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The Handbook user should be sure to review the next three subsections of this "Overview and Summary" before proceeding to utilize either the "Traveler Response Summary" subsection or the remainder of this chapter. Objectives of Transit Oriented Development TOD projects potentially involve a wider variety of stakeholders than other development projects, reflecting in part the more extensive involvement of transit agencies and government funding sources. TOD stakeholders may have a wide range of complementary or competing objectives. Travel-related objectives include: Increasing the opportunities for residents and workers to meet daily needs by taking transit or walking. Attracting new riders to public transit, including so-called "choice" riders--riders who could otherwise choose to drive. Shifting the transit station mode of access to be less reliant on park-and-ride and more oriented to walking. Reducing the automobile ownership, vehicular traffic, and associated parking requirements that would otherwise be necessary to support a similar level of more traditional development. Enhancing the environment, through reduced emissions and energy consumption derived from shifts in commuting, other trip making, and station access to environmentally friendly travel modes. Non-transportation objectives may include providing desirable and affordable housing choices, enhancing sense of community and quality of life, supporting economic development or revital- ization, shifting development from sensitive areas, minimizing infrastructure costs, and reducing sprawl. Financial return is among the motivating factors for at least some of the stakeholders, including, in some cases, the transit agencies involved. Rents, for example, are potentially a significant source of non-farebox revenue accruing from development on system-owned land adjacent to transit stations (Cervero et al., 2004). This chapter is primarily concerned with the travel behavior effects of TOD and thus affords only limited attention to non-transportation objectives. Types of Transit Oriented Development The term "transit oriented development" is imperfect in its ability to fully characterize the nature of a project. Generally speaking, TOD refers to moderate-to-high-density development, designed with pedestrian priority, located within an easy walk of a major transit stop. Typically TODs have a resi- dential emphasis, or a significant residential component, and preferably feature a mix of residential, shopping, and employment opportunities. An alternative, promoted by some, is to provide part or all of the mix in a string of separate TODs an easy transit ride apart. For those to whom the term implies only "new" (post-modern) development, TOD can be new construction or redevelopment of one 17-2

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or more buildings whose design and context facilitate transit use. Others apply the term to any neigh- borhood, irrespective of its era, that exhibits a satisfactory array of TOD-like physical and transit ser- vice characteristics. The "transit oriented development" term appears to have replaced "transit-focused development," perhaps to better characterize transit in a supporting rather than a starring role. The related term "transit joint development" generally refers to development in which the transit agency is a land owner or major participant in the financing of the project. This term relates more to the project financials than development characteristics. More recently, the term "transit-adjacent develop- ment" has emerged as an analytical and sometimes derisive descriptor of projects that are located near transit nodes but do not embrace or take full advantage of their proximity to transit (Cervero, 2003). There is substantial interest in identifying markers of successful TOD. This interest applies not only to evaluation assessments of existing TOD examples, but also especially to forward-looking design guideline, regulatory, and forecasting applications. Introduced at the conclusion of the "Related Information and Impacts" section of this chapter is the concept of a "Transit Oriented Development Index" as a potential device for considering the degree to which a particular project is intrinsically oriented toward transit. TOD Dimensions For purposes of organizing this synthesis of the TOD literature the Handbook authors have chosen to look along three dimensions that significantly characterize TODs. The selected dimensions are: regional context, land use mix, and primary transit mode. Following are brief descriptions of each of these dimensions. The traveler response effects along each are explored in the "Response by TOD Dimension and Strategy" section. Regional Context. TOD may exist in a long-established city center or in a suburban context. Although locating TOD in either area type may result in boosted transit ridership and increased walking, the regional context plays a role in determining the overall traveler response. City center TODs generally have higher levels of transit service to more travel markets than subur- ban TODs and consequently have higher transit ridership generation potential. However, the difference TOD represents from the status quo in suburban contexts is likely more pronounced than in city center contexts, one of the reasons suburban applications receive more attention in the literature. Land Use Mix. TODs come in a variety of flavors with different mixes of office, retail, and residential space. The travel behavior response to TOD may be influenced by the type and quantity of uses present. For example, TOD that enables its occupants to address daily needs within the project may result in fewer automobile trips and lower automobile ownership rates than less diverse TOD. Primary Transit Mode. TOD has been planned or constructed around rail and bus transit stations and stops. Modal characteristics may factor into both the development feasible at the station and the ability of public transit to serve the travel markets created by the TOD. Although TOD around stations of light rail transit (LRT) and heavy rail (rail rapid) transit (HRT/Metro) is the most prominently discussed in the literature, TOD can also be served by commuter rail (CRR), bus rapid transit (BRT), and good-frequency traditional bus services. 17-3