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Contributors SIAMAK ~ ARDEKANI is assistant professor of civil engineering at the University of Texas in Arlington. His current research is in transporta- tion management issues in the aftermath of major urban disasters such as earthquakes and floods. He has coauthored numerous journal articles on urban traffic management and operation, and is associate editor of the ltansportaiion Science Joumal. He serves on the Committee on Traffic Flow Theory and Characteristics organized by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council. Dr. Ardekani received his Ph.D. degree in civil engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. JESSE H. AUSUBEL is a fellow in science and public policy at The Rockefeller University in New York Cibr and director of studies for the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government From 1983 through 1988 Mr. Ausubel served as director of the Program Office of the National Academy of Engineering. Mr. Ausubel first came to the Academy complex as a resident fellow of the National Academy of Sciences in 1977. He then served for two years as a research scholar in the resources and environment area at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. From 1981 to 1983 he served as a National Research Council staff officer principally responsible for studies of the greenhouse effect. Mr. Ausubel is author or editor of numerous publications in the field of climatic change. Among his current areas of research are calculation of industrial emissions to the atmosphere, 205

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206 CONTRIBUTORS long-ten interactions of environment and technology, and comparative diffusion of technologies in different countries. ROBERT U. ACRES is professor of Engineering and Public Poligy at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and deputy leader of the Technologr-Economy-Society Program at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. He is author or coauthor of nine boolo; and many journal articles, as well as numerous book chapters, symposium papers, and technical reports on a variety of subjects. He is a "futurist" as well as a systems analyst His current research is focused on technological change, with special emphasis on computer-integrated manufacturing and "industrial metabolism." Dr. Ayres received his B.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Chicago, an M.S. in physics from the University of Maryland, and a Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Kings College, University of London. RICHARD E. BALZHISER is president and chief executive officer of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) located in Palo Alto, California. Dr. Balzhiser joined EPRI in 1973 as the director of the Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems Division and served in several senior executive positions before becoming EPRI's executive vice president in 1987. From 1971 to 1973 he served as an assistant director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where he led energy, environment, and natural resource activities. Previously, Dr. Balzhiser was chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, except for 1967-1968 when he served as a White House Fellow in the office of the Secretary of Defense. Dr. Balzhiser currently serves on the advisory boards of the Institute for Energy Analysis, the University of Michigan College of Engineenng National Advisory Committee, and the Academy Industry Program of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineenng, and Institute of Medicine. He was recently appointed to the U.S. Department of Energy's Innovative Control Technology Advisory Panel. Dr. Balzhiser received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering, and his M.S. degree in nuclear engineering from the University of Michigan. SHELDON K FRIEDLANDER is Parsons Professor of Chemical Engineering and director of the newly established Engineering Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control at the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Friedlander's research has involved air qualifier engineering and aerosol technology, the behavior and characterization of particulate matter in gases and liquids, and air quality/emission source relationships for particulate pollution. From 1984 to 1988 he chased the UCLA Chemical Engineering department, and before that he was professor of chemical

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CONWBUTORS 207 engineering and environmental engineering at the California Institute of Technology. He has consulted for the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District, and served as chairman of the National Research Council Panel on the Abatement of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources as well as the subcommittee on Photochemical Oxidants and Ozone. He was also chairman of the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee and is a member of its Science Advisory Board Executive Committee and of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Friedlander received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Columbia University and Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois. ROBERT ~ FROSCH is vice-president in charge of General Motors research laboratories. Dr. Frosch's career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and in government service. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international level. From 1951 to 1963 he was e-m- ployed at Hudson Laboratories of Columbia Univeristy, first as a research scientist and then as director from 1956 to 1963. In 1963 he became direc- tor for Nuclear Test Detection in the Advanced Research Projects Agengy (ARPA) of the Department of Defense, and deputy director of ARPA in 1965. In 1966 he was appointed assistant secretary of the Navy for research and development. He served in this position until January 1973, when he became assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Program. In 1975 he became associate director for applied oceanography at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and from 1977 to 1981 he served as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion. He served as president of the American Association of Engineering Societies from 1981 to 1982. Dr. Frosch is a member of the National Academy of Engineenng. He received his NB., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in theoretical physics from Columbia University in New York JOSEPH P. GLAS is director of the Freon Products Division for the Chemicals and Pigments Department at the Du Pont Company. He joined Du Pont in 1964 as a research engineer at the company's Circleville, Ohio, research and development laboratory. He became product manager of Kapton polyimide and metallized Mylar polyester in 1974, manager of packaging market development at the Chestnut Run Technical Service Laboratory in 1975, and research manager for the commercial resins division in 1976. Dr. Glas became research director of the Atomic Energy Division of the Petrochemicals Department at its Savannah River Laboratory in 1979, and Mom 1980 to 1982 he served as research director for Remington Arms Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Du Pont. He became director of research and development for the Chemicals and Pigments Department in 1982, and assumed his present position in 1985. Dr. Glas received a

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208 CONTRIBUTORS B.^ in chemistry from Rockhurst College in Missouri and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois. PAUL E. GRAY is president of Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy. Before becoming president, he served on the faculty and in the academic administration, notably as associate provost, dean of engineering, and chancellor. The author or coauthor of numerous basic texts in elec- trical engineering, Dr. Gray's professional interests are in semiconductor electronics and circuit theory. As a member of the faculty, Dr. Gray won recognition for his teaching and for his contributions to the revitalization of engineering education. In recent years, he has been a leader in the continuing development and reshaping of the undergraduate curriculum. Under Dr. Gray's administration, the university has expanded its relations with industry, both in this county, and abroad, and is developing major research and education programs in such areas as microelectronics, health sciences and technology, communications, the brain and cognitive sciences, and the management of technology. Dr. Gray is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He earned his S.B., S.M., and Sc.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ROBERT HERMAN is UP. Gilvin Centennial Professor, Emeritus, in civil engineering and sometime professor of physics at the University of Texas at Austin. Before assuming his present position in 1979, Dr. Herman was with the General Motors Research Laboratories and headed the De- partment of Theoretical Physics from 1959 to 1972 and the Traffic Science Department from 1972 to 1979. Dr. Herman's research has covered a wide range of both theoretical and experimental investigations, including molec- ular and solid-state physics, high-energy electron scattering, astrophysics and cosmology, as well as operations research, especially vehicular traffic science and transportation. With Ralph Alpher in 1948, Dr. Herman made the first theoretical prediction that the universe should now be filled with a cosmic microwave background radiation, which is key evidence for the validity of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe. Dr. Herman is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received his B.S. degree in physics at City College, New York, and his master's and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Princeton University. THOMAS H. LEE is professor of electrical engineering at the Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology. His interests include electric power systems engineering and physical electronics, energy technology and policy, and technology assessment and strategic planning. In 1948 he began work bath General Electric where, over the course of 32 years, he held numer- ous posts from senior research engineer (1955-1959) to staff executive and chief technologist (197~1980~. In 1980 he left General Electric to become

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CONTRIBUTORS 209 director of the Electric Power Systems Engineering Laboratory and Philip Sporn Professor of Energy Processing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1984 he became director of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, for a three-year term. He Is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Lee received his doctorate in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. WALTER R. LYNN is professor of civil and environmental engineer- mg and dean of the university faculty at Cornell University. His teaching and research have focused on applying analytical methods to public policy decisions composed of technical, political, social, and economic elements. In 1961 he joined the Civil Engineering Department at Cornell to develop a graduate program in environmental systems engineering. He served for eight years as director of the Cornell Program on Science, Technology, and Society. Before that he was Director of Cornell's Center for Environmental Research and director of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineer- ing. Dr. Lynn has served as associate editor of the Journal of Operations and Research and the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. He was the first chairman of the Water Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council, and is currently a member of its Committee on Water Resources Research. He also serves as Governor Cuomo's appointee as chairman of the New York State Water Resources Planning Council. Dr. Lynn received his B.S. degree in civil engineering from the University of Miami, an M.S. in sanitary engineering from the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina, and a Ph.D. in systems analysis and civil engineering at Northwestern University. HEDY E. SLADOVICH is research associate at the National Academy of Engineenng Program Office. Before joining the Academy in 1988, she worked at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Ecosystems Center, in Woods Hole Massachusetts; in industry; and as a free-lance researcher in science education and policy. Ms. Sladovich's interests revolve around the interactions of technology, society, and environment. Ms. Sladovich holds a bachelor's degree in biology from Oakland University. VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL is senior consultant with the law firm of Landers and Parsons in Tallahassee, Florida, where she marriages con- sultant teams to solve complex environmental problems and works with clients to resolve issues of concern to regulators and the public. From 1981 to 1987 Ms. Tichinkel served as Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. Under her leadership, the state's water quality standards were completely rewritten and a state water policy was adopted, including passage of a wetlands bill and substantial improvement in laws and agency programs to protect Florida's aquifers from contamination. The

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210 CON~BUTORS state also adopted a comprehensive growth management plan in 1985, and in 1986 adopted legislation to pay for cleanup of water supplies contami- nated by leaking underground petroleum storage tanks. Ms. Chinked held positrons in teaching and research prior to joining Flonda's state govern- ment in 1974. She has served on numerous state and national advisory boards and committees, including appointments to the U.S. Deparunent of Energy Research Advisory Board, the NRC Space Applications Board, the Environmental Protection Agency's Ibxic Substances Advisory Committee, and the Department of Energy's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safetr. Ms. Ichinkel is a zoology graduate of the University of California at Berkeley.