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26 that pick up customers at the trunk of their car, but drop include those serving Des Moines, Indianapolis, and them at scheduled stops. Other airports use parking atten- MinneapolisSt. Paul. dants to direct entering vehicles to empty parking bays or Automatic vehicle identification (AVI) transponders-- floors, rather than allowing customers to randomly cir- At several airports AVI tags or toll tags (e.g., Fast- culate through a lot searching for empty spaces. Airports Pass and EZPass) issued by a local toll road, toll where such services are offered include those serving bridge authority, or the airport itself are recognized Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston. by the parking control system and allow customers ˇ Internet-based parking reservation--In Europe, airport to enter and exit parking without using cash or credit parking patrons can use the Internet to reserve and pay cards. The customer's parking fees are automatically for parking in advance of their arrival at the airport. In the debited from their toll tag account. Airports with United States, many private airport parking companies AVI tag entries and exits include Columbus, Dallas/ also use the Internet to allow prospective customers to Fort Worth, Richmond, and the three New York area reserve and pre-pay for parking. The benefits of such airports. Internet-based reservations include: (1) advanced receipt ˇ Parking guidance systems--To reduce the time patrons of payment for long-duration/high-value transactions, (2) spend searching for an empty space (and thereby improved marketing and promotional opportunities as improve customer service and reduce vehicle emissions) Internet sites attract potential customers browsing the airports are installing changeable message signs acti- web for parking, (3) formation of an electronic customer vated by low-cost overhead vehicle detectors that clearly base for future promotions, and (4) less diversion of display space availability (OPEN or FULL) for each potential patrons who, having already paid for parking, space and aisle, rather than just at the entrance to each are less likely to be attracted to an alternate parking lot or garage (or garage level). These guidance systems result rate that they may see when entering the airport. in better utilization of the available spaces as they direct patrons to empty spaces, rather than requiring patrons to conduct random searches across large floors or garages. Parking Operational Enhancements Many airports have implemented operational measures that Off-Airport Parking Percentage (or Privilege) Fees reduce operating costs while enhancing customer service. These measures include: More than 24 airports require private off-airport parking com- panies to pay "privilege fees" that are calculated as a percent- ˇ Cashier-less parking--Several airports, including Mon- age of the company's gross revenues. Additional airports are treal, Portland, RaleighDurham, Richmond, Seattle, in the process of establishing such fees. The fees are similar to Vancouver, and Washington, D.C., have implemented those charged off-airport rental car agencies in that the fees are "pay-on-foot" parking revenue control systems by means charged for the benefits an off-airport company doing business of automatic teller machine-like pay stations. These pay- on an airport receives from the presence of the entire airport-- on-foot systems eliminate the need for patrons to interact not just the roadways used by their courtesy vehicles. Off- airport privilege fees can help an airport operator to: with exit cashiers (except for lost tickets and other excep- tion items); eliminate vehicle queues at the parking exits, ˇ Maintain and protect existing parking revenues by help- thereby allowing patrons to exit more quickly and reduc- ing to preserve the airport's share of the total public park- ing vehicle emissions associated with idling vehicles in ing market. long queues; and improve cash handling and reduce rev- ˇ Generate additional revenues that exceed $1 million per enue "shrinkage." Pay-on-foot systems have proven to be year at some large airports. The amount of the potential most successful at airports that reward patrons using the additional revenue varies depending on the extent of the systems. off-airport parking business, the parking rates charged ˇ Ticketless parking--Several airports have eliminated by these businesses, and the amount of the privilege fee parking tickets (minimizing the use of parking cashiers) established by the airport. through the use of: Credit card in/out control systems--Parking patrons Similar to past court decisions concerning rental car fees, fed- who enter a lot with a credit card in/credit card out eral and state courts have repeatedly upheld the right of an air- control system must insert a credit card to raise the port operator to establish off-airport parking privilege fees and barrier gate and enter the lot (rather than retrieving a require the payment of such fees. parking ticket) and then insert the same credit card in a reader when exiting the lot. The parking system automatically calculates the fee owed, charges the RENTAL CAR REVENUES fee to the patrons credit card, and, if requested, prints a receipt. The patron need not sign a credit card slip. As was shown in Figure 20, rental car concession revenues are Airports with credit card in/credit card out systems the next largest source on nonairline revenue for medium- and