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CHAPTER 17 TCRP REPORT 95 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Transit Oriented Development Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2007 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS David A. Lee Connecticut Transit CHAIR: Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando VICE CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka MEMBERS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority Linda J. Bohlinger MEMBERS HNTB Corp. J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Robert I. Brownstein Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas DOT, Austin PB Consult, Inc. Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Peter Cannito John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Metropolitan Transportation Authority--Metro North Railroad Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Gregory Cook Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Ann Arbor Transportation Authority Atlanta, GA Nathaniel P. Ford Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, Washington, DC San Francisco MUNI Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Ronald L. Freeland Charlottesville Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL Fred M. Gilliam Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark Kim R. Green University, Worcester, MA GFI GENFARE Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Jill A. Hough Harold E. Linnenkohl, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, Atlanta North Dakota State University Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia John Inglish Institute of Technology, Atlanta Utah Transit Authority Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Jeanne W. Krieg Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City Celia G. Kupersmith Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson District Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Clarence W. Marsella Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Denver Regional Transportation District Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MO Faye L. M. Moore C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Authority Stephanie L. Pinson Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Robert H. Prince, Jr. Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC DMJM+Harris Thomas J. Barrett (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Jeffrey M. Rosenberg Amalgamated Transit Union Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Michael Scanlon Marion C. Blakey, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT San Mateo County Transit District Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Beverly Scott John A. Bobo, Jr., Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Sacramento Regional Transit District Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA James S. Simpson George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, FTA National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Frank Tobey First Transit J. Richard Capka, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT Kathryn D. Waters Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Frank Wilson John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS William W. Millar J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, APTA John C. Stennis Space Center, MS Robert E. Skinner, Jr. William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC TRB Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT AASHTO James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Richard Capka Carl A. Strock (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of FHWA Engineers, Washington, DC TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders APTA SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks TRB *Membership as of March 2007. *Membership as of March 2007.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95 Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Chapter 17--Transit Oriented Development JOHN E. (JAY) EVANS, IV AND RICHARD H. PRATT Lead Chapter Authors ANDREW STRYKER AND J. RICHARD KUZMYAK Contributing Chapter Authors RICHARD H. PRATT, CONSULTANT, INC. Garrett Park, MD JAY EVANS CONSULTING LLC Washington, DC TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX PB AMERICAS, INC. Baltimore, MD, Portland, OR, and San Francisco, CA J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, L.L.C. Silver Spring, MD CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Bethesda, MD VANASSE HANGEN BRUSTLIN, INC./VHB Vienna, VA GALLOP CORPORATION Rockville, MD MCCOLLOM MANAGEMENT CONSULTING, INC. Darnestown, MD HERBERT S. LEVINSON, TRANSPORTATION CONSULTANT New Haven, CT K.T. ANALYTICS, INC. Bethesda, MD S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Highway Operations, Capacity and Traffic Control Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2007 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95: Chapter 17 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project B-12A and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN: 978-0-309-09892-2 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2007931161 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2007 Transportation Research Board adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT PERMISSION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act purposes and resources of the National Research Council. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Committee defines funding levels and expected products. manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 95 CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs STEPHAN A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NATASSJA LINZAU, Associate Editor TCRP PROJECT B-12A PANEL Field of Service Configuration PAUL J. LARROUSSE, National Transit Institute, Rutgers University, NJ (Chair) PATRICK T. DeCORLA-SOUZA, Federal Highway Administration KEITH L. KILLOUGH, KLK Consulting, Los Angeles, CA REZA NAVAI, California DOT CYNTHIA ANN NORDT, The Marketing Studio, Houston, TX NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Maryland State Highway Administration G. SCOTT RUTHERFORD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA DARWIN G. STUART, Skokie, IL RON FISHER, FTA Liaison Representative ERIC PIHL, FHWA Liaison Representative RICHARD WEAVER, APTA Liaison Representative CHRISTINE GERENCHER, TRB Liaison Representative

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Transit oriented development (TOD) generally refers to higher-density develop- FOREWORD ment, with pedestrian priority, located within easy walking distance of a major public By Stephan A. Parker transit station or stop(s). TODs are viewed as offering the potential to boost transit rid- Staff Officer ership, increase walking activity, mitigate sprawl, accommodate growth, and create Transportation Research interesting places. This chapter focuses on the TOD land use strategy and its transporta- Board tion impacts, organized along three dimensions that significantly characterize TODs: regional context, land use mix, and primary transit mode. New as well as synthesized research is presented, including suggested "TOD Index" indicators to describe development project "TOD-ness." This chapter is com- plementary with Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design," and Chapter 16, "Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities." Chapters 15 and 16 should be referred to for additional back- ground on density, diversity, land use mix, site layout, and pedestrian-friendly design effects on travel demand. TCRP Report 95: Chapter 17, Transit Oriented Development will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The overarching objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a com- prehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transporta- tion system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site develop- ment design approaches. While the focus is on contemporary observations and assess- ments of traveler responses as expressed in travel demand changes, the presentation is seasoned with earlier experiences and findings to identify trends or stability, and to fill information gaps that would otherwise exist. Comprehensive referencing of additional reference materials is provided to facilitate and encourage in-depth exploration of top- ics of interest. Travel demand and related impacts are expressed using such measures as usage of transportation facilities and services, before-and-after market shares and percentage changes, and elasticity. The findings in the Handbook are intended to aid--as a general guide--in prelim- inary screening activities and quick turn-around assessments. The Handbook is not intended for use as a substitute for regional or project-specific travel demand evalua- tions and model applications, or other independent surveys and analyses. The Second Edition of the handbook Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes was published by USDOT in July 1981, and it has been a valuable tool for transportation professionals, providing documentation of results from different types of transportation actions. This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in

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scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, select "TCRP, All Projects, B-12A" from the TCRP web- site: http://www.trb.org/tcrp. A team led by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. is responsible for the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition, through work conducted under TCRP Projects B-12, B-12A, and B-12B. REPORT ORGANIZATION The Handbook, organized for simultaneous print and electronic chapter-by-chapter publication, treats each chapter essentially as a stand-alone document. Each chapter includes text and self-contained references and sources on that topic. For example, the references cited in the text of Chapter 6, "Demand Responsive/ADA," refer to the Reference List at the end of that chapter. The Handbook user should, however, be con- versant with the background and guidance provided in TCRP Report 95: Chapter 1, Introduction. Upon completion of the Report 95 series, the final Chapter 1 publication will include a CD-ROM of all 19 chapters. The complete outline of chapters is provided below.

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Handbook Outline Showing Publication and Source-Data-Cutoff Dates U.S. DOT Publication TCRP Report 95 General Sections and Topic Area Chapters First Second Source Data Publication (TCRP Report 95 Nomenclature) Edition Edition Cutoff Date Date Ch. 1 Introduction (with Appendices A, B) 1977 1981 2003a 2000/03/08a Multimodal/Intermodal Facilities Ch. 2 HOV Facilities 1977 1981 1999-05b 2006 Ch. 3 Park-and-Ride/Pool -- 1981 2003c 2004 Transit Facilities and Services Ch. 4 Busways, BRT and Express Bus 1977e 1981 2006c 2008d Ch. 5 Vanpools and Buspools 1977 1981 1999-04b 2005 Ch. 6 Demand Responsive/ADA -- -- 1999 2004 Ch. 7 Light Rail Transit -- -- 2007d 2008d Ch. 8 Commuter Rail -- -- 2007d 2008d Public Transit Operations Ch. 9 Transit Scheduling and Frequency 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 10 Bus Routing and Coverage 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 11 Transit Information and Promotion 1977 1981 2002 2003 Transportation Pricing Ch. 12 Transit Pricing and Fares 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 13 Parking Pricing and Fees 1977e -- 1999 2005 e b Ch. 14 Road Value Pricing 1977 -- 2002-03 2003 Land Use and Non-Motorized Travel Ch. 15 Land Use and Site Design -- -- 2001-02b 2003 Ch. 16 Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities -- -- 2007 2008d Ch. 17 Transit Oriented Development -- -- 2004-06b 2007 Transportation Demand Management Ch. 18 Parking Management and Supply -- -- 2000-02b 2003 Ch. 19 Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies 1977e 1981e 2007 2008d a NOTES: Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook (March 2000), without Appendix B. The "Interim Introduction," published as Research Results Digest 61 (September 2003), is a replacement, available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_61.pdf. Publica- tion of the final version of Chapter 1, "Introduction," as part of the TCRP Report 95 series, is anticipated for 2008. b Primary cutoff was first year listed, but with selected information from second year listed. c The source data cutoff date for certain components of this chapter was 1999. d Estimated. e The edition in question addressed only certain aspects of later edition topical coverage.

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CHAPTER 17 AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TCRP Report 95, in essence the Third Edition of the "Traveler where, are providing review and comments for what will total over Response to Transportation System Changes" Handbook, is being 20 individual publication documents/chapters. They have gone the prepared under Transit Cooperative Research Program Projects extra mile in providing support on call including leads, reports, doc- B-12, B-12A, and B-12B by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. in as- umentation, advice, and direction over the decade-plus duration of sociation with Jay Evans Consulting LLC; the Texas Transportation the project. Four consecutive appointed or acting TCRP Senior Pro- Institute; PB Americas, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Cam- gram Officers have given their support: Stephanie N. Robinson, bridge Systematics, Inc.; Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc./VHB; Gal- who took the project through scope development and contract nego- lop Corporation; McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert tiation; Stephen J. Andrle, who led the work during the Project B- S. Levinson, Transportation Consultant; and K.T. Analytics, Inc. 12 Phase and on into the TCRP B-12A Project Continuation; Har- Richard H. Pratt is the Principal Investigator. Dr. Katherine F. vey Berlin, who saw the Interim Handbook through to Website Turnbull of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted as co-Principal publication; and Stephan A. Parker, who is guiding the entire proj- Investigator during initial Project B-12 phases, leading up to the ect to its complete fruition. Editor Natassja Linzau is providing her Phase I Interim Report and the Phase II Draft Interim Handbook. careful examination and fine touch, while Publications Director With the addition of Project B-12B research, John E. (Jay) Evans, IV, Eileen Delaney and her team are handling all the numerous publi- then of Jay Evans Consulting LLC, was appointed the co-Principal cation details. The efforts of all are greatly appreciated. Investigator. Lead Handbook chapter authors and co-authors, in Continued recognition is due to the participants in the develop- addition to Mr. Pratt, are Mr. Evans (initially with Parsons Brinck- ment of the First and Second Editions, key elements of which are erhoff and now with Cambridge Systematics); Dr. Turnbull; J. retained. Co-authors to Mr. Pratt were Neil J. Pedersen and Joseph Richard Kuzmyak, initially of Cambridge Systematics and now of J. Mather for the First Edition, and John N. Copple for the Second J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Frank Spielberg of VHB; Brian E. Edition. Crucial support and guidance for both editions was pro- McCollom of McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. vided by the Federal Highway Administration's Technical Repre- Levinson, Transportation Consultant; Erin Vaca of Cambridge Sys- sentative (COTR), Louise E. Skinner. tematics, Inc.; and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas of PB. Contributing In the TCRP Report 95 edition, John (Jay) Evans is the lead authors include Dr. Kiran U. Bhatt, K.T. Analytics, Inc.; Shawn M. author for this volume: Chapter 17, "Transit Oriented Develop- Turner, Texas Transportation Institute; Dr. Rachel Weinberger, ment," with Richard H. Pratt as co-principal author. Contributing Cambridge Systematics (now with the University of Pennsylvania); authors for Chapter 17 are Andrew Stryker and J. Richard Andrew Stryker, PB; and Dr. C. Y. Jeng, Gallop Corporation. Kuzmyak. Original research was undertaken by Jay Evans and Other research agency team members contributing to the pre- Andrew Stryker. Frank Spielberg assisted with task design and a paratory research, synthesis of information, and development of probono chapter review, and Tom Higgins of K.T. Analytics, Inc. this Handbook have been Stephen Farnsworth, Laura Higgins, and also provided a probono review. Rachel Donovan of the Texas Transportation Institute; Nick Vla- Participation by the profession at large has been absolutely hos, Vicki Ruiter, and Karen Higgins of Cambridge Systematics, essential to the development of the Handbook and this chapter. Port- Inc.; Bill Davidson, G.B. Arrington, and Lydia Wong of PB, along land Metro provided both the research model and the trip file for the with the late travel demand modeler/planner extraordinaire Gordon Portland original research, with Kyung-Hwa Kim of Metro assist- W. Schultz; Kris Jagarapu of VHB; Sarah Dowling of Jay Evans ing. T. Keith Lawton of Keith Lawton Consulting volunteered his Consulting LLC; and Laura C. (Peggy) Pratt of Richard H. Pratt, time along with G.B. Arrington of PB to advise and identify areas Consultant, Inc. Dr. C. Y. Jeng of Gallop Corporation has provided of Portland exhibiting transit oriented development characteristics. pre-publication numerical quality control review. By special ar- Many practitioners responded to the TCRP Project B-12B survey, rangement, Dr. Daniel B. Rathbone of The Urban Transportation with Rich Weaver of the American Public Transportation Associa- Monitor searched past issues. Assistance in word processing, tion assisting in its implementation. Reviewers of Chapter 17 pro- graphics and other essential support has been provided by Bonnie vided leads and substantive advice. Volunteer reviewers from out- Duke and Pam Rowe of the Texas Transportation Institute; Karen side the Research Agency team were Jennifer Dill, Thomas Applegate, Laura Reseigh, Stephen Bozik, and Jeff Waclawski of Harrington, Sara Hendricks, Hollie Lund, and Randy McCourt. The PB; others too numerous to name but fully appreciated; and lastly contribution of each and all is truly valued. the warmly remembered late Susan Spielberg of SG Associates Finally, sincere thanks are due to the many other practitioners (now part of VHB). and researchers who were contacted for information and unstint- Special thanks go to all involved for supporting the cooperative ingly supplied both that and all manner of statistics, data compila- process adopted for topic area chapter development. Members of tions, and reports. Though not feasible to list here, many appear in the TCRP Project B-12/B-12A/B-12B Project Panel, named else- the "References" section entries of this and other chapters.

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CHAPTER 17--TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT CONTENTS Overview and Summary, 17-1 Objectives of Transit Oriented Development, 17-2 Types of Transit Oriented Development, 17-2 Analytical Considerations, 17-4 Traveler Response Summary, 17-6 Response by TOD Dimension and Strategy, 17-10 Response to TOD by Regional Context, 17-10 Response to TOD by Land Use Mix, 17-20 Response to TOD by Primary Transit Mode, 17-33 Underlying Traveler Response Factors, 17-48 Land Use and Site Design, 17-48 Automobile Ownership, 17-59 Transit Service Characteristics, 17-62 Highway Access and Congestion, 17-63 Parking Supply, 17-66 Parking Pricing and Transit Support, 17-70 Self-Selection of Residents, 17-73 Related Information and Impacts, 17-81 Household Characteristics, 17-81 Trip Characteristics and Congestion, 17-83 Pre- and Post-TOD Travel Modes, 17-87 Vehicle Trip, VMT, Energy, and Environmental Relationships, 17-93 Health and Safety Benefits, 17-95 Economic Benefits, 17-96 Transit Oriented Development Index, 17-97 Additional Resources, 17-102 Case Studies, 17-103 Portland, Oregon, Metro Region TOD Travel Effects Investigation, 17-103 Arlington County, Virginia, Transit Oriented Development Densities, 17-108 Travel Findings for Individual Portland, Oregon, Area TODs, 17-110 Baltimore Region TOD and Smart Growth Analysis, 17-121 References, 17-126 ERRATA: Chapter 15--Land Use and Site Design, 17-134 How to Order TCRP Report 95, 17-135