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44 CHAPTER FIVE QUALITY PROGRAMS U.S. federal regulations make QC and QA the responsibilities DOT bridge inspection manuals, as bulletins and directives, of each state's bridge inspection program. Quality program or as standard forms that are used in the course of QC/QA ac- activities may include office reviews of inspection programs, tivities (see Table G1). field review of inspection teams, refresher training for inspec- tion staff, and independent reviews of inspection reports and Program Staff Role in Quality Control and Quality computations. Assurance The FHWA provides recommendations for QC/QA pro- Thirty-five of 37 state DOTs and Eastern Federal Lands iden- grams at state DOTs (18). Recommended procedures for QC tified staff responsible for QC or QA activities (see Table include: G2). For nearly all of these personnel, QC/QA is one area in a larger set of job responsibilities. At 11 DOTs, the inspec- Documentation of QC responsibilities of inspection tion program manager, or equally qualified staff, is directly program staff, involved in QC/QA. Most DOTs use peer team leaders for Documentation of required qualifications for staff titles QC review of inspection reports and periodic QA reviews of in the inspection program, districts. Two DOTs have central inspection teams that per- A process for tracking the qualifications of current staff, form QC/QA activities. Procedures for review and validation of inspection reports and data, and Quality Control of Inspector Qualifications Procedures for identification and resolution of errors in inspection reports. Eight of 37 DOTs track an identified population of qualified team leaders, often by use of unique Certified Bridge Inspec- Recommended procedures for QA include: tor numbers assigned to leaders. The team leader enters the Certified Bridge Inspector number on inspection reports. Documentation of QA responsibilities of inspection Twenty-four DOTs rely on personnel records or a personnel program staff, database having records of training and experience for team Procedures for office review and field review of inspec- leaders. During QA review, personnel records provide veri- tion programs, fication that inspection leaders meet National Bridge Inspec- Procedures for disqualification and requalification of in- tion Standard requirements (see Table G3). spection team leaders and inspection consulting firms, and Procedures for validation of QA programs. Quality Control Review of Inspection Reports QA reviews should verify bridge lists for underwater, Thirty-two of 38 state DOTs and Eastern Federal Lands per- fracture-critical, and other specific inspections, and follow up form QC review of all inspection reports. Reviewers may be on critical findings. QA should verify a sample of inspections peer team leaders, regional DOT staff, central DOT staff, or and reports. QA reviews should document their outcomes software applications performing checks for valid data en- and recommend improvements to inspection programs. tries. Nine DOTs review all reports plus a sample of reports. The sample is reviewed by the district program manager or QUALITY PROGRAMS OF U.S. STATE other higher-level staff. Four DOTs do special QC review for DEPARTMENTS OF TRANSPORTATION bridges with fracture-critical members, load posted bridges, Information on QC/QA programs of U.S. state DOTs is pre- or bridges in poor condition (see Table G4). Twelve DOTs sented in the order of FHWA's framework. Detailed responses track the progress of field inspections, reports, and report re- can be found in the tables in Appendix G. views as a QC activity (see Table G5). Quality Control Documentation Quality Control Field Reviews Thirty of 37 DOTs have or are preparing documentation of Fifteen of 36 DOTs make QC field visits to inspection teams their QC/QA programs. Documentation appears as part of at work or field verifications of inspection reports. QC may be