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18 TABLE 11 FRANCE: JOB TITLES AMONG INSPECTION CONSULTANTS Title Function Inspection Team Leader of a team (or crew) for bridge inspection Leaders Reports to the district manager (CDOA of the DDE) Guides all field inspection activities and works as a part of the inspection team Completes all necessary preparations for field work including travel, equipment, and reporting forms Bridge Inspectors Personnel performing inspection tasks, taking observations, assigning condition ratings, etc. Reports to team leaders during field work Underwater Personnel trained in both diving and bridge inspection; performs underwater inspection Inspectors tasks, takes observations, assigns condition ratings, etc. Reports to team leaders during field work CDOA = Cellule Départementale des Ouvrages d'Art; DDE = Direction Départementale de l'Equipement. and direct inspection quality programs. The SRA has The Danish National Road Directorate has goals rather 20 inspection team leaders, who perform inspections, hire than formal requirements for experience of inspection per- consultants for inspections, and perform QC (see Tables 13 sonnel. In this area of qualification, the scarcity of experi- and E44). enced personnel is a constraint (Table 17). Danish bridge inspectors and underwater inspectors must United Kingdom be in good physical condition with good eyesight and good color perception. There are no fitness or vision requirements The U.K. Highways Agency is a managing agency that sets for other staff titles among bridge inspection staff. policies and standards, hires contractors, and monitors con- tractor work. The Highways Agency has 20 area structures managers, each assigned a portion of the agency's network. Finland Contractors employ team leaders, inspectors, divers, and inspection specialists. Contractor personnel include approx- Among Finnra staff, the inspection program manager and imately 30 inspection team leaders, 120 bridge inspectors, certified inspectors for basic inspections (inspections of ref- and 10 underwater inspectors (see Table E45). erence bridges) are engineers. Inspectors for basic inspec- tions must also have a certificate in concrete structures. Other inspectors need not be engineers; however, they must be cer- QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTION STAFF-- tified as inspectors. Finnra's inspector certification requires FOREIGN AGENCIES four days of theoretical training and two days of field work Denmark followed by both written and field examinations (Table 18). Continued certification requires annual advanced training. A Apart from underwater inspectors, all Danish inspection per- separate two-day course in the use of Finnra's Bridge Regis- sonnel are engineers (Table 14). Danish inspectors perform ter is required for inspectors permitted to enter registry data. Principal inspections at six-year intervals. Annual inspec- tions are performed by maintenance personnel. Danish pol- Finnra's bridge inspection course is required for bridge icy on inspections, inspectors, and inspectors' skills are listed inspectors and program administrators. The more experi- in Table 15. The Danish Road Directorate does not certify enced personnel are selected for basic inspections of refer- inspectors. ence bridges and for leadership positions in the inspection program. Newly certified inspectors often work with more Denmark conducts annual refresher training for all bridge experienced personnel for their first year. Training courses in inspectors. There are no other training requirements. For staff Finland are listed in Table 19. Training and mentoring titles, such as underwater inspector and bridge load rater, requirements are listed in Table 20. individuals must bring appropriate experience to their posi- tions (Table 16). Finnra's policy on inspections and inspectors is shown in Table 21. TABLE 12 FRANCE: NUMBER OF CONSULTANT TABLE 13 INSPECTION PERSONNEL SWEDEN: NUMBERS OF INSPECTION STAFF Title No. of Staff Job Title SRA Staff Consultant Staff (approximately) Inspection Program Manager 2 -- Inspection Team Leaders 50 Team Leaders and Bridge Inspectors 20 30 Bridge Inspectors 100 Equipment Inspectors -- 6 Underwater Inspectors 20 Regular Inspectors (road foremen) -- 50
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19 TABLE 14 DENMARK: BRIDGE INSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONS Title Education Bridge Department Manager Engineering B.Sc Bridge Inspectors Engineering B.Sc Underwater Inspectors Experienced personnel Bridge Load Rater Engineer B.Sc, Senior engineer with experience in bridge rating calculation Bridge Data Specialist or Software Specialist Engineering B.Sc B.Sc = Bachelor of Science. TABLE 15 DENMARK: INSPECTIONS AND INSPECTORS Inspection Type Inspector Inspector Skills Normal Routine Roadmen Can evaluate matters affecting traffic safety Inspection Can distinguish between significant and insignificant damage Can take prompt action in the event of sudden damage Can evaluate repairs to drainage systems, winter conditions, surfacing, etc. Can make reports Extended Routine Road Have a good knowledge of bridge maintenance Inspection foreman Be able to describe damage Be able to propose improvements Can evaluate the need for preventive maintenance Principal Bridge The inspector will normally be an engineer Inspection inspector Good observation abilities Knowledge of damage concepts Knowledge of damage causes The ability to distinguish significant damage from insignificant damage The ability to evaluate the consequences of damage The ability to evaluate cleaning and maintenance conditions A fair knowledge of materials technology and the mode of action of major structures Knowledge of repair methods and cost estimates Experience in the technical supervision of bridge work Economic Special Bridge Good knowledge of the causes and development of damage Inspection inspector Good knowledge of repair methods Good overview of the influence of repair works on other structural components Experience in bridge design and construction Good knowledge of construction methods and materials technology Good knowledge of cost estimates for repair works Able to make a general evaluation of various repair strategies Able to judge when specialist help is needed for traffic aspects and calculation of road-user costs, evaluation of available condition registrations, and evaluation of load-carrying capacity Technical Special Bridge Good knowledge of the causes and development of damage Inspection inspector Good knowledge of investigation methods Able to decide on the necessary extent of the investigation Experience in work planning Good knowledge of construction methods and materials technology Able to judge when specialist help is needed for special registrations (measurement specialists), materials technology, special investigations, evaluation of the results of investigations, and carrying out structural calculations TABLE 16 DENMARK: TRAINING AND MENTORING REQUIREMENTS Title Training Bridge Department Manager No obligatory training programs Bridge Inspectors Two days of refresher training every year, with inspection in field and calibrating of condition marks and repair cost estimates Underwater Inspectors Review of resumes of team members Bridge Load Rater Review of staff resumes. Internal QC in the consulting company Bridge Data Specialist or No obligatory training programs. Thorough knowledge of Danbro use for Software Specialist data specialist Thorough knowledge of Danbro programs for software specialist Danbro = Bridge management systems used by Danish Road Directorate.
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20 TABLE 17 DENMARK: JOB TITLES AND DESIRED EXPERIENCE Bridge Inspection Bridge Maintenance Bridge Design Title (years) (years) (years) Bridge Department Manager 2 2 2 Bridge Inspectors 2 2 1 Underwater Inspectors -- -- -- Bridge Load Rater 1 1 5 Bridge Data Specialist or 5 5 2 Software Specialist TABLE 18 FINLAND: REQUIREMENTS FOR EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION Title Education (minimum) Certification (minimum) Bridge Inspection Program Manager Higher exam at a technical Bridge inspector certification university Inspection Staff Member Exam at a technical high school District Bridge Engineer Exam at a technical high school Certified Bridge Inspector Exam at a technical high Bridge inspector certification school Certified Bridge Inspector (for basic Higher exam at a technical Bridge inspector certification inspections) university + FISE certificate in concrete design Certified Bridge Inspector (for Higher exam at a technical Bridge inspector certification special inspections) university + FISE certificate in concrete design Underwater Inspector Exam at a technical high Bridge inspector certification, diving school license Road Foreman (for annual Exam at a technical school inspections) Bridge Load Rater Higher exam at a technical university Bridge Data Specialist Higher exam at a technical university Main User of Bridge Register Exam at a technical school Note: FISE is a Finnish organization that trains and certifies personnel in a variety of technical areas, including bridge design and inspection. TABLE 19 BRIDGE INSPECTION TRAINING: FINLAND Training Description Theoretical Lessons on bridge structure, structural parts, and measures; static behavior, load Training, 4-Day capacity; construction materials; damage, defects, and deterioration; repair, inspection system, and handbooks; bridge register and reports Participant gets the handbooks (2) and all the materials of the lessons Field work and examination take place about one month later Field Work, 2-Day Guided (instructional) inspection of two bridges, followed by testing of individual inspectors Advanced Training, Individual inspection of two bridges. The correct results are given and discussed in One Day per Year the afternoon session. After the day, the data are stored in the bridge register and (refresher) quality points are calculated. Every inspector gets feedback. Bridge Register, Use of bridge register system; successful completion certifies the individual for 2-Day adding and editing data in the bridge database system. France spection agents are certified by the director of the regional laboratory. In France, inspection personnel are certified at three levels: Team Leader, Inspector, and Inspector Agent (Table 22). Certification at each level has requirements for formal edu- The central laboratory, LCPC, directs a certification board cation, for training, and for experience with bridges. Inspection for inspection personnel. Board members are personnel team leaders are engineers, inspectors are college-educated, from regional laboratories. To become certified, team lead- and inspection agents have a high school education or better. ers and inspectors must complete the training required for These requirements are listed in Table 23. Training courses, the job title and be examined by the certifying board. In- called "modules," are managed by the Ecole Nationale des
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21 TABLE 20 FINLAND: TRAINING AND MENTORING REQUIREMENTS Title Training Mentoring Bridge Inspection Bridge inspection course Many years experience Program Manager Basic course in Bridge Register Inspection Staff Bridge inspection course Depends on the person's Member (instructors responsibility and for the inspection examination, many years course) experience District Bridge Bridge inspection course Engineer Basic course in Bridge Register and BMS use Certified Bridge Bridge inspection course Inspector Basic course in Bridge Register use Certified Bridge Bridge inspection course Two years experience Inspector (for basic Basic course in Bridge Register use inspections) Underwater Bridge inspection course Inspector Basic course in Bridge Register use Diving course Road Foreman (for None annual inspections) Bridge Load Rater Bridge inspection course Many years experience Basic course in Bridge Register use Bridge Data None Many years experience Specialist (teacher of users and developer of Bridge Register and BMS) Main User of Bridge Basic course in Bridge Register use Register BMS = bridge management system. TABLE 21 FINLAND: INSPECTORS AND INSPECTIONS Inspection Type Inspector Acceptance, Annual, Road foremen General Basic, Special Engineers having BS or MS degrees who are certified bridge inspectors Underwater Certified bridge inspectors who are also certified as divers Intensified Monitoring Road foreman or engineer depending on need TABLE 22 FRANCE: EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR INSPECTION PERSONNEL U.S. Equivalent Title Education Education Certification Inspection Team Leader Civil engineering degree BS Civil By Certifying Board or Project Manager (Baccalauréat + 5 years or Engineering (Chargé d'études) Bac + 2 years) Inspector Baccalauréat + 2 years or Basic university By Certifying Board Bac degree Inspection Agent BEP or Baccalauréat High school By the laboratory diploma director BEP = Brevet d' Enseignement Professionel. TABLE 23 FRANCE: INSPECTION CERTIFICATIONS Certification/ Awarding Organization Certification Description LCPC (DTOA) Chargé d'études en inspection d'ouvrages d'art Team leader LCPC (DTOA) Inspecteur Inspector LRPC (Directeur) Agent d'inspection Inspector agent DTOA = Direction technique Ouvrages d'art (Technical Direction on Engineering Structures).
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22 TABLE 24 FRANCE: TRAINING MODULES Training Description Module 1 General structures including common forms of bridges in reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, steel, and masonry; culverts; common retaining walls Module 2 Prestressed concrete bridges having long spans and/or unusual forms Module 3 Uncommon retaining walls and trenches Module 4 Great steel bridges, cable bridges, gantries Module 5 Tunnels Module 6 Special course for project manager (team leader): Special behavior of bridges, diagnosis, investigations, repair, case studies Ponts et Chaussées (Tables 24 and 25). Certifications for Team agers also have sufficient bridge-related experience. There is Leaders, Inspectors, and Inspection Agents follow a common no formal requirement for experience for program managers. sequence of training. At a minimum, a bridge inspector must be qualified in Module 1. A project manager must be qualified in There are physical fitness requirements. Inspectors must at least Modules 1 and 6. Having these modules, the individual be capable of the walking, climbing, or other activities then completes a field test in bridge inspection and an oral required by an inspection. Inspectors may not be colorblind examination by the certifying board. Requirements for experi- and must have no hearing impairment. ence are listed in Table 26. New team leaders and new inspec- tors are mentored by senior personnel during the first year of their certification. South Africa Regarding fitness and vision requirements for inspectors, For SANRAL, Principal inspections are led by licensed PEs France makes a distinction between personnel qualifications who are certified bridge inspectors and who have experience and assignments. Qualifications are the formal requirements in bridge design (Tables 28 and 29). All inspectors must for education, training, and certification. Among qualified attend a two-day inspection workshop run by SANRAL in personnel, particular assignments, and the duties that come which the Structures Management System is outlined, full with these, depend on factors such as good vision, ability to inspections at bridge sites are performed, and all participants work at height, and the general ability to work well with must provide condition ratings for a bridge. This course is other staff and with clients. taught by the Bridge Network Manager with some input from the developer of BMS software. The condition rating system is then discussed by participants as a group. Germany SANRAL accreditation for inspectors requires attendance In Germany, bridge inspectors must have formal education at an inspection workshop and submission of a resume detail- as civil engineers and complete a federal training course last- ing experience and qualifications. The following educational ing one week that covers all aspects of inspection (Table 27). qualifications and experience are needed: Inspection program managers in each state will also routinely have this course on their resume, although there is no federal · Major culvert inspectors--Civil engineering degree requirement for it. Additional courses, often dealing with with a minimum of 5 years experience in the design of special structures or tasks, are offered at the state level. Con- bridges and culverts. tinuing training occurs at annual federal conferences for · Bridge inspectors--Civil engineering degree, profes- bridge inspections. There is no formal certification of bridge sional registration, and a minimum of 5 years of full-time inspectors. experience in bridge design and documentation. · Senior bridge inspectors--A university degree, profes- German bridge inspectors and inspection team leaders sional registration, and 17 years bridge design experience must have five years experience in bridge design, construc- that must specifically include design of continuous pre- tion, or maintenance. Usually, state inspection program man- stressed decks. TABLE 25 FRANCE: TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Training Title (course name) Duration Team Leader/Project Manager Modules 1 and Module 6 Module 1: 6 days Module 6: 3 days Inspector Module 1 Module 2: 1 day Optional: Modules 2, 3, 4, and 5 Module 3: 3 days Module 4: 2 days Module 5: Inspection Agent Module 1 Module 1: 6 days
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23 TABLE 26 FRANCE: INSPECTION STAFF QUALIFICATIONS Title Qualifications Team Leader Current requirements: Training Modules 1 and 6 with a good notation + One year of mentoring + Test inspection on site + Approval by certifying board Alternative requirements: 3 years experience as a team leader + Approval by certifying board Inspector Current requirements: Training Module 1 with a good notation + One year of mentoring + Test of inspection on site + Approval by certifying board Alternative requirements: 5 years of functioning like an inspector + discussion with certifying board Inspection Agent Test on site or demonstration of technical know-how TABLE 27 bridges, structural behavior, materials, and deterioration GERMANY: EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION mechanics, as well as the Swedish bridge code. REQUIREMENTS Title Education Inspection Program Manager Civil engineering degree Inspection Team Leader Civil engineering degree United Kingdom Bridge Inspector Civil engineering degree Underwater Inspector Engineering college diploma The Highways Agency does not impose formal requirements for education for any staff title, and requires certification as a chartered engineer (equivalent to U.S. PE) only for the super- There are no formal requirements for physical fitness or vising engineer for an inspection team (Table 32). The super- vision, except the general requirement that inspectors must vising engineer hires inspection team members. The agency be able to do the work. requires that the supervising engineer ensure that all person- nel performing bridge inspections be fit and qualified for their Sweden tasks. In Sweden, individuals performing General or Major inspec- Divers are certified by the U.K. Health and Safety Execu- tions must hold an engineering degree, have experience with tive. Some nondestructive testing (NDT) specialists are bridge design and construction, and must complete a one- certified by the British Institute for Non-Destructive Testing. week training course offered by the SRA (Tables 30 and 31). This is similar to certification by the American Society for Inspectors must have knowledge of bridge types, bridge Nondestructive Testing in the United States. design specifications, defect types, and the likely rates of growth of defects. The contractor is responsible for providing qualified per- sonnel and for executing competent inspection work. Poor, Additional certification is needed for underwater inspec- perhaps incompetent, work by a contractor is evidence that tion, and for inspection of mechanical and electrical equip- personnel are not qualified or not properly directed. The ment. QA in bridge inspections is achieved by adequate qualifications that may be applied to individuals regarding training of inspectors and by the use, where possible, of their education, licensure, work experience, physical fitness, quantitative measures of damage. etc., are all matters for contractor management and oversight. Sweden does not have numerical requirements for inspec- Overall, requirements are met by the contractor; that is, tion experience, but inspectors must have good knowledge of the performance of the contract is judged on the basis of the TABLE 28 SOUTH AFRICA: EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Title Education Certification* Inspection Program Manager Professional bridge engineer Engineering degree Inspection Team Leader Civil engineering degree PE license Bridge Inspector Civil engineering degree Senior Bridge Inspector Civil engineering degree PE license Underwater Inspector -- Certification as diver Inspection Specialists Civil engineering degree Major Culvert Inspector Technical civil diploma or degree *All titles except underwater inspector require certification by SANRAL.