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24 TABLE 29 to bridges. Two-person teams are used in Denmark, France, SOUTH AFRICA: INSPECTION and Germany. An inspectors' abilities or experience may PERSONNEL EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS sometimes determine their assignments to particular bridges. In Denmark, team members work together for many years. In Experience Title (years) other countries teams are formed as needed, with frequent Inspection Program Manager 17 changes of individual personnel. No nation in this group Senior Bridge Inspector 17 reported a policy on repeat assignments of the same teams to Bridge Inspector 5 the same bridges. Major Culvert Inspector 5 Inspection Specialists 17 In Sweden, bridge inspectors usually work alone unless quality of the inspection work. The achievements of a firm inspection lifts are needed, with larger bridges requiring two are considered in the contract award process, rather than the or more inspectors. Dive inspections necessarily have at least experience of individual personnel. two-person teams. INSPECTION TEAMS--FOREIGN AGENCIES Swedish inspectors work on all kinds of bridges. In regions that use consultants for inspections, the same indi- Little information has been collected on questions concern- vidual rarely inspects the same bridge in consecutive ing the size of inspection teams and the assignment of teams cycles. Where SRA personnel perform inspections, it may TABLE 30 SWEDEN: EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR INSPECTION STAFF Title Education Certification Inspection Program Manager Engineering degree Inspection Team Leader Engineering degree Certified completion of bridge inspection course Bridge Inspector Engineering degree Certified completion of bridge inspection course Underwater Inspector Engineering degree Certification for diving Inspection Specialists Engineering degree Mechanical, Electrical Equipment Engineering degree Equipment inspection certification Inspector Regular Inspector High school diploma TABLE 31 SWEDEN: INFORMATION ON CERTIFICATIONS Certification/Awarding Organization Description of Certification Certified Completion of Bridge Five-day course including three days of theory and two days of Inspection Course/SRA field practice (not compulsory); examination Equipment Inspection Certification/ Electrical competence in accordance with the Electrical Electrical Installations Ordinance Installations Ordinance Certification for Work Under Water/ Divers license Labor Inspectorate in Sweden TABLE 32 UNITED KINGDOM: REQUIREMENTS IN EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION Title Education Certification Area Structures No specified requirement, but Highways Agency employs a body of None Manager technical specialists that can be called on for advice Inspection Team The supervising engineer should be a Chartered Civil or Structural None Leader Engineer with a background in design, construction, or maintenance (supervising of highway structures. engineer) Bridge Inspector All maintenance inspections must be undertaken by personnel that are None judged by the supervising engineer to satisfy the minimum requirements for health, experience, and, where appropriate, requirements for the particular inspection type. Underwater U.K. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) control the competency Yes Inspector requirements for commercial divers and diving regulations. Inspection British Institute of NDT provides certification and training of Where Specialists operatives for nondestructive testing. HSE controls safety available requirements for some specific operations; e.g., radiography. Otherwise, dependent on the resume of the operator for more innovative methods that are not yet codified; e.g., acoustic emission.

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25 happen that the same inspectors are repeatedly assigned to TABLE 33 the same bridge. There is no policy to discourage such an INSPECTIONS BY CONSULTANTS OR AGENCY-- FOREIGN AGENCIES occurrence. Nation Inspections Agency Consultants Denmark Routine ~100% Much of the bridge inspection work for these countries is Principal* ~100% done by consultants. In Denmark, Principal inspections are Special ~100% Finland All except Basic 5% 95% performed by Directorate personnel, Finland has a set of ref- Basic (125 bridges) 100% erence bridges that are inspected by Finnra personnel, and in France Bridges 100% France large bridges are inspected by personnel of depart- Great bridges 100% South Africa All 100% mental agencies or by regional laboratories. Other bridges Sweden All 50% 50% and other types of inspections are the work of consultants United Kingdom All 100% (Table 33). *Principal inspections of a few major bridges are performed by consultants.