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counties (McCann and Ewing, 2003). Another study found that in the San Francisco Bay Area, people in mixed land use areas were significantly more likely to walk for short non-work trips than people elsewhere (Cervero et al., 2004). Health benefits may also accrue to the extent that TOD contributes to regional air quality enhancement. Reduced motor vehicle travel brought on by mode shifts to non-motorized travel or clean transit modes will have a positive impact on health in the form of cleaner air. Finally, the pedestrian environment that accompanies TOD is generally much improved over tra- ditional suburban walking environments and will likely be safer. More eyes on the street, in the form of vibrant street life or higher pedestrian volumes associated with greater development den- sities, can be a deterrent to crime. Smaller-scale streets and intersections, on-street parking, and other traffic calming influences built-in to good design along with the generally greater quantities of pedestrians in TODs may serve to slow traffic and decrease the likelihood of serious vehicle/pedestrian conflicts. Economic Benefits Economic benefits of TOD are often cited as among the reasons jurisdictions should pursue such projects. Economic benefits may accrue to a variety of stakeholders. Perhaps the most attention has been given to the potential benefits to property owners in proximity to stations, but government entities may also experience benefits. A brief exploration of the potential benefits of more compact land use in terms of government cost avoidance is provided in Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design," in the "Related Information and Impacts"--"Cost Effectiveness" subsection. Studies of property values in a variety of metropolitan areas, including Washington, DC, San Francisco, Atlanta, Dallas, and Portland, Oregon, have shown a correlation between proxim- ity to rail transit stations and increased property values and decreased vacancy rates for both com- mercial and residential development. These impacts can range from modest to large depending on the circumstances. On the other hand, TOD projects also tend to have higher development costs than does the standard fare. Apartments and offices tend to rent for more near stations than away from them and homes and condos similarly show positive price impacts accruing from rail transit proximity. For example, in Washington, DC, commercial property prices decline by an average of $2.30 per square foot for every 1,000 feet further from a Metro station (Benjamin and Sirmans, 1996; Li, 2001; Cervero et al., 2004). Table 17-42 adds other examples of price impacts. In addition, the three "Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes" Handbook chapters that address fixed-guideway transit-- Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Bus"; Chapter 7, "Light Rail Transit"; and Chapter 8, "Commuter Rail"--have material within their "Related Information and Impacts" sections that address development impacts and benefits. To the extent TOD brings increased property values and correspondingly higher assessments, it will generally also lead to increased property tax revenue for government agencies. Possibly because of the drive for municipal tax revenue or perhaps due to market forces, early developments around transit stations were decidedly tilted towards commercial and business uses over residential housing. A study of developments around Southern California rail 17-96