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Table 17-45 The TOD Index--Supportive Indicators Indicator Desired Value Street Widths and Streets and walks are scaled to pedestrian comfort and convenience. Overly Driveways wide streets and intersections, along with parking between sidewalks and buildings with its associated driveways, can discourage pedestrian trips. Some TODs incorporate narrower streets on the basis of the motorized trip reduction benefits of the TOD itself and/or pedestrian preference policy. Roadway Access Good highway access is provided, especially for suburban TODs, to yield sufficient customers for vibrant retail. However, when highway access serves the same travel market as a TOD's transit service, particular attention needs to be paid to parking management to ensure transit is competitive. Housing Types A diversity of housing types is incorporated to accommodate residents of different income levels. Inclusion of below-market-rate housing can support higher levels of transit ridership. Lower income residents may be more inclined to forgo ownership of automobiles and use the TOD's transit services. Ground Floor Numerous windows on the ground floor of development are incorporated to Transparency create inviting, active, friendly, and defensible pedestrian spaces. Windows on the transit node and its approaches should desirably include 24-hour uses. People may be willing to walk longer distances when the trip is safe, convenient, and interesting (Snohomish County, 1999; Hendricks, 2005). Car Sharing Occasional access to automobiles is facilitated through organized car sharing. Such an approach can reduce the need for automobile ownership, leading to a variety of TOD benefits: fewer parking spaces required, higher transit mode share, lower vehicle miles of travel, and greater support for local retail. Car sharing ratios of one car per 20 subscribers have been used. Transit Support Transit pass programs and other Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures are applied to tip the balance toward transit, walking, and cycling for TOD residents and workers. Free transit passes may be made part of sales packages to better attract those who will use transit, particularly where the commanding travel advantages of typical HRT or CRR in a central-place city/region are lacking, as with certain LRT, BRT, and conventional-bus oriented TODs. A pertinent reminder at this juncture is to note once again the interactive nature of factors affecting TOD performance (Hendricks, 2006). It follows that the essential and the supportive indicators proposed in the TOD Index describe characteristics that may work together supportively as well as individually. These characteristics will also interact with factors that are not inherently transportation-related. Previously discussed evidence suggests that such interaction may well be synergistic, leading--with carefully balanced selection of characteristics--to enhanced effective- ness for sensitively designed and implemented TOD. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Several other works will be of interest, particularly for broader perspectives on TOD. TCRP Report 102, "Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experience, Challenges, and 17-102