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17 Transit Oriented Development OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY Transit oriented development (TOD) generally refers to higher-density development, with pedes- trian priority, located within easy walking distance of a major public transit station or stop(s). TODs are viewed as offering the potential to boost transit ridership, increase walking activity, mit- igate sprawl, accommodate growth, and create interesting places. This chapter focuses on the TOD land use strategy and its transportation impacts. It is complementary with Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design," and does not seek to duplicate general information on the impacts of density, diversity, and site design presented there. Similarly, it is not intended to cover the same ground as Chapter 16, "Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities." Chapters 15 and 16 should be referred to for addi- tional background on density, land use mix, site layout, and pedestrian-friendly design effects on travel demand. This "Overview and Summary" section includes: "Objectives of Transit Oriented Development," highlighting the key reasons planners pursue TOD. "Types of Transit Oriented Development," outlining what constitutes TOD and the various dimensions along which response to it may vary, primarily for purposes of chapter organization. "Analytical Considerations," identifying approaches that are used to evaluate the impacts of transit oriented development and discussing their potential limitations. "Traveler Response Summary," providing an encapsulization of travel behavior findings detailed in the remainder of the chapter. Following the "Overview and Summary" are sections on: "Response by TOD Dimension and Strategy," providing coverage on traveler response to TOD along the various dimensions identified for organization of discussion. "Underlying Traveler Response Factors," examining attributes and mechanisms found or thought likely to be responsible for travel demand sensitivities to TOD. "Related Information and Impacts," presenting information on a broader range of related areas of interest including example TOD characteristics, concerns, and success factors. "Case Studies," expanding on selected examples of TODs and TOD analyses. 17-1