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16 For the current workforce of agency team leaders, 3 DOTs Divers for underwater inspections must complete an annual (of 28) reported that all team leaders are registered PEs. Ten physical examination to maintain dive certification. DOTs re- DOTs reported no PEs among inspection team leaders, 2 DOTs quire certified divers, often as a staff of inspection consultants. reported that all team leaders hold NICET certification, DOTs are not involved in diver certification (see Table E32). and 8 DOTs reported no NICET-certified team leaders. Bridge inspection experience among team leaders is 10 years or greater at 17 of the 23 DOTs that reported experience INSPECTION TEAMS levels (see Table E26). Twenty of 28 DOTs usually use two-person inspection teams. For the current workforce of team leaders employed by Four DOTs use single-person teams. Among the DOTs with inspection consultants, 9 DOTs (of 28) reported that all consul- two-person teams, 11 have teams that work together for the tant-employed team leaders are registered PEs, and 2 other long-term and 10 form teams as needed. Four DOTs enforce DOTs reported that 90% or more of the consultant team rotation among team members (see Table E33). leaders are PEs. Four DOTs reported some NICET-certified team leaders. For one DOT, 60% of team leaders are NICET- Eighteen of 28 DOTs identified specific inspectors or certified. Bridge inspection experience is 10 years or greater teams for fracture-critical inspections (11 DOTs), inspec- for 11 DOTs among the 13 DOTs reporting values for expe- tions having difficult access (6 DOTs), and inspection of rience of consultant staff (see Table E27). complex or large bridges (9 DOTs) (see Table E34). Thirteen of 31 DOTs prefer or enforce rotation of different Inspection Team Members inspection teams to bridges usually after one or two inspec- tion cycles. Thirteen DOTs prefer that teams inspect the same U.S. federal regulations do not establish qualifications for bridges through many cycles so that teams are thoroughly inspection team members working under the direction of an familiar with the status and progress of bridge conditions. inspection team leader. Twenty of 32 state DOTs identified Five DOTs have no preference or have little control on repeat inspection team members either as regular staff positions or as assignments because inspections are done by consultants (see one among the regular duties attached to a staff position. Fif- Table E35). teen DOTs require bridge inspection training for inspection team members (see Table E28). Twenty-nine DOTs reported on the basis for assignment of bridges to inspection consultants. Eight DOTs assign bridges based on bridge owner (usually local bridges), bridge route, or Underwater Bridge Inspection Team Leader, DOT region; each essentially a geographic criterion. Six DOTs Underwater Bridge Inspector assign some inspection types, such as underwater inspections, to consultants. Six DOTs assign to consultants individual U.S. federal regulations require that divers for underwater in- bridges that are large, complex, or demand significant effort for spections complete an FHWA-approved course in bridge maintenance of traffic. Consultant contracts may provide for a inspection or underwater bridge inspection. Divers are not single inspection or for many inspections over periods of as required to meet team leader requirements and there is no long as six years. At 11 DOTs, inspection consultant firms usu- separate federal designation of team leaders for underwater ally inspect the same bridges over many cycles (see Table E36). inspections. Nine state DOTs (of 33) have qualified team leaders for underwater inspections, usually adding require- Twenty-eight DOTs reported on the extent of the use of ments for dive training and certification to other inspection inspection consultants (see Table E37 for details on the use team leader qualifications. Fifteen DOTs use consultants for of consultants for inspectors). Twenty-one DOTs employ underwater inspections (see Table E29). consultants for less than 25% of their bridge inspections, whereas three employ consultants for more than 75% of inspections. Inspector Requirements for Fitness, Vision, and Color Perception Nineteen of 28 DOTs require general good health for bridge INSPECTION PROGRAM STAFF-- FOREIGN AGENCIES inspectors. Fourteen DOTs require some moderate agility or strength (see Table E30 for details on fitness requirements). Denmark Five DOTs require good vision for bridge inspectors, two DOTs require adequate color perception, three DOTs require Danish bridge inspections are executed by a single unit in the good hearing, and one DOT accepts a valid driver's license Road Directorate consisting of a manager and six district as proof of basic sensory fitness. No DOT reported that there inspectors. Underwater inspections and bridge load ratings are periodic checks of inspectors' vision, color perception, or are done by consultants. The bridge database is maintained hearing (see Table E31). by a Directorate manager with three staff, and assisted by
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17 consultants. Staff titles for bridge inspection personnel are data specialists operate the BMS. Divers for underwater shown in Table E38 in Appendix E. inspections are employed by the national government and assigned to regional laboratories (LRPC). Job titles for Directorate bridge inspectors perform "Principal" inspec- bridge inspection personnel in France are cited in Table E41. tions and serve as contract managers for "Routine" and "Spe- Numbers of personnel are cited in Table 10. cial" inspections performed by consultants. Consultants for bridge inspections employ team leaders, bridge inspectors, and underwater inspectors. Staff titles are Finland shown in Table 11 and numbers of personnel in Table 12. Finland has a headquarters unit for bridge inspection policy, QA, and inspector certifications. Here, the Finnra Program Germany Manager and staff members establish policies and procedures for bridge inspections, and maintain the bridge inspection man- German states administer inspection of bridges on federal ual, reporting forms, and other documentation. Bridge load rat- and state roads, and on some county roads. Some states main- ings and the bridge database are responsibilities of headquarters tain bridge inspection staff in their road agency; other states staff. Certified bridge inspectors at Finnra headquarters are employ consultants to do inspections. The federal road leaders of consultant inspection teams for inspection of refer- agency, BMVBS, does not inspect bridges and does not ence bridges. These inspections contribute to formation of maintain a bridge inspection staff. deterioration models in Finland's bridge management system. Staff organizations differ among German states; however, Each Finnra district has a bridge engineer who directs in general, each state has an inspection program manager inspection work by consultants. Most certified inspectors (see Table E42). Among states that employ inspectors, there work for consulting firms. Underwater inspections are done are leaders and inspectors that work in teams, usually with by consultants. Staff titles for the Finnra bridge inspection one leader assisted by one inspector. Most inspection pro- program are listed in Table E39. gram managers and team leaders are civil engineers. Inspec- tors are technicians. Underwater inspectors may be civil There are 20 to 25 individuals in the bridge inspection and engineers qualified as divers, but more often a nonengineer data management program at Finnra. Five of these are in diver works under the direction of an on-site civil engineer. Finnra's central office. Road foremen are not included Submerged elements are viewed with video equipment. among these program personnel. Finnra employs nine Certi- fied Bridge Inspectors (three in the central office, six in the districts). Seven other personnel are trained but not currently South Africa certified for bridge inspection. Certification requires annual SANRAL has a single individual, the manager of the bridge net- participation in Finnra's Advanced Training Day. work, to select and monitor consultants for inspections services. Among consultants, there are approximately 30 individuals cer- Among consultants' workforce the number of inspectors tified to inspect bridges or culverts (see Table E43). varies. There are currently 61 inspectors with valid certifica- tion in Finland as of summer 2006. Inspection consultants must name a Bridge Inspection Quality Manager in charge of Sweden their work (see Table E40). The SRA employs two inspection managers who together set inspection policies, maintain the inspection manual, France The French national government has five general inspectors TABLE 10 who each manage the execution of inspections for various FRANCE: NUMBER OF BRIDGE INSPECTION PERSONNEL (Government agencies) regions of the country, one director at LCPC who manages inspector training and inspection quality programs, and one Title No. of staff General Inspectors for Bridges 5 manager for bridge management who also allocates funding LCPC--Technical Director for Bridges 1 for inspections to regions in France. French departments State Bridge Inspection Program Manager 1 have managers for bridge inspection who schedule inspec- District Managers CDOA Chief 100 (in 2006) Inspection Team Leaders 50 (LRPC) + 10 (DDE) tions and assign work to agency crews and to consultants. Bridge Inspectors 100 (LRPC) + 20 (DDE) Inspection teams include team leaders, bridge inspectors, and Underwater Inspectors 4 inspection agents. Team leaders, inspectors, and agents are Inspection Agents 20 employed by French Departments, by regional laboratories Rapid Bridge Evaluators 100 Bridge Data Specialist or Software Specialist 5 (LRPC), and by consultants. In addition, Rapid Bridge Eval- CDOA = Cellule Départementale des Ouvrages díArt; DDE = Direction uators determine IQOA classifications for bridges. Bridge Départementale de l'Equipement.