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38 TABLE 53 COMPONENT RATING SCALE--DENMARK Rating Description 0 Insignificant deterioration; little or no damage Component condition corresponds to that of a new component 1 Minor deterioration; damage with a very slow rate of development No repairs needed, as the condition more or less corresponds to that of a new component 2 Damage is at an early stage of development or there are a few fully developed defects Repairs should be carried out at any convenient time, as several years may elapse before the component no longer fulfils its function. 3 Damage has developed to such a degree and/or extent that it is likely that within a short time the component will no longer fulfill its function. Repair necessary within a year or two 4 The component is severely deteriorated, so that its capacity to fulfill its function has or will soon disappear. Repair necessary in the near future 5 The component has completely deteriorated and can no longer fulfill its function Immediate repair is necessary BRIDGE CONDITION DATA--FOREIGN AGENCIES meaning no damage and "5" that the component can no longer function. Denmark The bridge file contains a record of each inventory in- The Road Directorate collects condition ratings for the fol- spection, general inspection, and special inspection of the lowing 13 bridge components: bridge. Routine inspections are not recorded in themselves, but a special inspection is always recorded, and these may be 1. Entire structure in response to a report from a routine inspection. 2. Wing walls 3. Slopes Bridge components are identified in a hierarchical 4. Abutments numbering system (Table 54) that allows inspectors to 5. Intermediate supports assign conditions and record observations about general 6. Bearings regions of the bridge such as deck, superstructure, and 7. Load-carrying superstructure substructure, and to make specific element-level repair 8. Waterproofing recommendations. 9. Edge beams 10. Safety barrier/railings 11. Surfacing/permanent way Finland 12. Expansion joints 13. Other components. Finnra practice assigns ratings to bridge defects in each of four categories: Weight (importance in the load path), condi- Condition ratings (Table 53) are built up (literally summed) tion of the structural element (apart from this defect), ur- from three contributors: damage (3 pts), function (1 pt), and gency of the repair (rate of growth of defect), and damage consequence (1 pt). The overall rating scale is 0 to 5, with "0" class (severity of the defect) (Tables 5557). TABLE 54 HIERARCHICAL IDENTIFICATION OF BRIDGE COMPONENTS--DENMARK Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 1000 Structure 2000 Substructure 2100 Foundation and supports 2101 Pile 2102 End foundation 2103 Intermediate foundation 2200 Bearing structure 2201 Bearing 2300 Adjacent structure 2301 Slope 2400 ................ 2401 ............. 3000 Superstructure 3100 Load-bearing superstructure 3101 Deck slab 3102 Main beam ...... ............ 3200 Road/railway 3201 Waterproofing 3202 Bridge surfacing ..... ............ 3300 Safety-barrier and railings 3301 Safety-barrier .... ............ 3400 ................ 3401 ............

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39 TABLE 55 Germany FINNISH ELEMENT CONDITION, C Condition Rating Condition Points, In Germany, condition rating scales run from 0 (good) to 4 0--New or like new 1 (very poor). Each bridge component is assigned three ratings; 1--Good 2 one each for structural damage, traffic safety, and bridge dura- 2--Satisfactory 4 bility (Tables 5962). These ratings are combined automati- 3--Poor 7 4--Very poor 11 cally by SIB Bauwerke, the bridge management system, and a single rating for each bridge component is determined (15). TABLE 56 FINNISH REPAIR URGENCY, U Norway Repair Class Repair Urgency Points, 11--Repair during the next two years 10 Norwegian practice reports condition ratings for bridge 12--Repair during the next four years 5 elements and identifies specific types of damage that are 13--Repair in the future 1 observed. Condition ratings are reported on a 1 to 4 scale, with 1 indicating good condition (Table 63). Condition ratings are TABLE 57 provided for each of four consequences of element condition: FINNISH DAMAGE CLASS, D strength (carrying capacity), traffic safety, maintenance costs, Damage Class Damage Severity Points, and aesthetics (Tables 6467). 1--Mild 1 2--Moderate 2 The Norwegian inspection manual (17) lists approxi- 3--Serious 4 4--Very serious 7 mately 150 types of deterioration and damage in bridge com- ponents. Each type is identified by a three-digit code for use France in inspection reports. For example, types of damage to con- crete elements are shown in Table 68. Similar lists, each French practice reports condition ratings on a 1 to 3 scale. specific to a construction material or to a type of bridge com- Ratings 2 and 3 are subdivided according to the urgency of ponent, are provided in Norway's manual. List headings are maintenance. A special mention S is added to defects that shown in Table 69. Sketches for location and extent of dam- may affect the safety of road users (Table 58). age must employ a common set of symbols (Figure 1). TABLE 58 CONDITION RATINGS--FRANCE Condition Definition Urgency 1 Good condition 2 Good condition or minor defects; maintenance required Not urgent 2E Minor defect requires prompt maintenance Urgent 3 Damaged structure; repair needed Not urgent 3U Damage requires prompt repair Urgent NE Not evaluated Mention S Condition endangering the safety of users Urgent TABLE 59 CONDITION RATINGS FOR STRUCTURAL DAMAGE--GERMANY Assessment Description 0 Defect/damage has no effect on the strength of the element or structure. 1 Defect/damage affects the strength of the structural element, but does not affect the strength of the structure. Element and structure have adequate strength. Repairs can be carried out within the scope of regular maintenance. 2 Defect/damage affects the strength of the structural element and has little effect on the strength of the structure. Structure has adequate strength. Repairs are needed. 3 Defect/damage affects the strength of the structural element and the structure. Structure does not have adequate strength. Load posting is needed, but not currently in place. Required restrictions on the use are not in place or are ineffective. Repairs are needed. Load posting is needed. 4 Structural strength of the structural element is lost. Structure does not have adequate strength. Immediate restrictions on use are needed. Repair or rehabilitation is needed.

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40 TABLE 60 CONDITION RATINGS FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY--GERMANY Assessment Description 0 Defect/damage has no effect on traffic safety. 1 Defect/damage has slight effect on traffic safety. Traffic safety is adequate. Repairs can be carried out within the scope of regular maintenance. 2 Defect/damage has slight effect on traffic safety. Traffic safety is adequate. Repairs must be carried out or warning signs must be put up. 3 Defect/damage affects traffic safety. Repairs must be carried out or warning sign must be put up at once. 4 Traffic safety is not adequate. Immediate restrictions on use are needed. Repair or rehabilitation is needed. TABLE 61 CONDITION RATINGS FOR DURABILITY--GERMANY Assessment Description 0 Defect/damage has no effect on the durability of the structural element or structure. 1 Defect/damage affects the durability of the structural element, but does not affect the durability of the structure. Affect on durability or damage of other elements is not expected. Repairs can be carried out within the scope of regular maintenance. 2 Defect/damage affects the durability of the structural element and may affect the durability of the structure. Affect on durability or damage of other elements may follow. Repairs are needed. 3 Defect/damage affects the durability of the structural element and the durability of the structure. Affect on durability or damage of other elements is expected. Repairs are needed. 4 Element and the structure are no longer durable. Durability of other elements is affected. Immediate repair or rehabilitation is needed TABLE 62 GERMANY: COMPUTED CONDITION RATINGS FOR COMPONENTS Grade Description 1.01.4 Very good structural condition Continue normal maintenance 1.51.9 Good structural condition, but may have less long-term durability Continue normal maintenance 2.02.4 Satisfactory structural condition, but may have less long-term durability Continue normal maintenance and consider a plan for repair 2.52.9 Unsatisfactory structural condition Traffic safety may be affected Structure is not sufficiently durable Continue normal maintenance and plan for repair Restrictions on traffic use or load may be needed 3.03.4 Critical structural condition Traffic safety is affected Structure is not durable Immediate repair is needed Restrictions on traffic use or load are needed 3.54.0 Inadequate structural condition Traffic safety is not adequate Structure is not durable Immediate repair or rehabilitation is needed Restrictions on traffic use or load are needed TABLE 63 NORWAY: CONDITION RATINGS Rating Description 1 Minor damage or defects that might not require any remedial action within the next 10 years 2 Average or slight damage or defects that require remedial action within 4 to 10 years 3 Serious damage or defects that require remedial action within 1 to 3 years 4 Critical damage or defects that require remedial action within 0 to 1/2 year 9 Not inspected

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TABLE 64 NORWAY: CONDITION RATINGS FOR STRENGTH Rating Description 1C Minor damage/defect that might reduce strength if not repaired within the next 10 years. 2C Average damage/defect that may reduce strength if not repaired within the next 3 to 10 years. 3C Serious damage/defect that will reduce strength if not repaired within 1 to 3 years. 4C Critical damage that reduces strength and requires immediate repair or repair within 6 months. Report this damage to the Bridge Engineer immediately. TABLE 65 NORWAY: CONDITION RATINGS FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY Rating Description 1T Minor damage/defect that might reduce traffic safety if not repaired within the next 10 years 2T Average damage/defect that may reduce traffic safety if not repaired within the next 3 to 10 years 3T Serious damage/defect that will reduce traffic safety if not repaired within 1 to 3 years 4T Critical damage that reduces traffic safety and requires immediate repair or repair within 6 months Report this damage to the Bridge Engineer immediately TABLE 66 NORWAY: CONDITION RATINGS FOR MAINTENANCE COSTS Rating Description 1M Minor damage/defect that might increase maintenance costs if not repaired within the next 10 years. 2M Average damage/defect that may increase maintenance cost or complexity if not repaired in the next 3 to 10 years. 3M Serious damage/defect that may increase maintenance cost or complexity if not repaired in the next 1 to 3 years. 4M Critical damage that will increase maintenance cost or complexity if not repaired immediately or within the next 6 months. TABLE 67 NORWAY: CONDITION RATINGS FOR AESTHETICS Rating Description 1E Minor damage/defect that might affect the environment/aesthetics if not repaired within the next 10 years 2E Average damage/defect that might affect environment/aesthetics if not repaired within 3 to 10 years 3E Serious damage/defect that might affect environment/aesthetics if not repaired within 1 to 3 years 4E Critical damage that affects environment/aesthetics; needs immediate repair or repair within 6 months TABLE 68 TABLE 69 NORWAY: CODES FOR DAMAGE TO NORWAY: SERIES FOR DAMAGE TYPES CONCRETE ELEMENTS Damage Damage Code Description Code Description 100 Elements in ground 201 Settlement of concrete element 200 Concrete elements 202 Movement of concrete element 300 Steel, aluminum, and iron elements 203 Deformation of concrete element 400 Stone/masonry elements 204 Cracks in concrete element 500 Timber elements 205 Rupture of concrete element 600 Deck surfacing 206 Damage to concrete surface treatment 700 Bearings and joints 207 Leakage/dampness of concrete element 800 Drainage, approaches, and accessories 208 Discoloration of concrete elements 209 Insufficient/damaged cover of concrete element 210 Weathering of concrete element 211 Honeycombing of concrete element 212 Delamination of concrete element 213 Spalling of concrete element 214 Corrosion of reinforcement 215 Wash out of concrete element 216 Inadequate cleaning of concrete element 217 Inadequate clearing-up/removal 218 Poor concrete quality 219 Scoring/undermining of concrete element 220 Missing part(s) of concrete element 290 Other damage to concrete element