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Index A Accidents and accident prevention automobiles, 51, 194 Chernobyl, 163, 199 nuclear fatalities, 2, 104, 11~111, 163, 199 201 Three Mile Island, 2, 163, 199 Vak~ 3 Acid rain, 37, 80, 161,169 Aerosols, 65, 14~143, 145,168 see also Chlorofluorocarbons Agriculture, 19~193, 194 hydroponic, 27 irrigation, 161 Air Force, 122 Air pollutants, specific carbon dioxide, 10, 11, 27-28, 10~109, 111-112, 126-127, 134, 135, 196-198 carbon monoxide, 29-30, 83 chlorofluorocarbons, 3,12,18, 3~31, 65, 66, 137-154, 160169 fluorine, 37, 138 freon, 168, 169 lead, 65 66 nitrogen oxides, 16, 31, 79, 83 84, 101, 103, 106-107, 109-110, 139, 169, 170, 172, 175, 179 211 particulates, 176 sulfur oxides, 10, 18, 31-32, 37, 97, 100 102, 106 111, 140, 168, 189 Air quality and pollution, 26 acid rain, 37, 80,161,169 chemical plants, 174 clean coal technologies, 10, Is, 97, 106 111, 175-176 electric generation, 100 106 London, 79 plastics incineration, 178, 184 smog, 3, 169 stratosphere, supersonic transport, 79, 139 see also Chlorofluorocarbons; Combustion processes; Emission controls; Ozone and ozone layer Air transport, 78, 116, 1~123, 194 National Aeronautic and Space Administration, 148 stratospheric ozone, 79, 139 Alaska, 3 Alcohol fuels, methanol, 76, 131 Alliance for Responsible CFC Poligy, 143, 147, 150 Alloys, 56 Aluminum, 36 37, 56, 64 American Chemical Society, 168,169

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212 American Electnc, 107-108 American Refngeration Institute, 150 Ammonia, 4506, 140 Ammonium chloride, 24, 168 Antarctic region, 138, 145, 148, 151 Appliances, dematerialization, 51, 52 Ardekani, Siamak A., 7 - , 5(}69 AImy Corps of Engineem, 161 Artificial intelligence, 111 AT&1; 85, 87 Atlantic Ocean, 66 Ausubel, Jesse H., 1-20, 5~69, 7~91 Automobiles, 189 air pollutants, 30, 76-78, 83~4 catalytic converted, 76, 77-78, 83, 101 dematerialization, 51, 5~57, 59, 6506, 85~36 gasoline, 169 plastics, 88 road transport infrastructure, 73, 76 steel consumption, 8, sense, 58 tires, 16, 52, 5055 Ayres, Robert U., 4, ~7, 11, 17, 19, 23 49, 63, 84, 86 B Balzhiser, Richard E., 10-12, 95-113 Banks and banking, waste production, 61 Basins (topographic), 165 Bays (topographic), 163 Behavioral factors, see Human behavior, Social factors Bhopal, 163 Biodegradability, 178, 189 Biosphere, energy system, 39 43 Biotechnology, 175, 188 energy source, 35 information technology and, 6~63 Byproducts, 162 natural gas as, 11~119 paper, 57, 61 64 sales, 33 see also Recycling; Waste residuals C Cadmium, 38 Calcium carbonate, 24 California, 3, 10~109, 175, 178, 179 Canada, 146 Canals, 73 INDEX Cancer, 31, 66 Capacity, industrial, 97, 98,100,103-106 Capital investment electricity, 98,105, 120 energy, 130 Carbon dioxide, 135 clean coal technologies, 10,11,108 109, 112 emissions, 27-28, 12~127, 134 Greenhouse edect, 11, 28 29, 111-112, 196 198 Carbon monoxide, 29 30, 83 Catalytic converted, 76, 77-78, 83, 101 Chemical Manufactured Association, 138 Chemicals and chemical industry, 162, 193 194 Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy, 143, 147, 150 American Chemical Society, 168, 169 atmospheric chemistry, see Air quality and pollution; Greenhouse effect; Ozone and ozone layer Bhopal, 163 chromatography, 137-138 Dow Chemical, 108 Du Pont Company, 137-138, 13~140, 142, 147, INS, 150, }52 efficiency, 32 geochemical Cycles, 37-38 hazardous wastes, 33, 171, 17~177 highway maintenance, 78 history, recycling, 24 25 incineration, 178,183, 184, 188 industry trends, 171 Leblanc process, 24 Occidental Chemical Corporation, 164 165 plant design, 171, 17~177 solvents, 177 toxic waste disposal, 33 see also Combustion processes Chemicals, specific, 31 ammonia, 45 46, 140 ammonium chloride, 24, 168 cadmium, 38 calcium carbonate, 24 chlorine, 2~25 creosote, 72 cryolite, 36 37 DDT, 168, 19~194 dichlorofluoromethane, 168

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INDEX HFC-134a, 150 hydrogen, 12,16, 35, 7077, 80 81, 82, 120, 131 hydrogen chloride, 24 insecticides and pesticides, 2,168, 192 194 methanol, 76, 131 methyl chloride, 168 organic compounds, 177 phosphates, 131,164 165 polyethlyene, 184 polymers, 57, 178 sodium sulfate, 24 see also Air pollutants, specific, Plastics Chernobyl, 163, 199 Chesapeake Bay, 163 China, 198 Chlorine, 2~25 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC:s), 3,12, 18, 30 31, 65, 66, 137-154, 168 169 Cholera, 160 Chromatography, 137-138 Cities, see Urban areas Clean Air Act, 10~101, 145 Clean Lakes program, 165 Climate drought, 161,183, 203 see also Greenhouse effect Coal and coal mining, 9, 82, 112 clean power technologies, 10, 18, 97, 106 111, 175-176 gasification, 11, 97-98, 10~111 history of development, 115-116 power plant emissions, 100 103 sulfur oxides, 10, 187 37, 97, 1OO~lOl, 102, 106 111 Coal tar, 24 Cogeneration, 97, 120, 131 Colorado-Ute Power Plant, 107 Combustion processes, 188 carbon monoxide, 29 30 clean coal technologies, 10, 18, 97, 106 111, 175-176 goal, 10, 18, 97,106 111 fluidized-bed, 10~108, 109,110 incineration, 178,183,184, 188 nitrogen oxides, 16, 31 sulfur oxides, 31-32 waste, 175 Communications infrastructure, 51 213 mail services, 62 telecommunications, 85, 87 telegraph, 75 Composite materials, 57, 84, 86 electric power and, 97 Computers and computer science, 88 dematerialization, 5~53 electric power technology, 97, 111 waste products, 6102 Concrete, 57 Conservationism, 17, 72 Construction industry, 67 Consumers, 187 consumer products, 19, 51, 52, By, 177-178, 184-185 in macroeconomics, 4, 6 Consumption chlorofluorocarbons, 142, 144 energy, 10, 57, 60,117 heavy metals, 2~27, 2~31 hydrocarbon fuels, 79 80 in macroeconomics, 4, 6 natural gas, 116-117 projections, 84 resource depletion myth, 11~116 steel, 8, 5~57, 58 tires, 54 see also Dematerialization; Supply/demand Coolants, 168 chlorofluorocarbons, 14~141, 145 reactors, 199, 200 Cornell University, 168 Cost analyses, 185 chlorofluorocarbons, 143, 148 Greenhouse erect, 198 manufacturing design, 188 natural gas, 119~122 see also Prices Court cases, see Litigation Creosote, 72 C~yolite, 36 37 Cultural factom, see Historical perspectives; Social factors D DDT, 168, 19~194 ~Demand, see Supply/demand Dematenalization, 6, 14, 50 69, 85~6 definition, 7-9, 5~51 see also Recycling

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214 Demography, see Population de Neuf~ille, Richard, 201 Developing countries, 169 diffusion of technology, 17-18 green revolution, 19~193 nitrogen oxide emissions, 172 waste dematerialization, 8 Dichlorofluoromethane, 168 Diffusion, see Technological diffusion Diseases and disorders cancer, 31, 66 cholera, 160 typhoid, 2 see also Public health DNA, 42 Dow Chemical, 108 Drought, 161,183, 203 Du Pont Company, 137-138, 139-140,142, 147, 148, 150, 152 E Economics banks and banking, 61 capital investment, 98, 106, 120, 130 chlorofluorocarbons, 140 141, 147, 148, 150, 152, 168 common proper and, 27 energy systems, 129, 131 Gala hypothesis, 3~36 incentives, economic, 17, 3~35, 65, 96 innovation and, 3~36, 70-89,10 macrostructure, 4 mass flows, 23, 25-27 social forces, 183 waste management, 15-16, 26 see also Consumers; Cost analyses; Developing countries; Market forces; Prices Economies of scale, 53 Education, 187 engineering, 179-180, 201-202, 203 multidisciplinary, 18, 179 public, 19, 195, 200 Efficiency chemical processes, 32 energy, 1~17, 32, 83 84, 96, 98, 1(~6, 130; by country, 59 gas turbines, 97, 11~124, 125 Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System, 122, 123-124 INDEX Electric power automobiles, 76 carbon dioxide, 108 109,111-112,134 clean coal technologies, 10, 18, 97, 106 111 coal generated, 10~103 cogeneration, 97, 120,131 efficiency, 106 gas, 10-12 historical trends, 99, 100, 1~105, 107 hydroelectric, 103-104 innovation, 96-97 industrial capacity and utilization, 97, 98, 100, 103-105 nuclear energy, 16, 35, 83, 199~201 Power Industry and Industrial Fuel Use Act, 117 productivity, 97, 99 100 regulatory impact, 98, 100 106 safety, 104, 11~111 superconductors, 98, 171 see also Power plants Electric Power Research Institute, 9~98, 122 El-Masri, M. A., 122-123 Emission controls, 131-132 automobiles, 30, 76-78 carbon monoxide, 30 catalytic converters, 76-78, 83, 101 fluorine, 37 hydrogen energy, 131 Energy systems, 2, 189 alternative, 3, 9-11, 35, 97-98, 99, 116-136, 198 biosphere, 39~3 biotechnology, 35 consumption trends, 82 83 demand, evolution, 81-83 developmental history, 81 84 efficiency, 16-17, 32, 83~4, 96, 98, 106, 130; by country, 57, 59 fossil fuels, 32,110136, 43,197-198 hydrocarbon fuels, 7~81, 86,126 hydrogen, 12, 16, 35, 76-77, 8~81, 82, 120, 131 integrated, 130 133,135 petroleum and petroleum products, 3, 9, 82, 116, 118-119, 126, 135 production, 10 projections, 97,116, 1Z7-129 resource depletion myth, 11~116

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INDEX wood, 82, 115, 126 see also Coal and coal mining; Dematerialization; Electric power, Natural gas; Nuclear energy Engineenng Research Center for Hazardous Substances, 175 Engineers and engineering Army Corps, 161 design, 129, 169-174,188, 202 education, 179-180, 201-202, 203 geotechnical, 3 innovation, 9 Environmental engineering, 14, 1~20 innovations, 16-18 Environmental Impact Statements, 185 Environmental monitoring, 16 Environmental Protection Agency, 189 chlorofluorocarbons, 143, 145 Clean Lakes program, 165 environmental problems, priorities, 66 fluorine emissions, 37 lead emissions, 65 66 Estuaries, Chesapeake Bay, 163 Everglades, 161, 162 Europe, 63, 79, 117, 120, 145,146 Eutrophication, 163 Evans, Harold M., 184 Everglades, 161, 162 Evolutionary forces, 23 see also Histoncal perspectives; Technological innovation Expert systems, 111 F Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, 165 Fertilizers, 192 Fish and fisheries, 163 mercury, 2 Flagan, Richard C., 175 Flood control, 161, 165 Flonda, 160161, 164 165 Fluidized-bed combustion, 106 108,109, 110 Fluorine, 37, 138 see also Chlorofluorocarbons Food mercury poisoning, 2 pesticides, 2 Food Service and Packaging Institute, 150 215 Forecasts, see Projections Forests and forest products, 26 consecration, 72 see also Wood and wood products Forest Senace, 72 Fossil fuels, 32, 43 advanced systems, 11~136 carbon dioxide emissions, 12~127, 197-198 see also specific fuels France, 98 Freon, 168, 169 Friedlander, Sheldon K, 4,11-12,14,15, 17, 167-181 Frigidaire, 168 Frosch, Robert A, 1-20 Fusion enemy, 97,171 G Gala hypothesis, 3~36 Gas, see Natural gas Gas chromatography, 137-138 Gasification, 11, 97-98,106111 Gasoline, 169 Gas turbines, 97, 11~124, 125 General Motors, 168 Geochemical cycles, 37-38 Geotechnical engineenng, 3 Germany Federal Republic), 63 Glas, Joseph P., 12,18, 137-155 Global strategies and Systems, 4, 18, 95, 96, 126, 169, 184, 185-186, 187, 188, 194, 202 see also Greenhouse effect; International organizations and agreements; Ozone and ozone layer Goeller, H. E., 86 Gray, Paul E., 2, 14,16,19, 192 204 Greenhouse effect, 16, 18, 80, 125-126, 163, 183, 195-198 carbon dioxide, 11, 2~29, 111-112, 196 198 Green revolution, 192193 Gross National Product, 99 dematerialization and, 55, 57 H Haagen-Smit, Arie J., 175 Halogens, 17 see also Chlorofluorocarbons

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216 Hazardous waste chemical, 33, 171, 17~177 Engineering Research Center for Hazardous Substances, 175 heavy metals, 2~27, 2~31, 36, 161 medical, 6~67 process control, 179, 188 product design, 4 Heavy metals, 2~27, 2~31, 36, 161 Herman, Robert, 1-20, 34, 5~69, 84 86 HFC-134a, 150 Hibbard, W. R. 55 Highways, see Road transport Historical perspectives, 3 chemical industry, 24 chlorine, 24 25 chlorofluorocarbons, 137-154, 16~169 electricity, 99, 100, 10~105, 107 emissions data, 37 energy resources and systems, 79~34, 99, 100,114-116 environmental movement, 15~165 evolutionary forces, 23 hydrocarbon fuels, 79~1 London air pollution, 79 Midgley, Thomas, 168, 169 natural gas, 24 railroads, 7~73, 76, 118 regulatory trends, 167-169 water resource management, 159-165 see also Technological innovation Homes, transportation, 7~77 Human behavior, 3 reactor design, 16 see also Public opinion; Social factors Hydrocarbon fuels, 79 81, 86,126 Hydroelectric power, 103-104 Hydrogen, energy source, 12, 16, 35-36, 76-77, 8~81, 82, 120, 131 Hydrogen chloride, 24 Hydroponics, 27 IBM Corporation, 52 Incentives, economic, 34 35 energy resources, 17, 96 recycling, 65 tax, 17 Incineration, 178, 183, 184, 188 Industrial capacity and utilization, electricity, 97, 98,100, 10~105 INDEX Industrial metabolism, 05, 7, 9,11, 14, 17, 19, ~6 see also Recycling Industrial processes design, 129, 169~174, 188, 202 evolution, 3~33 transformation, 43~6 see also Dematenalization Information technology computers and computer science, 5~53, 61-62, 88, 97, 111 waste paper, 61~2 Infrastructure communications, 51 energy, 11, 96, 104, 135 sewage, 160 transportation, 73, 75, 76, 78 Innovation, see Technological innovation Insecticides, 2, 168, 19~194 Institutional factors, 1~16 Integrated gasification combined cycle, 10~110 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), 116-117, 131 International organizations and agreements electrical generation, 96, 98 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 197-198 ozone layer protection, 65, 142, 14~145, 147-148, 149, 150, 152, 168 pollution, 125 regional strategies, 96 regulatory actions, 17-18, 65, 142, 145-146, 168, 16~, see also Montreal Protocol United Nations, 14~145, 148, 149,168, 197-19S, 199 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 144 see also Global strategies and systems Irradiation, wastes, 16 Irrigation, 161 J Japan, 63, 98, 123 K Kansas, 72 Kettering, Charles F., 168, 169

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INDEX L Lake Okeechobee, 161 Lakes, 165,192 193 Landfills, 160, 162, 178, 183,184 chemical wastes, 33 Law, 13, 103 Clean Air Act, 10(~101, 145 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 165 liability, 4 National Environmental Policy Act, 185 Power Industry and Industrial Fuel Use Act, 117, 120 Surface Water Improvement and Management Act, 165 see also Litigation; Regulations Lead pollution, 6~66 scrap, 64 Leblanc pIwess, 24 Lee, Thomas H., 3, 1~12, 63, 81, 11~136 Legal issues, see Law; Litigation; Regulations Liability, 4 Licensing, reactom, 200 Light-water reactors, 199~200 Litigation, 4,13,161-162, 162 chlorofluorocarbons, 145 Lovelock, J. E., 33-36, 137-138 Lynn, Walter R., 14, 19, 18~191 M Mail services, paper waste, 62 Maintenance and repair electrical utilities, 120 road systems, 78 Manne, Alan, 133 Manufacturing capacity and utilization, electricity, 97, 98, 100, 10~105 design, 129,169-177,188, 202 industrial metabolism, 05, 7, 9, 11,14, 17, 19, 23~6 industrial processes, 32-33, 43~6, 129, 169-174, 188, 202 see also Oematerialization; Recycling Maritime transport, 3, 18~183 Market forces, 163, 185 chlorofluorocarbons, 143, 150 energy, 16 recycling, 32-35, 178 217 see also Consumers; Consumption Market shares energy technologies, 95-96 natural gas, 11 Marland, G., 67 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1=, 201 Mass flows, 23, 25-27 Materials-balance principles, 36 39 biosphere, 39~3 Materials technology, 84 89 composite materials, 57, 84, 86, 97 minerals replacement, 84~85 telecommunications, 85, 87 see also Dematerialization, specific materials Me Carthy, Raymond, 138 Media, 182, 195 Medical wastes, 66 67 Mercury poisoning, 2 Metabolism biological, 39~3 industrial metabolism, =5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 19, 23 46 Metals alloys, 56 environmental concerns, 86 heavy metals, 26 27, 28 31, 36, 161 ores, 26, 31 packaging, 52 scrap, 64 smelting, 36 37 substitute materials, 84 86 see also specific metals Methane, 31, 76,116 see also Natural gas Methanol, 76, 131 Methyl chloride, 168 Midgley, Thomas, 168,169 Military applications, 122 123 Mineral resources, 84, 164 mass flow and, 25 26 see also specific minerals and metals Miniaturization, 52 Minnesota, 107 Mobro, 182-183 Models, 188 biological, 39~3; 162 electric power techniques, 97 Gala hypothesis, 3~36

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i 218 industrial transformation processes, 43=K Montreal Protocol as, 169 technological development, 7~73, 80 81 see also Industrial metabolism; Projections Molina, M., 138 Montana-Dakota Power Plant, 107 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 148, 149, 150, 152, 168, 169-170 Municipalities, see Urban areas N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 148 National Environmental Policy Act, 185 National Research Council, 78, 184, 187 Natural gas, 126, 198 advanced systems, 1~12, 112, 116-124 consumption, 83 economics, 97, 106, 109 history, 24, 80~1 production, 121 turbines, 97, 119-124, 125 Natural Resource Defense Council, 145 Netherlands, 63 New Jersey, 66 News media, 182, 195 Newspapers municipal waste, 57-58, 61, 63 recycling, 178 New York, 66, 178, 182 183 Nitrogen oxides, 16, 31, 79, 83 84,101, 103, 106-107, 109 110, 169, 170, 172, 175, 179 ozone destruction, 139 Non-point-source pollution, 163 Nonrenewable resources, 86, 89 myths, 114-116 Northern States Power, 107, 109 Norway, 120 Nuclear energy, 83, 98, 120, 199-201 Chernobyl, 163, 199 coolants, 199, 200 electric propulsion, 35 fusion energy, 97,171 innovation, 16, 104, 11(~111, 131 public opinion, 200 safety, 104,110-111, 199-201 Three Mile Island, 2,163, 199 INDEX o Occidental Chemical Corporation, 164 Office of Technology Assessment, 175 Oil, see Petroleum and petroleum products Oil pollution, 3 Organic compounds, 177 Organization of Petroleum Exponing Countries, 197-198 Ozone and ozone layer, 3, 12,18, 3(~31, 65, 66, 137-154, 163, 168 169 Ozone [Lends Panel, 148, 150 p Packaging computers, 52 Food Service and Packaging Institute, 150 plastic, 52, 184 Panel for Alternative Fluorocarbon Toxicity Testing, 148 Paper and paper products, 86 newspapers, 57-58, 61, 63, 178 photocopying, 61, 62 waste, 57, 61 64, 88 Particulates, 176 Paul, B., 63 Pennsylvania, Three Mile Island, 2, 163, 199 Pesticides, 2, 168, 19~194 Petroleum and petroleum products, 9, 82, 126 carbon dioxide used to recover, 135 development, 116, 11~119 oil pollution, 3 paper manufacturing, 62 Phosphates, 131, 16~165 Photocopying, 61, 62 Physicians, 160 Plastics, 86, 177-178 automotive, 88 composites, 56 metal substitutes, 84~6 packaging, 52, 184 polymem, 57, 178 waste, 61 Politics, 35, 183, 189, 201 chlorofluorocarbons, 147-14S, 198 nuclear technology, 200 water resources management, 163 Policy, 189, 195, 201, 203

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INDEX chlorofluorocarbons, corporate policy, 139-140, 143, 147 industrial metabolism, 7, 14 Polyethylene, 184 Polymers, 57, 178 Population growth, 2, 169,173, 194 spatial dispersion, 8, 54 Postal services, paper waste, 62 Power Industry and Industrial Fuel Use Act, 117 Power plants near-term problems, 95-113 rate structure, 120 Predictions, see Projections Preservatives, railroad crossties, 7~73 Prices fuel, 35, 103, 109, 197-198 utility rate structure, 120 Production and productivity chlorofluorocarbons, 144 economies of scale, 53 electricity, 97, 98, 99, 100,103-105 energy, 10, 121 Gross National Product, 55, 57, 99 in macroeconomics, 4, 6 tires, 54 see also Efficiency, Supply/demand Projections, 194 demand, 84, 97 energy, 97, 116, 127-129 ozone layer/CFCs, 13~139, 140, 141, 143, 145, 146 147, 153 reactor safety, 20~201 resource depletion myth, 11~116 Propellants, aerosol, 65, 14~143, 145 Public health electric and magnetic fields, 98 water supply chlorination, 2 Public opinion, 1-3, 163-164, 182184, 19~195, 200 Q Quality control and improvement dematerialization and, 5~53 energy systems, 129 R Radioactive pollution, nuclear reactor design, 16, 199-201 219 Railroads, 7(~73, 76,118 Rain, 163 acid rain, 37, 80, 161,169 storm water, 16~161 Reactors, see Nuclear energy Recycling, 4, 7,15, 36, 162, 189 biosphere and industrial economy, ~ chemical industry, 2025, 3~33, 174, 177 cost incentives, 65 dematerialization, 6, 7-9, 14, 5(K9 market forces, 3~35 newspapers, 178 paper, 63~4 plastics, 178 regulation vs. 164 scrap metal, 64 Refrigeration, 14~141, 145,150, 168 Regional strategies, 96,122, 123 124, 186 Regulations, 10,13,14, 33, 16~165, 174, 175, 185, 195 carbon monoxide emissions, 30 chlorofluorocarbons, 65, 143-145, 147-148, 149, 150, 152, 168, 16~170 electric power, 98, 10~106, 121-122 international, 17-18, 65,142,145-146, 168, 169 lead, 65 66 plastics, 178 reactor licensing, 200 trends, 167-169 water management, 160, 162, 163 see also Environmental Protection Agency Renewable resources, mass flow, 25 26 see also Recycling Repairs, see Maintenance and repair Research and development biological models, 162 chlorofluorocarbons, 138,142, 148,150, 151 highways, 78 plant wastes, 17~177 waste technology, 187-189 see also Technological innovation Risk assessments, see Projections Rivers, 160165,192 193 Road transport, 73, 76, 78 Rowland, F. S., 138 Rupp, W. H., 174

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220 S Safety, nuclear, 104, 11~111, 19~201 Santa Barbara Channel, 3 Scrap metal, 64 Sensor technologies, 110-111, 188 Sewage, 160 Shapiro, Irving, 140 Ships and shipping, 3, 18~183 Shoes, 53 Silicon wafers, 52 Sludge, 66 Smelting aluminum, 36 37 sulfur oxide emissions, 37 Smog, 3, 169 Social factors, 1~16,1~19, 125,163,164, 185-186, 201-202, 203 chlorofluorocarbons, 148 consumers, 4, 6, 19, 51, 52, 65, 177-178, 18~185, 187 dematenalization, 53-55 education, 18, 19, 179-180,187,195 innovation and, 20,129,193 institutional factors, 12-16 market forces, 16,143,150, 163,178,185 media, 182, 195 paper waste and, 61 politics, 35, 147-148, 163, 183, 189, 198, 200, 201 policy, 7, 14, 139-140, 143, 147, 189, 195, 201, 203 population, 2, 8, 54, 169,173,194 public health, 2, 98 public opinion, 1-3, 16~164, 182 184, 19~195, 200 resource depletion myth, 11~116 sociotechnical systems, 7~74, 98-99, 185 187 see also Historical perspectives; Law; Regulations Sodium sulfate, 24 Solar radiation, 30, 39, 138 Solvents, 177 Southern California Edison, 107-108,175 South Florida Flood Control Project, 161 Soviet Union, Chernobyl, 163, 199 Stanford University, 131 Statutes, see Law; Litigation; Regulations Steel consumption, 8, 5~57, 58 energy requirements, 130 INDEX St. Johns River, 165 Storm water, 16~161 Strategic Highway Research Program, 78 Stratosphere supersonic transport, 79, 139 see also Ozone and ozone layer Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plan (EPA), 145 Sulfur oxides, 31-32, 37, 189 chlorofluorocarbons as alternative, 140, 168 clean coal technologies, 10,18, 97, 106 111 scrubbers, 10~101, 102, 108 Superconductors, 98, 171 Supersonic transport, 79, 139 Supply/demand chlorofluorocarbons, 146 "demandite" concept, 86, 88 89 dematerialization and, 5~55 electricity, 97, 98,100, 10~105 energy, 10, 81~3, 97,103 equilibrium, 31-32 hydrocarbon fuels, 12~1Z7 projections, 84 wood industry history, 72 Surface Water Improvement and Management Act, 165 Suwannee River, 164 165 Sweden, 135 T laces, subsidies, 17 Technological diffusion, 81, 88 to developing countries, 17-18 Technological innovation, 010, 7~90, 189, 192 204 aircraft, 118 dematerialization and, 54 electric power, 96-97, 171 energy, 81 84, 129 130, 171 environmental quality, 16-18, 20 industrial processes, ~36 natural gas, advanced systems, 1~12, 112, 116-124 social factors, 20, 129, 19~195 transportation systems, 2, 7~79 Telecommunications' 85, 87 Telegraph, 75 Ten ner, EL., 61

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INDEX Tennessee Valley Authority DIVA), 107-108 Three Mile Island, 2,163, 199 Time series analysis, 129 Tires, 16, 52, 5~55 Toxic waste, see Hazardous waste Transportation systems, 2, 70-79 air transport, 78, 79, 116, 12~123, 139, 148, 194 canals, 73 energy, 82 horses, 76-77 infrastructure, 73 mantime, 3, 182-183 railroad, 7~73, 75, 76,118 road, 73, 76, 78 waste, 7, 18~183 see also Automobiles Troposphere, 79 Tschinkel, Victoria J., 3 - , 12-13, 18, 19, 159-166 U Ultraviolet radiation, ozone layer depletion, 3~31, 138 United Kingdom, 79,145 United Nations Environment Program, 143-145, 148, 149, 16S, 197-198, 199 Urban areas air pollution, 29, 76-77 sludge, 66 solid waste, 8, 57, 6l) 61, 177-178, 182 183 water supply, 161 VFranz, 3 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 144 W Waste residuals, 7,15,13, 23, 25-33 Xerox, 62 construction industry, 67 lead, 64, 65~6 materials-balance principles, 36 medical, 66 67 municipal, 8, 57, 6~61, 66 packaging, 52, 184 paper, 57-58, 61 64, 86, &8, 178 221 silicon wafers, 52 throwaway products, 26, 6S, 66 see also Dematerialization; Recycling Waste management, 1016, 162, 187-189 biodegradability, 178, 189 chemical plant design, 17~177 landfills, 33, 160, 162, 178,183, 184 Mobro, lS2-183 water, 16~161, 163 see also Hazardous waste Waterfowl, 161 Water quality and pollution acid rain, 37, 80,161,169 Atlantic Ocean, 66 chlorination, 2 eutrophication, 163 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 165 fertilizers, 192 heavy metals, 2~27, 28 31, 36, 161 insecticides and pesticides, 2, 168, 192 194 lakes, 161,165, 19~193 mercury poisoning, 2 non-point-source pollution, 163 oil pollution, 3 phosphates, 131,164 165 rivers, 160165, 19~193 road ice removal, 78 sewage, 160 Water resource management, 15~165 fish and fisheries, 2, 163 flood control, 161,165 Watersheds, 165 Weinberg, A. M., 67, 90,186 Wildlife, 161 Wood and wood products energy source, 82, 115, 126 railroad industry development, 7~}72, 76 recycling, 34 35 see alto Forests and forest products; Paper and paper products X z Zinc scrap, 64

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