-6 tracks 23 Nuclear weapons test series (see also under individual names) vii, 34 exposure standard 55~) moratorium 169 participants (numbers) 3, 8, 82, 86, 92, 96, 101, 107, 113, 120, 127, 133, 138, 145, 149, 154, 160, 167, 169, 170, 171, 174- 176, 182 purposes 82, 86, 91, 96, 100, 106,112, 120, 127, 133, 137, 144, 148, 154, 160, 167, 169, 174, 181 table 81 types of test events 29, 80, 82, 87, 92, 96, 101, 106, 1 12, 120, 127, 132, 137, 138, 144, 148, 155, 160, 161, 167, 170, 171, 174, 175, 182 underground tests 16, 37, 76, 189 yields of test events 29, 76, 82, 87, 92, 96, 101, 106, 112, 120, 127, 132, 138, 144, 148, 149, 155, 160, 161, 166, 167, 174, 175, 182 o Office of Civil Defense Mobilization (OCDM) 169 Office of Test Operations (OTO) 157 Open window, see under Film badge Operational effects 46, 48 Optical density, D 1 1, 16, 17, 19, 36, 37, 45, 68, 88, 98, 103, 122, 156, 162, 176, 189 replicate 69 saturation D 69 ~ 00 vs exposure 16, 17, 35-37, 42, 45, 46, 103, 129, 177 Organ-dose equivalent 78 Overlap (problem), see under Film badge p Pacific Ocean 7, 39, 49, 58, 60, 74, 80, 100, 107, 108, 144, 164, 165, 174, 178 Pacific Proving Ground (PPG) 34, 50, 81, 148 150 Parry Island 101, 102, 121, 135, 150 223 Participants, see under Nuclear weapons test . series pH 14, 15 Phantom 22, 78, 115 Photographic process, theory of 14 Photons, see under Radiation Plowshare program 76 PLUMBBOB 4, 40, 59, 154-159, 167, 168, 172, 189 Plutonium 24, 28, 34, 187 Positron annihilation 26 Prisoners of war 8 Public Law 100-321 8 100-527 9 100-687 9 Q Quality factor, Q 54 red (unit) 52-54 RADEX 177 Radiation R alpha particles 22, 24-26, 187 beta particles 2, 6, 12, 13, 18, 21, 22-28, 30, 35, 3741, 54, 77, 89, 98, 109, 1 15, 142, 145, 156, 187, 188, 190 bremsstrahlung 26,29,30,188 gamma rays 2, 6, 22, 24-32, 35, 41, 52-55, 76, 88, 98, 109, 115, 156, 187, 188, 190 hazards vii, 4, 8, 25, 35, 76, 78, 187 ionizing 4, 13, 17, 24-26, 52, 53 initial 24-26 neutrons 2, 22-27, 29, 127, 187 nal-penetranng 26, 187 penetrating 25, 26 photons 13, 18-20, 23, 24, 26, 29, 30, 32- 39,41,42,47,72,79, 82, 84, 85, 102, 121, 130, 134, 139-141, 162, 165, 188 protection 10 residual 25, 26, 28-30, 34, 187 x rays 2, 11, 24-26, 28-30, 35, 52-55, 76, 88, 187, 188, 190 Radiation safety 10,178, 186 division, group, section 96, 107, 157, 163, 170 laboratory 176

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224 monitors, personnel 83, 88, 89, 97, 114, 121, 122, 175, 180 program 5, 183 report 51, 83, 96, 108, 109, 113, 127, 138, 162, 176 regulations 177 station, building 97, 102, 1()9, 129, 150, 163, 172 support unit (RSSU) 101, 107, 108, 114, 128, 134, 138, 150, 164, 178, 180 Radioactive water pool 175, 180 Radiological unce~nties, effects 46-48, 65, 68, 72, 73, 94, 122, 130, 142, 151, 165, 188 angular dependence 21, 47, 108, 130, 160, 176 backscatter 22, 46, 47, 72, 73, 78, 102, 130, 151, 160, 162, 165 badge wearing position 47, 72, 73, 173 geometry 47 shielding 32, 73, 103, 108, 122, 151, 160, 176 spectral distribution, response 72, 73, 108, 176 Radionuclides 26, 28-32, 34-36, 47, 134 table 31 Reactor radiation 189 Radium (see also under Film badge calibration source) 1 1 RANGER 39, 56, 96-100 Recommendations 2, 3, 191, 192 Records v=, 5, 171, 178 availability 2, 80, 84, 89, 93, 98, 103, 110, 114,115,122,129,135,142,145,150, 157,164,172,179,184,186 reliability 2,186, 1 87 REDWING 5, 50, 58, 148-153, 175, 179 References 193-200 rem (unit) 52, 54 Residual radiation, see urider Radiation Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) viii, 5, 87, 89, 92, 97, 98, 103, 109,110,114,115,12~,135,142, 145, 151, 156-158, 164, 169, 170- 172, 178, 183, 184, 186 it-meter 75,157,163,172, 178 Roentgen 10 unit (R) 11, 52-54, 76 INDEX S SAIC viii Sandia (National) Laboratory (SL) 157 San Diego, CA 39, 81, 144 SANDSTONE 56, 75, 91-96, 100 Schwa2tzchild effect 17 Search and rescue mission 120 SEDAN 76 Second Intemational Congress on Radiology 11 Senate 8 Veterans' Affairs Committee viii, 5 Shielding, see under Radiological uncertainties Ships (see also under USS) 86, 87, 92, 102, 133,144,145,149,167,180 SI (system of units) 52-54 Sievert (Sv) (unit) 54 Soft tissue 18, 77 Standard deviation, s 62, 63, 65, 69 geometric, S 62, 63, 65, 66 logarithmic 65 Subjective confidence level, see Confidence level SUNBEAM, see DOMJN1C Supreme Court 8, 9 Surgeon General's Office 58 T Task Force 88 167, 168 TEAPOT 58,134, 137-144 Test senes, see lander individual names and under Nuclear weapons test series IRINl~IY 56, 75, 82-86 TUMBLER-SNAPPER 36, 57, 73, 74, 107, 1 12-1 19 U Uncertainties vii, 2, 3, 6, 7, 61-80 analysis (methodology) 1, 2, 80-185, 187, 189 combination of several 63, 65 esiirrlation (quantification) of 1-3, 6, 7, 61- 79, 84, 89, 94, 98, 99, 104, 110, 1 15, 122, 129, 136, 142, 146, 151, 158, 164, 16~8,172,179,184, 187, 188 sources of, see Environmental, Laboratory, and Radiological uncertainties

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Ebbs 80,82,84,90,94,99,104,110,116, 1~,131,136,143,146,132, 138, 164, 173,179,184,191 Unce~nty Agog ~ 3,63-73,78,191,130, 131 U-, ~e Gym, mi ma, R~=, Amen unto ~ C~a ~- ammo CUCR~ 141,142,157 UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE 57, 126~132, 139, 142 US Q.e ~o _r bade c~- soume) 24, 28,~, 34, 187 uss A~swonb 150 Bongo 92,93,135 Haven 88 Norton Sound 167,168 Rendova 121 Siam 17S, 180 WH~1145 Vadan=, V Veterans Qe. ~o ~r Clabns) (E, 4,S 225 _ _ ~ ~ &9 Oboe Imp 9 Weals, ~e Afar Learns ~S1 sedcs V1G~Ud 39,40,58,144-147 Wodd War D 6 X rays, se. ~o _r Rad~don discover 10 Ashy 10-12 m-1~g 11 Yidd,see _ r ^ dearweaponsmslsedes YE nal75 z =m dose, rE\p=~