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transit stations found that the station areas have more often filled with non-residential develop- ment than with housing. This has had positive revenue implications for jurisdictions, but has often been in spite of stated policies promoting residential development (Boarnet and Crane, 1997). Table 17-42 Sample Property Value Impacts of Rail Station and Transit Mall Proximity Urban Area Residential Office Date of Studies Cited Washington, DC Rents decreased about Prices decreased $2.30 Residential: 1996 2.5% for each one-tenth of per square foot (SF) for a mile from Metro every 1,000 feet further Office: 2000 station. from Metro station. Denver, CO Englewood TOD Office rents along Residential: June 2002 (CityCenter) apartments downtown bus transit had average monthly rent mall were 8% to 16% Office: 2002 of between $1,005 and higher than comparable $1,735, more than double space off the mall. the $500 to $700 per month elsewhere. San Francisco, CA Single family home prices Average land price 1999 declined by $3,200 to decreased from $74 per $3,700 each mile farther SF for office properties from a BART station. within 0.25 miles of Apartments near BART BART to $30 per SF for stations rented for 15% to properties more than 26% more. 0.5 miles from BART. Sources: Li (2001), Benjamin and Sirmans (1996), and Cervero et al. (2004). The market premium that has emerged for transit-adjacent residences and recent changes allowing proportionally higher mortgage amounts for residences near transit have made building housing close to transit stations more attractive to developers. The so-called "location-efficient mortgage" allows borrowers to buy more expensive housing than they might otherwise be able to afford, potentially enabling residency next to a transit station that would otherwise have been out-of-reach financially. Fannie Mae's Smart Commute Initiative has allowed this treatment at both rail- and bus-centered TODs. Placing large numbers of potential riders next to the station also produces economic benefits for the transit agency through higher ridership and farebox revenue (Dittmar and Poticha, 2004; Salmon, 2004). Transit Oriented Development Index An interest in characterizing the "TOD-ness" of projects near transit has been expressed in various forms by a number of researchers and practitioners. This interest applies not only to backward-looking assessments primarily research in nature, but most especially to forward- looking planning and forecasting applications. The "TOD Index" was imagined as a way to characterize the degree to which a project functions as TOD. The important elements of "successful" TOD would be captured in such an index. Inspiration was found in a number of 17-97
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recent TOD publications as well as original research performed by the Handbook authors as part of TCRP Project B-12B. Reviewing proposed measures of TOD success was a useful starting point in visualizing a TOD Index. NCHRP Project 20-65(5) is a selected example of an effort focused on developing a strategy to measure the success of TOD. A national survey of 30 professionals highlighted fifteen success measures that were considered "very useful" by more than half of the respondents. A secondary ranking exercise, which added in findings from a literature and website review, brought out transit ridership as the most important indicator. The ridership indicator was followed by density, design quality, and pedestrian friendliness indicators; parking metrics; and economic indicators including tax revenue. Most of the indicators are suitable for use in either backward- or forward-looking approaches (Renne and Wells, 2005). Table 17-43 presents a summary of the identified key indica- tors as well as the rankings from the two exercises. Table 17-43 Useful Indicators for TOD Identified by 30 Professionals Percentage Identifying as "Very Secondary Indicator Category Useful" Ranking Transit ridership (e.g., boardings) Travel behavior 70 1 Population/housing density Built environment 67 2 Employment density (e.g., number of jobs per Economic/ 53 2 acre) Built environment Qualitative rating of streetscape (i.e., pedestrian Built environment 77 3 orientation, human scale) Mixed-use structures (number or square footage) Built environment 60 4 Pedestrian activity counts Travel behavior 77 5 Number of intersections or street crossings Built environment 60 5 improved for pedestrian safety Estimated increase in property value Economic 63 6 Public perception (e.g., administered survey) Social diversity/ 63 7 Quality Number of bus, ferry, shuttle, or jitney services Travel behavior 63 8 connecting to transit station Number of parking spaces for residents, tenants, Travel behavior 53 9 visitors, commuters, and shared Estimated amount of private investment Economic 57 -- Number of convenience or service retail Economic 53 -- establishments (e.g., dry cleaners, video rental) Estimated amount of private investment by type Economic 52 -- of land use Source: Based on Renne and Wells (2005). 17-98
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A consideration here is that the top-ranked, transit ridership indicator and other "outcome" indicators would not be suitable for use in any index that might evolve into a travel demand or economic model variable or variables employed in the prediction of mode choice (and thus transit ridership) or other travel or economic results included in the set of indicators. A value being estimated (dependent variable) cannot also be a model input (independent variable). The concept of "location efficiency" has been put forward as one comprehensive measure of TOD success. Three to four defining components of location efficiency have been suggested as specific indicators. The proposal involving three identifiers focuses on density, transit accessibility, and pedestrian friendliness. Density leads to more people within reach of the particular transit station, accessibility leads to more origins and destinations reachable through the transit system, and pedestrian friendliness provides easy walk access and egress to the transit station or stops (Dittmar and Poticha, 2004). The proposal involving four identifiers utilizes as one primary characteristic residential density and commercial intensity combined, adds a diverse mix of land uses for provision of needed services and amenities, addresses transit accessibility by specifying centrally and conveniently located transit stations and stops, and encompasses a directly connected network of walkways and sidewalks in the company of pedestrian-scale streets (Hendricks, 2005; Cervero et al., 2004). Each of these various components can and has been represented to some degree in individual regional travel demand models (Reiff and Kim, 2003; Evans and Stryker, 2005; Kuzmyak, Baber, and Savory, 2006). Researchers have also developed measures of these components for sketch plan- ning purposes (Lund, Cervero, and Willson, 2004a; Schlossberg et al., 2004). At a more detailed level, Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design," offers a list of transit supportive design elements deemed critical--in addition to density and mix--for full-featured TODs. These are found in Chapter 15 under "Response by Type of Strategy"--"Site Design"--"Transit Supportive Design and Travel Behavior" and include such measures not mentioned above as connectivity of streets for bus routing without circuitry, and alignment of transit stops and major building entrances. For the TOD Index, the Handbook authors tried to limit their inquiry to the travel demand perspective. In support of the concept, a modest original research investigation was undertaken of TOD effects on non-work travel in Portland, Oregon. The approach and findings are described within the "Portland, Oregon, Metro Region TOD Travel Effects Investigation" case study. The test model added a set of simple yes-no TOD "dummy" variables--indicating presence of TOD characteristics--to a regional non-work mode share research model that already included an advanced measure encompassing key urban design descriptors. Including the dummy variables appeared to improve the predictive capability of the model at the same time as the composite land use mix and connectivity measure remained roughly as significant a variable as before (Evans and Stryker, 2005). Potential indicators that might likely make up such a TOD Index were identified and categorized as "essential" and "supportive." The selected indicators incorporate many of the elements cited by others, and address mostly quantifiable aspects of TOD. More research is needed to determine the appropriate weightings that might be given the various indicators within the Index and indeed whether the list of indicators itself can be improved. Table 17-44 lists the "essential" TOD Index indicators. Table 17-45 presents the "supportive" indicators. 17-99
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At this stage the TOD Index is offered as a general approach to characterizing and evaluating the degree to which a project functions or would function as a TOD, and as a preliminary design-planning guidance tool. It is not presented as something ready-made for use in travel demand modeling. It does, however, offer a listing from which to selectively draw promising mea- sures susceptible to more precise definition as model variables or design guidelines. Ultimately, a suitably constructed and calibrated TOD Index could lead to a continuous model variable that might provide additional travel demand model explanatory power. In the meantime, the TOD Index is presented here as a research approach and planning tool. 17-100
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Table 17-44 The TOD Index--Essential Indicators Indicator Desired Value Centrally Located Development surrounds the transit station/stop and its primary edge is within Transit 5 minutes or about 0.25 miles of the transit node. Very high quality transit service may support a 10-minute (0.50 mile) walk catchment area. (See "Underlying Traveler Response Factors"--"Land Use and Site Design"). Pedestrian Priority Block perimeter lengths are walkable (no more than 0.25 miles). By way of example, blocks in downtown Portland are 200 feet on a side (0.15 miles perimeter). Walkways are direct and attractive and buildings are sidewalk- oriented. Moving people rather than cars should be the traffic management priority, with easy street crossings, short signal cycle lengths, right-turn-on-red prohibitions. Lack of street connectivity can lead to much longer walking distances as compared to airline distances. (See "Land Use and Site Design" and case study, "Travel Findings for Individual Portland, Oregon, Area TODs"). High-Quality Frequent, highly-reliable, and comfortable transit service is provided. Most Transit TODs have very high frequency service during the peak (headways of 5 to 8 minutes or less). Good off-peak service should also be provided to make life without an automobile not only possible, but easy (headways of 15 minutes or less). (See "Underlying Traveler Response Factors"--"Transit Service Characteristics"). Mix of Uses Development has elements that create a self-sufficient community where daily needs such as grocery shopping can be accomplished without need for a car and preferably by walking. Transit can provide connectivity to some uses not present in the community, but located close at hand to stops along the primary transit line, such as jobs, entertainment, and destination retail. (See "Response by TOD Dimension and Strategy"--"Response to TOD by Land Use Mix"). Supportive Density is sufficient to enable cost-effective transit service and infrastructure Density provision, create a market supportive of utility retail, and keep local attractions and destinations within short walking distances. High densities are associated with numerous aspects of TOD success. Residential density guidelines for TOD in Portland, Oregon, as an example, range from 12 to 30 units per acre depending on distance from the station and primary transit mode. In the Puget Sound Region, an employment density guideline of 50 jobs per gross acre is suggested to support LRT TOD (Cervero et al., 2004). (See also "Underlying Traveler Response Factors"--"Land Use and Site Design"--"TOD-Supportive Density" and in Chapter 15, "Related Information and Impacts"--"Transit Service Feasibility Guidelines"--"Density Thresholds for Transit Service" including Tables 15-48 and 15-49.) Parking Parking minimums are avoided, parking maximums are encouraged, and Management parking costs are charged to users. Parking requirements are reduced from those of standard development to account for and encourage more transit and walking and take advantage of shared parking opportunities. Structured parking, satellite parking, underground parking, and parking with street-facing office or retail uses are among the techniques employed to avoid dead blocks and enable clear walking paths providing visibility of the transit station. (See also "Underlying Traveler Response Factors"--"Parking Supply" and "Parking Pricing and Transit Support").