Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$125.25



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 48


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 47
NATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Aspects Dealing With Contamination in Sediments Andrew Robertson and Thomas P. O'Connor National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ABSTRACT Since 1984, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- tration has conducted the National Status and Trends Pro- gram, which makes systematic measurements of chemical and biological indicators of coastal marine environmental condi- tions to determine the current status and developing trends in environmental quality of U.S. coastal waters. As part of this program, levels of chemical contaminants in sediments have been measured at least once, and in most cases several times, at 213 locations around the U.S. coast. The program measures concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, 9 other chlorinated pesticides, 8 polychorinated biphenyl congener groupings aggregated by chlorination number, 18 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 12 trace elements, 4 major elements, total organic carbon, coprostanol, and Clostridium perfringens spores, as well as grain-size distribution in sediments from each site. All sampling sites are given showing, for each site, how many and which contaminant concentrations ranked in the top 20 concentrations of the 176 sites with fine- grained sediments. Relatively few sites, all in the vicin- ity of major coastal cities, were found to have most of the contaminant concentrations in the upper 20. INTRODUCTION In order to make well-founded and balanced decisions that provide for allocation and utilization of the nation's coastal and estuarine resources, while assuring continued availability of these resources for future generations, it is necessary to have reliable information con- cerning the status and trends of environmental quality around our coasts. The Ocean Assessments Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessment initiated the National Status and Trends Program (NS & T) for Marine Environmental Quality in 1984 to provide such information. The purpose of this program is to make systematic observations on suite of meaningful indicators of coastal marine environmental condi- tions in order to determine the current status of and detect any 47 r

OCR for page 47
48 substantial changes occurring in environmental quality of U.S. coastal waters. Because of the level of concern with regard to anthropogenic additions of toxic substances into coastal waters, it was decided to focus this program initially on these substances and their effects. A three-tiered approach (Figure 1) is used in the NS & T Program to evaluate the status and trends of chemical contaminants and their effects in estuarine and coastal waters. The first tier involves a monitoring program that measures the concentrations of toxic chemicals and certain associated biological effects in biota and sediments from numerous locations around the coasts of this country. This tier of the program is directed at determining existing levels of toxic chemicals and bioeffects at various sites. These data provide a baseline against which future measurements at the same sites may be compared to deter- mine whether or not substantial changes have occurred. This tier also provides data that can be used to evaluate which of the sites have the highest levels of contamination and bioeffects. This tier is intended to provide warnings as to which locations are of greatest concern regarding potential for degradation in environmental quality. The second tier involves a closer examination of the conditions at the locations that were identified of greatest concern in the first tier. Before initiating detailed field studies as part of tier 3, the available literature information and data relating to the substances and effects of concern in such areas are obtained and synthesized in order to make a more detailed evaluation of existing knowledge concern- ing the spatial and temporal extent of degradation in environmental quality in these areas. These tier 2 analyses result in hypotheses as to the levels of ecological degradation and other undesirable effects that have occurred, or are in process of occurring, in the various areas of greatest concern. These hypotheses are then tested in the third tier for those areas where substantial levels of degradation are hypothesized. Measure- ments, such as detailed examinations of indigenous organisms and bio- assays of sediment and water, are made to determine the extent and I scantily areas with greatest likelihood of degradation by monitonog chemical and biological indicator of environmental quad ~ . WARNING LEVEL _ ~ J . ~ ~ _ PRESUMPTIVE LEVEL Develop hypotheses conceding current status of quality in areas from Level 1 using ah available intonnation and data ~ , CONFIR MTION LEVEL Test hypotheses from Level 2 using bioassay and other p~dums FIGURE 1 Schematic representation of the three-tiered structure of the NS & T Program.

OCR for page 47
49 degree of degradation caused by chemical contamination. Those areas where substantial degradation is confirmed are identified as areas where management actions may be needed if the degradation is to be reversed. The present paper provides a preliminary description of the data being obtained by the NS & T Program, primarily through the first tier monitoring, concerning the distribution of levels of contamination in sediments in U.S. coastal waters and a summary of the procedures used to obtain these data. Examples of program results related to contam- inated sediments are also included. NATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS MONITORING OF SEDIMENT PROPERTIES Collection and analysis of contaminant concentrations in sediments is included in the NS & T Program to provide a long-term integrated measure of the comparative levels of the various contaminants at the individual sites. The program also measures the concentrations of con- taminants in bivalves and fish for this purpose. Measurements of con- taminants in both biota and sediments are included as complimentary measures of comparative levels in the environment. Although the values in biota are of more direct interest and concern, they are more diffi- cult to compare among sites. This is because no single species that is appropriate for such measurements is found all around the coasts of the United States, so several species must be used to obtain national cover- age. The two measures complement each other because concentrations in biota, in general, respond more rapidly to changes in contaminant inputs, so they provide integration of the levels of such inputs over shorter time periods than do the levels in the sediments. Measurements on contamination in sediments are obtained primarily in the first tier of the NS & T Program in which the concentrations of toxic chemicals in biota and associated sediments are measured at numer- ous locations around the coasts of this country. Such measurements are included in two major components of the first tier of the program. In one, the benthic surveillance component, measurements are made of the concentrations of a wide variety of toxic substances in the livers of benthic fish and in sediments collected in association with them. In the second one, the mussel watch component, concentrations of the same substances in the tissues of sessile molluscs (i.e., mussels and oysters) and associated sediments are measured. Samples have been collected annually since 1984 at about 50 benthic surveillance sites and since 1986 at about lS0 mussel watch locations. Although most locations included in these efforts have been sampled more than once, some sites have been added and omitted each year. SITE LOCATIONS Benthic surveillance and mussel watch sampling sites were selected to be, as much as possible with present knowledge, representative of the general conditions within the areas in which they are located.

OCR for page 47
50 Efforts were made to avoid locating sampling sites near point sources of contamination, such as outfalls from industrial or sewage treatment plants, because such "hot spot" locations are not considered to be representative. Maps showing the specific sites sampled are included in a report summarizing the NS & T data concerning contamination concentrations in biota (NOAA, 1987~. Surficial sediment samples were collected at three stations at each sampling site, with the stations being spaced over an area within 500 m of the center of the site. At mussel watch sites, if only sediments composed predominantly of sand or larger grain sizes could be found in the area, an attempt was made to find stations with fine-grained sedi- ments up to 2 km from the site center. If still no stations with fines "rained sediments could be found, sand samples from near the site cen- ter were used. In the benthic surveillance sampling, no effort was made to find fine-grained sediments if these were not detected within 500 m of the site center. An exception to the general procedure for selecting sediment stations was followed by the benthic surveillance program for the 18 sites along the northeast coast (i.e., from Maine through Virginia). For these sites the stations were generally much farther apart than at the other sites, up to about 5 km. FIELI) AND ANALYTICAL METHODS In the Benthic Surveillance Project, sediment samples were obtained with a specially constructed box corer or a standard Smith-MacIntyre bottom grab. In the Mussel Watch Project, the samples were obtained with the box corer or with a Kynar-coated Van Veen grab sampler. Three samples were obtained at each of the three stations at a site, result- ing in a total of nine samples at each site. In the Benthic Surveillance Project, a surface skim was taken from the top 3 cm of each sediment sample for analysis for organic sub- stances. The resulting three skim subsamples were composited in the laboratory, so only one analysis for organics was carried out for each station. A small corer was used on deck to get a subsample from the top 3 cm of each box core or grab sample for analysis for trace metals and other elements, and as with the organics, the three subsamples from each station were composited in the laboratory. Two other core sub- samples were obtained from each sample, one for analysis of sediment texture and one for storage. In the Mussel Watch Project, two samples were obtained at each sta- tion--one for analysis of organics and the other for analysis of trace metals and other elements--by taking two surface skims from the top 1 cm of each box corer or grab sample and compositing, in the field, the two sets of three subsamples from each station. Samples for analyses of organic components were stored in Teflon jars or glass jars with lids lined with aluminum foil. Those to be used for analyses of major and trace elements were stored in Teflon jars or ziplock bags. A more detailed presentation of the sampling pro- tocols is included in Shigenaka and Lauenstein (1988~.

OCR for page 47
51 The sedimentary properties measured in the NS & T Program are listed in Table 1. The methods used for the analysis of organic chem- icals in sediments collected in the Benthic Surveillance Project are described in a technical report prepared by NOAA's National Analytical Facility (MacLeod et al., 1985~; those for major and trace metals will be described in a report currently in preparation. The methods used for chemical analyses of sediments in the Mussel Watch Project are des- cribed in reports to NOAA prepared by Battelle Ocean Sciences (1987) and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A&M Univer- sity (1988~. In addition to undergoing analyses for certain organic compounds and major and trace elements, the sediments were analyzed for two biological properties, Clostrium perfringens spores (only in the Benthic Surveillance Project) and coprostanol, that can serve as indicators of the level of contamination with sewage as well as for total organic carbon and grain-size distribution. The measurements for these latter two properties as well as those for the major elements (i.e., aluminum, iron, manganese, and silicon) were included primarily to be used as normalizing factors to help explain the observed distri- butions of the toxic organics and trace metals. Quality assurance (QA) protocols were included as an integral part of the NS & T Program. The QA efforts were designed to produce nation- ally uniform analytical results of known and accepted quality, thereby ensuring comparability among data sets. Attainment of this goal involved five major activities: 1. developing and using standardized field sampling procedures and analytical protocols; 2. conducting interlaboratory comparisons of analytical methods; 3. conducting periodic QA workshops; 4. developing Standard Reference Materials and Interim Reference Materials for marine sediments and tissues; and 5. developing and using a standardized data base for QA data and information. RESULTS The chemical measurements on the benthic surveillance sediment samples collected in 1984 and 1985 have been completed, as have the measurements on the mussel watch sediment samples from 1986 and 1987. A complete listing of the data resulting from these measurements and an analysis of these data and their significance is being prepared for pub- lication. The preliminary results discussed in the present report are based on these data, but with results from different years at a site combined. Year-to-year differences are not considered in this prelim- inary look at the results in order to focus on geographical distribu- tion of contamination levels in sediments. The concentrations of contaminants in sediments are influenced by a number of factors besides inputs. As mos t important contaminants are strongly associated with particle surfaces, the particle-size distribu- tion at a site is an especially important factor in determining

OCR for page 47
52 TABLE 1 Chemicals measured in Sediments as Part of the NS & T Program DDT and its metabolitesa Polychlorinated biphenylsC Dichlorobiphenyls Trichlorobiphenyls Tetrachlorobiphenyls Pentachlorobiphenyls Hexachlorobiphenyls Heptachlorobiphenyls Octachlorobiphenyls Nonachlorobiphenyls Polvaromatic hYdrocarbonsd Major elements o,p'-DDD Acenaphthene A1 Aluminum p,p'-DDD Anthracene Fe Iron o,p'-DDE BenataJanthracene Mn Manganese p,p'-DDE Benzota~pyrene Si Silicon o,p'-DDT Benzote~pyrene p,p'-DDT Biphenyl ~ Chrysene Trace elements Dibenzanthracene Chlorinated pesticides 2,6-Dimethylnaphthalene Sb Antimony other than DDT~ Fluoranthene As Arsenic Fluorene ' Cd Cadmium Aldrin 1-Methyluaphthalene Cr Chromium Alpha-chlordane 2-Methylnaphthalene Cu Copper Trans-nonachlor 1-Methylnaphthalene Pb Lead Dieldrin Naphthalene Hg Mercury Heptachlor Perylene Ni Nickel Heptachlor epoxide Phenanthrene Se Selenium Hexachlorobenzene Pyrene Ag Silver Lindane (gamma-BHC) Sn Tin Mirex Zn Zinc Other parameters Clostridium perfringens spores Coprostanol Grain size Total organic carbon NOTES: aCombined and reported in this paper as total DDT (tDDT). bCombined and reported in this paper as total chlorinated pesticides other than DDT (tChlP)> CCombined and reported in this paper as total polychlorinated biphenyls itPCB). Combined and reported in this paper as total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH).

OCR for page 47
53 sedimentary contaminant levels, with fine sediments tending to concentrate the contaminants. To compensate for this influence, the sediment data collected by the NS & ~ Program are normalized by dividing the raw contaminant concentrations by the fraction by weight of the sediment particles in the sample that are less than 64 ~ in diameter (i.e., the fine- Brained or silt and clay fraction). This method of normalizing can yield misleading results for sediments that are composed primarily of sand or larger particles, however. When such sediments contain detectable levels of contaminants, these levels will often appear very high when the values are normalized based on the small amounts of fine sediments present. To avoid such distortions, contaminant data based on analyses from sediments with less than 20 percent fine-grained sediments are omitted from further consideration. There are 213 sites around the coasts of the United States from which sediments were collected and analyzed by the NS & T Program. For 176 of these sites, there are contaminant data for at least one sample composed of 20 percent or more fine-grained sediments. In fact most of these sites were occupied in two different years and yielded three sam- ples with sediments with 20 percent or more of fines both times they were visited. For each contaminant the concentrations at the individual sites have been plotted on a bar graph in descending order of concentration, and examples are presented in Figure 2 for mercury and Figure 3 for total PCBs. These plots have shown that the ranges in concentrations vary quite greatly among the various contaminants, as is summarized in Table 2. These ranges can provide an indication of the amount of influ- ence human activities are having on the presence of the contaminant in the environment, with contaminants that exist naturally in the marine coastal environment only at very low levels or not at all tending to be most subject to and indicative of human activity. Table 2 lists, in descending order, the magnitude of the concentration ranges for the various contaminants. As expected, the substances that do not occur naturally have wide ranges (i.e., the synthetic organic compounds, total PCB, total DDT, and total chlorinated pesticides other than DDT). Wide ranges (factors greater than 50) are also indicated for total PAN, mercury, silver, and tin. While natural scales of variabil- ities in concentrations of these substances are not known, these are the naturally occurring substances that seem the most affected by human activities. On the other hand, the ranges for arsenic, zinc, total organic carbon (TOC), selenium, nickel, lead, and chromium vary by less than a factor of 20 over the national grid and therefore seem not so greatly affected by, nor indicative of, human perturbations. Table 3 presents an overall summary of the levels of contamination at the NS & T national network of sites. It includes a listing of the locations at which sediments have been gathered and analyzed by the pro- gram. For each site the number of contaminants for which the concentra- tion is in the upper 20 of the 176 concentrations found at NS & T sites is listed, as are the specific contaminants that were present at this level. It can be noted that relatively few sites have most of the con- taminant concentrations that are in the upper 20, and that most sites have few if any contaminants in the upper 20. Further, the sites where

OCR for page 47
54 the upper 20 contaminant values are concentrated tend to 1 ie close to one another along the coast in the vicinity of major coastal cities, - New York, San Died, and Los Anzeles. These observations e.g., Boston, ~ ~ ~ provide verification for the generally held assumption that contami- nated coastal sediments are most likely to be found near major metro politan centers. HudJRar. Est. NY Hud./Rar. Est. NJ Raritan Bay NJ N.Y. Bight Nil HudJRar. Est. NY HudlRar. Est NY San Pedro Cyn. CA Boston Hrb. MA Salem Hrb. MA San Diego Hrb. CA Long Is. Snd. NY San Diego Bay CA Sinclair Inlet WA Elliott Bay WA Boston Hrb. MA Boston Hrb. MA San Pablo Bay CA Boston Hrb. MA Narr. Bay Rl Seal Beach CA Columbia R. OR Palos Verdes CA Long Is. Snd. NY Dana Pt. CA Long Is. Snd. CT Matagorda Bay TX Matagorda Bay TX Breton Snd. LA Heron Bay MS Galveston Bay TX Corpus Chnsti TX Mesquite Bay TX San Antonio Bay TX Espiritu Santo TX Frenchmans Bay ME Upper Bay Raritan Bay Sandy Hook Lower Bay Jamaica Bay Throgs Neck Harbor Is. Waterman Pt. Dorchester Bay Deer Is Hingtiam Bay Mount Hope Bay Royal Parry Park He'Tpstead Hrb. Sheffield Is. Tres Pus Bay East Matagorda Sable Is. IngIeside Cove Ayres PL Panther Pt. Reef South Pass Reef . . ~ . 2.8 2.8 t.7 1.7 1.7 4.3- 1 137 sites In the Concentration in range of 0.025 to 0.59 Agog 4 sites with concentration below detection 0.025 0.024 0.024 0.023 0.02 0.018 0.017 0.017 0.016 ? , . . . . . . 0 1 2 3 4 FIGURE 2 Concentrations of mercury in sediments from NS & T sites around the coast of the United States (pg/g dry weight normalized for % fines). -

OCR for page 47
55 Buzzards Bay MA St. Andrew Bay FL Boston Hrb. MA Palos Verdes CA Elliott Bay WA Boston Hrb. MA San Diego Hrb. CA Raritan Bay NJ Hud./Rar. Est NY Tampa Bay FL San Pedro Cyn. CA N.Y. Bight No) Hud./Rar. Est. NY Salem Hrb. MA Hud./Rar. Est. Nd Long Is. Snd. NY St. Johns R. FL Delaware Bay DE Buzzards Bay MA Boston Hrb. MA San Diego Bay CA Boston Hrb. MA Long Beach CA Narr. Bay Rl Choctawhat. Bay FL # Angelica Rock Watson Bayou Benthic Sun'. Site Royal Palms Park Benthic Surv. Site Dorchester Bay Benthic Surv. Site Benthic Surv. Site Jamaica Bay Papys Bayou Benthic Surv. Site Sandy Hook Lower Bay Benthic Surv. Site Rantan Bay Throgs Neck Benthic Surv. Site Round Hill Benthic Surv. Site Deer Is. Harbor Is. Hingham Bay Benthic Surv. She Benthic Surv. Site Shirk Pt. 290 2000 124 sites in the concentration in range of 4.6 to 290 ng/g 11 sites with concentration below detection Aransas Bay TX Long Reef 4.6 Unakwit Inlet AK Siwash Bay 4.5 Sab~ne Lake LA Blue Buck Pt. 4.S San Antonio Bay T)t Mosquito Pt. 3.9 Espiritu Santo TX South Pass Reef 3.7 Port Valdez AK Mineral Creek Flats 3. L. Laguna Madre TX South Bay 3.1 Mesquite Bay TX Ayres Pt. 3.1 Charleston Hrb. SC Shutes Folly Is. Charleston Hrb. SC Fort Johnson . O.51 . . . O ~ ~ FIGURE 3 Concentrations of total PCB in sediments from NS & T sites around the coast of the United States (~/g dry weight normalized for ~ normalized fines). 3m

OCR for page 47
56 TABLE 2 Ranges Defined by Ratios of High to Low Concentrations of Contaminants in Sediments Number of sites Range (ratio of with detectable 15th highest to Chemical concentrationsa 5th lowest Range ~ 1000 tDDT 164 1500 100 < Range < 1000 tPAH 162 290 tPCB 159 280 tCHlP 161 150 Mercury 171 110 50 < Range < 100 Silver 175 93 Tin 156 60 20 < Range < 50 Cadmium 175 32 Antimony 138 26 Copper 175 22 10 < Range < 20 Lead 174 18 TOC 176 16 Chromium 168 16 Selenium 146 13 Nickel 175 13 Zinc 172 10 Range < 10 Arsenic 175 7.5 NOTES: aOnly the 176 sites with at least one sample displaying a detectable concentration and > 20 percent fine-grained material have been considered. In some cases the fact that the number in this column is less than 176 is due to the chemical not having been measured rather than its not having been detected. bRanges calculated on the basis of fifth highest and fifth lowest concentrations to avoid possible distortions from extremely high or low concentrations .

OCR for page 47
57 TABLE 3 Locations of All NS & T Sites with Mean Percent Fines (% f) in Samples with > 20 Percent Fine-grained Sediments, Total Number (T) of Contaminant Concentrations (Normalized to Fines) Ranking in the Top 20, and the Specific Contaminants with These Ranks SllE LOCATION ~ I Machias Bay ME Frenchmans Bay ME Penobscot Bay ME Penobscot Bay ME Penobscot Bay ME Casco Bay ME blemmack R. MA Salem Harbor MA Cape Ann MA Boston Harbor MA Boston Harbor MA Boston Harbor MA Boston Harbor MA Boston Harbor MA Buzzards Bay MA Buzzards Bay MA Buzzards Bay MA Buzzards Bay MA Narragansett Bay Rl Narragansett Bay Rl Narragansett Bay Rl Narragansett Bay Rl Bridals. Rl E. Long Is. Sound CT Long Is. Sound CT Long Is. Sound CT Long Is. Sound CT Long Is. Sound CT W. Long Is. Sound NY Long Is. Sound NY Long Is. Sound NY Long Is. Sound NY Long Is. Sound NY Long Is. Sound NY BenthicSun~eillance Site 68 0 Benthic Surveillance Site 93 0 Benthic Surveillance Site 97 0 Sears Is. 90 0 Pickering Is. 54 2 Benthic Surveillance Site 73 0 Benthic Surveillance Site nfgs a 0 Benthic Surveillance Site 69 12 Straightsmouth Is. 27 3 Deer is. 78 11 Dorchester Bay Hingham Bay Brewster Is. nfgs Benthic Surveillance Site 63 Round Hill Angelica Rock Goosebury Nec c Benthic Surveillance Site Mount Hope Bay Conanicut Is. Dyer Is. Benthic Surveillance Site Bbck Is. Benthic Surveillance Site nfgs Connecticut R. 50 New Haven nfgs Housaton~c R. nfgs Sheffield Is. 63 Benthic Surveillance Site 80 Huntington Harbor nfgs Port Jefferson nfgs Marnaroneck 74 Hempstead Harbor 90 Thm~sN~* HudsordRantan Estuary NY Jarna ca Bay NOTE anfgs = No Fine-grained Sediments CONTAMINANTS IN TOP 20 (RANK) tPAH(1 9),TOC(9) 85 13 8 o 14 65 1 29 4 37 0 73 0 91 2 60 0 38 3 69 1 71 1 o o o o 2 2 o o 4 7 74 11 64 16 Ag(1 7),Cd(2),Cr(1 ),Hg(9),Pb(2), Sb(15), Se(9), Sn(8),Zn(12),tChlP(10), tPCB(14), tPAH(4) Pb(20), Sb(9), Sn(20) Ag( 1 3),Cr( 1 2),Cu( 1 4) ,Hg( 1 6) , Pb( 13) , SB(4),Sn(5),tChlP(1 9),tPCB(20) tPAH(20),TOC(1 2) Ag(1 5),Cd(1 9),Cr( 1 4),Cu(1 2),Hg( 1 4), Pb(1 2),Sb(5),Sn(6),TChlP(8) ,tDDT(1 7), tPCB(6),TPAH(1 1 ),TOC(13) Ag(9),Cr(1 6) ,Hg( 1 8), Pb( 1 4) ,Sb( 1 ), Sn(1 0),tChlP(1 6)TOC(18) Ag(1 ),Cd(5),Cr(9),Cu(2),Hg(8),Pb(8), Sb(3),Se(1 8),Sn( 1 ),Zn(6),TChlP(4), tDDT(6),tPCB(3) ,tPAH( 1 ) tPCB(1 9) Ag(1 8),tChip(14),tPCB(1 ),tPAH(9) Hg(1 9),Sn(1 8) Sb(1 6),Sn(1 9),tPAH(16) Sn(1 7) TOC(1 5) Cu(1 5),tPAH(8) Cu(1 6),SN(1 5) Cd( 1 6),Cu( 19), Pb( 1 9),tChlP(20) Ag(8),Cd(1 3),Cu(1 0),Pb(1 5),Zn(18), tChlP(9),TOC(6) Ag(10),Cd(18),Cu(9),Hg(1 1),Pb(10), In(20),tChlP(1 2),tD DT( 1 4) ,tPCB(1 6), tPAH((7),TOC(3), Ag(7),As( 1 8),Cd( 1 4),Cr( 1 9),Cu( 1 1 ), Hg(6),Pb(7),Sb(8),Se(1 3),Sn(3),Zn(1 7), tChlP(2),tDDT(1 1 ),tPCB(9),tPAH(18), TOC(8)

OCR for page 47
58 TABLE 3 (Cont. ) HudsordRantan Estuary NY Upper Bay HudsordRaritan Estuary NY Lower Bay HudsorRa~an Estuary NJ Rantan Bay 77 8 66 16 70 14 Raritan Bay NJ Benthic Surveillance Site 77 15 N.Y. Bight Nd N.Y. Bight Nd N.Y. Bight Nd Monches Bay NY Great Bay NJ Cape Fear NC Charleston Harbor SC Charleston Harbor SC Charleston Harbor SC Savannah R. Estuary GA Sapelo Sound GA Sapeb Is. GA St. Johns R. Q St. Johns R. FL Matanzas R. FL Biscayne Bay FL Everglades FL Rookery Bay FL Naples Bay FL CharbBe Harbor FL Charlotte Harbor FL Tampa Bay FL Tampa Bay FL Tarrpa Bay FL Ta'Tpa Bay FL Tanpa Bay FL Cedar Key FL Sandy Hook 65 16 nfgs O nfgs O 57 1 Benthic Surveillance Site 71 0 stemware Bay DE Benthic Surveillance Site 46 2 Delaware Bay DE False Egg Is. Pt. 41 1 Delaware Bay DE Ben Davis Pt. Shoal 56 0 Delaware Bay DE Amours Pt. Shoal 75 0 Delaware Bay DE Kelly Is. 58 0 Upper Ches. Bay MD Benthic Surveillance Site 73 2 Chesapeake Bay MD Mountain Pt. Bar 98 2 Chesapeake Bay MD Hackett Pt. Bar 98 0 Chesapeake Bay M1) Hog Pt. nfgs O Mid. Chesapeake Bay VA Benthic Surveillance Site 48 0 Chesapeal OCR for page 47
59 TABLE 3 (Cont. ) Apa~chicola Bay FL Apabchicola Bay FL Apa~chicola Bay FL St. Andrew Bay FL Choctawhatchee Bay FL Choctawhatchee Bay FL Pensacola Bay FL Pensacola Bay FL Mobile Bay AL Mobile Bay AL Round Is. MS Heron Bay MS Miss. Sound MS Miss. Sound MS Miss. Sound MS Miss. Delta LA Lake Borgne LA Breton Sound LA Breton Sound LA Baratana Bay LA Baratana Bay L A Baratana Bay LA Terrebonne Bay LA Terrebonne Bay LA Cailbu Lalce LA Atchatalaya Bay lad Vermiltion Bay LA J. Harbor Bayou LA Cakasieu La" LA Satire Lake LA E. Cote Blanche LA Galveston Bay TX Galveston Bay AX Galveston Bay TX Galveston Bay TX Galveston Bay TX Matago~a Bay TX MataSprda Bay TX Mata~a Bay TX Matago~a Bay TX Esp ritu Santo TX Espiritu Santo TX San Antorio Bay Ad San Antonio Bay TX San Arno~o Bay TX Mesquite Bay TX Copano Bay TX Aransas Bay Ax Corpus Chnsb Ax Corpus Christ TX Corpus Chrisb Bay Ax Lower Laguna Madre TX Lower Laguna Madre 1 X Ir~erial Beach CA San Diego Bay CA San Diego Bay CA San Diego Harbor CA Pt. Loma CA Mission Bay CA La Jose CA Oceanside CA Cat Pt. Bar 59 0 Dry Bar 50 0 BenthicSun~eillance Site 76 0 Watson Bayou 46 4 Shirk Pt. 52 5 Off Santa Rosa 66 2 Benthic Surveillance Site 81 1 Indian Bayou 34 0 Cedar Pt. Reef 74 0 BenthicSunJeillance Site 93 0 Benthic Surveillance Site 57 0 Benthic Surveillance Site 58 0 Pascagoula Bay 60 0 Bib~Bay 74 1 Pass Chnsdan 76 0 BenthicSun~eillance Site 77 0 Malheureux Pt. 77 0 Sable Is. 88 0 Bay Garderre 28 0 Bayou St. Deris 83 0 Middle Bank 42 1 Benthic Surveillance She 49 0 Lake Fealty 77 0 Lake Bares 86 0 CaiBou Lake 67 0 Oyster Bayou 83 0 Southwest Pass 82 0 Joseph Harbor Bay 70 0 St. Johns Is. 84 0 Blue Buck Pt. 57 0 South Pt. nfgs 0 Hanna Rf 80 0 Yacht Club 62 1 Todd s Dump 67 0 Confederate Reef 53 0 Ben~ic Surveillance Sits 56 0 En - Matago~a 52 0 Tres Salvos Bay 60 0 GalBripper Pt 74 0 Lavaca R. Mouth 63 0 South Pass Reef 87 0 Bill Days Reef 24 0 Mosquito Pt. 48 0 Panther Pt. Reef 46 0 BenthicSun,eillance Site 58 0 Ayres Pt. 91 0 Copano Reef 96 0 Long Reef 45 0 Ingleside Cove 47 0 Neuces Bay 56 0 BenthicSurveillanceSite 74 0 South Bay 56 0 BenthicSurveillar~e Site 33 0 Imperial Beach nfgs 0 Benthic Surveillance Site 34 2 Her Is. 29 5 Benthic Surveillance Site 66 7 Lighthouse Ventura Bndge At. LLa Jotla Beach Jetty . tChlP(1 8),tDDTt 1 0),tPCB(2) ~tPAH(3) Pb(6),Se(7) ItChl p( 1 ) ~tD DT(3) SPAN (6) l As(4),tDDT(7) Se(1 1 ) tPAH( 1 5) Se(1 0) Se(16) o o 1 As(20),Cd(9) As(1 ),Cu(13),Hg(1 2),Pb(1 8),Zn(8) Cu(1),Hg(t 0),Pb(1 6),Sn(t 2),Zn(3), tPCB(7),tPAH( 1 4) As(1 7 ~ tDDT(1 9) r

OCR for page 47
60 TABLE 3 (Cont. ~ Dana Pt. CA Benthic Surveillance Site 33 1 As(14) Newport Beach CA Balboa Channel Jetty 51 ~ tDDT(20) Anaheim Bay CA West Jetty 58 0 Seal Beach CA Benthic Surveillance Site 56 2 Ag(19),Hg(20) Long Beach CA Benthic Surveillance Site 63 5 Cd(15),Pb(9),Zn(16),tChlP(17), tDDTt9) San Pedro Bay CA Benthic Surveillance Site 91 0 San Pedro Canyon CA Benthic Surveillance Site 26 11 Ag(11),Cd(3),Cr(7),Cu(17),Hg(7),Ni(19), Se{1 ),sn(9~'zn(4~'tDDT(2)'tpcB(11 ) San Pedro Harbor CA Fishing Pier 92 4 Cd(11),Cut7),tDDT(4),TOC(20) Paps Verdes CA Royal Pam State Paris 59 9 Ag(12),Cd(1),Cr~t3),Cu(20),Sn{16), Zn(1 5),tChlP(1 3),tDDT(1 ),tPCB(4) Sarta Catalina Is. CA Bird Rock nfgs 0 Santa Monica Bay CA Benthk Surveillance Site nfgs 0 Manna De Ray CA South Jetty 40 3 Pt. DumaCA Pt. Durne 36 2 Santa Cnuz Is. CA Fraser Pt. nfgs 0 Pt. Santa Barbara CA Pt. Santa Barbara 40 3 Pt. Conception CA Pt. Conception nfgs 0 San Luis Obispo Bay CA Pt. San Luis nfgs 0 San sirMone Pt. CA San Simeone Pt. ntgs 0 Paaf~cG~veCA Lovers Pt. nfgs 0 Monterey Bay CA Pt. Santa Cruz 28 0 Monterey Bay CA Benthic Surveillance Site nfgs 0 S. San Franasoo Bay CA Benthic Surveillance Site nfgs 0 SouthamptonShoal CA BenthicSunreillance Site ntgs 0 Castro Bay CA Benthic Surveillanoe Site ntgs 0 OaktandEsmaryCA Berm~kSurvoillance Site 91 1 Hunters Pt. CA Ben~icSun~eillance Site 74 . 2 San Francisoo Bay CA Durbarton Bridge 91 1 San Francisoo Bay CA San Mateo Bridge 90 1 San Francisoo Bay CA Emeryville 93 2 San p~hh Bay CA Benthic Surveillance Site 35 4 San Pablo Bay CA Semple Pt. 68 3 San Pablo Bay CA Pt. St. Pedro 90 1 Tomales Bay CA Spangers Restaurant 97 1 Bodega Bay CA Vodka Bay Entrance nfgs 0 Bodega Bay CA Benthic Surveillance Site nfgs 0 Pt. Arena CA Pt. Arena nfgs 0 Pt. Delgada CA SheRer Cove nfgs 0 Hurnbo dt Bay CA Jetty nfgs 0 Humboldt Bay CA Benthic Surveillance Site 31 4 Pt. St.GeorgeOR Pt. St. George nfgs 0 Coos Bay OR Tenths Surveillance Site 46 2 Coos Bay OR Coos Head 23 4 Coos Bay OR Russell Pt. 33 2 Yaquina Bay OR Oneata Pt. 51 1 Yaq~ina Head OR Yaquina Head 34 1 Til~rnook Bay OR Hobson~rille Pt. 30 4 Columbia R. OR You rigs Bay 31 2 Columbia R. OR Benthic Surveillance Site 27 4 Grays Harbor WA Westport Jetty ntgs 0 Strait Juan de Fuca WA Neah Bay 49 3 South Puget Sound WA Budd Inlet 98 1 NisquaUy Reach WA BerehicSunreillance Site nfgs 0 Comrnenoernent Bay WA Benthic Surveillance Site 81 1 Commencement Bay WA Tahlequah Pt. 87 1 Elliott Bay WA FourMile Rock nfgs 0 Elliott Bay WA Ber~ic Surveillance Site 46 8 r Ag(20)'As(1 0)'tDDT(8) AS(1 6)'tDDT(5) As(2)1Cd(1 7)'tDDT(13) Ni(1 2) Cr(4)'Ni(6) Ni(14) Ni(1 o) Ni(1 1)'Se(15) Cr(3)'Hg(1 n'Ni(1 ),Zn(13) As(5)'Cr(1 0)'Ni(3) Ni(9) Ni(4) As(3)'Cr(2)lNi(2)'Sb(1 2) AS(1 1 ),Cd(20) As(6)lC6)'Ni(~'Se(1 Cr(1 1 )'Ni(15) TOC(1 6) CKS) AS(1 5),Cr(8),Ni(8),TOC(1 4) Sb(13),Zn(1 9) Ag(6),Cd(6),Se(20),Zn(1 1) Cr(20),Sb(20),TOC( 1 9) Sb(1 7) Ag(1 6) Sb(1 4) Cd(1 0),Cu(3),Hg(1 5),Ni(1 6),Sb(19), Zn(7),tPCB(5),tPAH(1 0)

OCR for page 47
61 TABLE 3 (Cont. ) Afar Ida Winy Is. lOngham R. Roams Only Nat Bay Unto Inlay ~dV~~ Oli~ok R. ^K P~dhoe Bay 8a-rs R. HI fir HI e~. Preston R. -~=m ~~- Jag if. Roams 63 95 He 79 Be~hlc alla me 89 8e-1c SU~G'II~ She nigs -~- 82 ~~ Cat ~ 1 00 8e-~ Su~ellla~ She nigs Su~elIla~ me 34 Ba-rs R. ~m Awn 48 KeeN fin 47 3 Hot 1 3),Ni(20),Sb(2) o 1 Ni(5) o o o o o o 1 N1(18) 1 Ni(1 3) o

OCR for page 47
62 REFERENCES Battelle Ocean Sciences. 1987. Phase 2, Work/Quality Assurance Project Plan for Contract No. 50-DGNC-5-0263, Collection of Bivalve Molluscs and Surficial Sediments and Performance of Analyses for Organic Chemicals and Toxic Trace Elements. Report to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Duxbury, Mass.: Battelle Ocean Sciences. 111 pp. + Appendices A-O. MacLeod, W. D., Jr., D. W. Brown, A. S. Friedman, D. G. Burrows, O. Maynes, R. Pearce, C. A. Wigren, and R. G. Bogar. 1985. Standard Analytical Procedures of the NOAA National Analytical Facility, 1985-1986: Extractable Toxic Organic Compounds, 2nd edition. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-92. Rockville, Md.: NOAA. 121 pp. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Assessments Division. 1987. National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality: Progress Report--A Summary of Selected Data on Chemical Contaminants in Tissues Collected During 1984, 1985, and 1986. NOAA Tech. Memo. NOS OMA 38. Rockville, Md.: NOAA. 23 pp. + Appendices A-E. Shigenaka, G. and G. G. Lauenstein. 1988. National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality: Benthic Surveillance and Mussel Watch Projects Overview. NOAA Tech. Memo. NOS OMA 40. Rockville, Md.: NOAA. 12 pp. Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group. 1988. Second Annual Report, Analyses of Bivalves and Sediments for Organic Chemicals and Trace Elements. Report to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. College Station, Tx.: Texas A&M Research Foundation.