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53 APPENDIX B Questionnaire NCHRP TOPIC 37-05 BRIDGE INSPECTION PRACTICES Background and Purpose NCHRP synthesis topic 37-05 examines U.S. practices regarding certification and training of inspectors, and quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) in bridge inspection programs. U.S. practices will be compared with foreign practices. The information will serve as guidance to FHWA and transportation agencies in potential enhancements to bridge inspection practices in the United States. This questionnaire is a primary source of information on U.S. practices. We greatly appreciate, and emphatically need, your assistance. On many points, questions address policies of your transportation agency. Your response may take several forms: Response in the text field provided. Reference to your Agency's manuals, guides, or technical memoranda on the topic. For such responses, please provide a copy, electronic or print, of the reference documents. Link to a public website of your agency. For such responses, please provide complete links to the exact pages or documents. Note: Throughout this questionnaire the term "Agency," when it is capitalized, refers to your transportation agency or department. Respondent(s) Information State Bridge Inspection Program Manager Name: Title: Agency: Address: City: State: Zip: Phone: Fax: e-mail: Other Respondent Name: Title: Agency: Address: City: State: Zip: Phone: Fax: e-mail:

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54 Please return the completed questionnaire by April 21, 2006 to: George Hearn Civil Engineering e-mail: George.Hearn@colorado.edu University of Colorado Phone: 303.492.6381 Boulder, Colorado 80309-0428 Fax: 303.492.7317 After completing the survey, if there are issues pertaining to bridge inspection practices that you believe are important but which are not addressed adequately by this questionnaire, please feel free to contact George Hearn directly. BRIDGE INSPECTION PROGRAM Bridge Inventory How many bridges1 does your agency inspect? Bridge count: How many of these bridges are inspected by agency forces and how many by consultants? (Report counts or percentages.) Agency inspections: Consultant inspections: For bridges over water, how many are inspected by wading and probing, and how many require underwater inspection by divers? (Report counts or percentages.) Wading, probing: By divers: Complex2 Bridges Does your agency require special training, experience, equipment, or methods for inspection of complex bridges? Complex bridge inspection: Which types of bridges does your agency consider to be complex? (Check all that apply. List additional types at bottom of table.) Suspension bridges Cable-stayed bridges Two-girder bridge Orthotropic decks Cantilever arm bridges Tied arch bridges Single box bridges--steel Single box bridges--concrete Boxes with external post-tensioning Fatigue-vulnerable bridges 1 Bridge--A structure including supports erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water, highway, or railway, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads, and having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 ft between undercopings of abutments or spring lines of arches, or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes; it may also include multiple pipes, where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller contiguous opening. 2 Complex bridges--Bridges with unusual characteristics.

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55 Main span >? ft Bridge length >? ft Bascule bridges Vertical lift bridges Floating bridges Swing bridges Covered bridges Post-tensioned timber decks Eyebar bridges Patent truss bridges Bridge age >? years Historic American Engineering Record bridges Flatcar bridges Jack arch bridges Bridges with obsolete reinforcing steel Concrete bridges without shear reinforcement Bridges lacking design documents Additional complex bridges: BRIDGE INSPECTION TYPES Bridge Inspection Manual What documentation, manual, or guidance does your agency maintain for bridge inspection? Inspection documentation: Is a copy of the documentation available for use in this Synthesis? How can a copy be obtained? Documentation copy: Who maintains or modifies agency documentation for inspections (i.e., Bridge Inspection Program Manager, State Bridge Engineer, etc.)? Documentation officer: Use of Damage, Hands-On, In-Depth, and Special Inspections Damage inspection, hands-on inspection, in-depth inspection, and special inspection are defined in Federal regulations3. What is your agency's policy for use of these inspections? That is, why and when do you perform these inspections? (Check all that apply. List additional factors below the table.) Bridge condition Bridge age Known defect(s) Discovery of new defect(s) Storm, flood, other natural event Collision, other man-made event Interval since last damage, hands-on, in- Critical finding depth or special inspection Additional use factors: When a damage, hands-on, in-depth, or special inspection is performed, does this apply to: An entire bridge Specified element(s) or location(s) Use extent: 3 Damage inspection--An unscheduled inspection to assess structural damage resulting from environmental factors or human actions. Hands-on--Inspection within arms length of the component. Inspection uses visual techniques that may be supplemented by nondestructive testing. In-depth inspection--A close-up inspection of one or more members above or below the water level to identify any deficiencies not readily detectable using routine inspection procedures; hands-on inspection may be necessary at some locations. Special inspection--An inspection scheduled at the discretion of the bridge owner, used to monitor a particular known or suspected deficiency.

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56 Does the inspection report indicate that a damage, hands-on, in-depth, or special inspection has been performed? Use report: Does the report identify the specific element(s) or location(s) that received a damage, hands-on, in-depth, or special inspection? Are these specific elements recorded in your electronic database? Use location: Does your agency recognize other types of inspections, not defined in Federal regulation? If yes, please identify and describe these other inspections. Additional inspection types: Informal Inspections Does your agency collect information on bridge conditions from road maintenance crews, state police patrols, or other sources outside of the bridge inspection program? Informal sources: Does your agency record and store information collected from informal sources? Are these data part of your inspection database? Informal record: Monitoring of Bridges What is your agency's definition of monitoring of bridges (e.g., monitoring may be visual inspection at intervals less than 24 months, or instrumentation plus data logging, etc.)? Monitoring definition: When does your agency use monitoring? What factors affect this decision (e.g., poor condition, known deterioration, potential critical deterioration, etc.)? Monitoring use: What methods are used for monitoring (i.e., visual inspection, hands-on inspection, measurement of a movement, crack-opening or deflection, or instrumentation such as strain gages or acoustic detectors, etc.)? Monitoring methods: How long does monitoring usually continue? Monitoring duration: Is your Agency monitoring some bridges at present? Please describe the monitoring intervals and methods presently in use. Current monitoring: BRIDGE INSPECTION STAFF--ORGANIZATION Generic titles are provided below for managers, leaders, and technical personnel engaged in bridge inspection. These include both Agency personnel and consultant personnel. For each title please: Confirm the generic title, or provide the alternate title used by your Agency. Check box(es) indicating whether Agency personnel or consultant personnel or both hold this title. Report the number of persons holding this position, both among Agency personnel and consultant personnel.

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57 State-wide manager(s) for bridge inspection program: Title: State Bridge Inspection Program Manager Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number4 Agency: Consultant: Region or district manager(s) for bridge inspection program: Title: Regional Inspection Program Manager Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Other inspection manager (managers of sub-regions such as counties): Title: Title not used Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: State-wide bridge load rater or manager of load rating staff: Title: State Bridge Load Rater Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Region or district bridge load rater(s) or manager(s) of load rating staff: Title: Regional Bridge Load Rater Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Other bridge load rater or manager of load rating staff: Title: Title not used Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Bridge inspection team leader: Title: Team Leader Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: 4 Number of personnel holding this title.

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58 Underwater inspection team leader: Title: Underwater Team Leader Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Other inspection team leader: Title: Title not used Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Bridge inspector: Title: Bridge Inspector Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Underwater bridge inspector: Title: Underwater Bridge Inspector Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Other inspector: Title: Title not used Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Bridge inspector assistant/trainee: Title: Inspector Assistant Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Electrical equipment inspector (for movable bridges): Title: Electrical Equipment Inspector Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant:

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59 Mechanical equipment inspector: Title: Mechanical Equipment Inspector Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Other equipment inspector: Title: Title not used Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Specialist--Fracture-critical inspector: Title: Fracture-Critical Inspector Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Specialist--Scour-critical inspector: Title: Scour-Critical Inspector Title not used Other title: Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Other titles: Title 1 Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Title 2 Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: Title 3 Held by Agency personnel Consultants Both Number Agency: Consultant: BRIDGE INSPECTION PROGRAM MANAGER What is the job description for your agency's bridge inspection program manager? Manager job description: Who does the Bridge Inspection Program Manager report to (i.e., Agency Director, Agency Chief Engineer, State Bridge Engineer, etc.)? Manager reports:

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60 Please indicate the responsibilities of the Bridge Inspection Program Manager (Check all that apply. Comment below as needed). Hires inspectors and leaders Trains inspectors and leaders Certifies inspectors and leaders De-certifies inspectors and leaders Hires consultants for bridge inspection Certifies consultants for bridge inspection Sets QA/QC standards Administers QA/QC procedures Administers QA/QC for consultants Hires bridge load raters Sets load rating methods Selects load rating software Sets standards for inspection methods Develops inspection reporting forms Sets inspection database format Maintains bridge inventory data Maintains bridge inspection data Maintains bridge load rating data Sets inspection intervals Identifies complex bridges Identifies fracture-critical bridges Identifies scour-critical bridges Forms inspection teams Assigns bridges to teams Selects access methods/equipment Assigns bridges to consultants Orders damage inspection Orders special inspection Orders in-depth inspection Orders hands-on inspection Orders bridge monitoring Orders field tests for inspection Orders non-destructive testing methods Identifies critical findings Prepares annual report for inspection Prepares/submits National Bridge Prepares annual budget for inspection Inspection Standard data Proposes changes to inspection workforce (full-time equivalent) Proposes acquisition of inspection equipment Additional manager responsibilities: Load Raters What is the job description for your agency's bridge load rater? Load rater job description: Who does the bridge load rater directly report to (i.e., Inspection Program Manager, State Bridge Engineer, Agency Chief Engineer, etc.)? Load rater reports: Please indicate the responsibilities of the Bridge Load Rater related to bridge inspection activities. (Check all that apply. Comment below as needed). Requests in-depth inspections Requests damage inspections Maintains load rating data for bridges Requests monitoring of bridges Requests measurements of deteriorated members Additional load rater responsibilities: Inspection Team Leaders What is the job description for Agency inspection team leaders? Team leader job description: Please indicate the responsibilities of team leaders. (Check all that apply. Comment as needed). Plans inspections Requests traffic lane closures Requests access equipment Directs inspectors' actions and methods Requests in-depth, damage, special Directs hands-on inspection of selected inspections, or bridge monitoring components

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61 Recommends critical findings Performs QC for inspection reports Performs data entry of inspection report Verifies data entry of inspection report Additional team leader responsibilities: Team Leaders--Underwater Inspections Does your agency have a separate job description for leaders of underwater inspections? Underwater team leader job description: What different or additional responsibilities does the underwater team leader have? Underwater team leader responsibilities: Bridge Inspectors What is the job description for agency bridge inspectors? Bridge inspector job description: Please indicate the responsibilities of bridge inspectors. (Check all that apply. Comment below as needed). Recommends hands-on inspection Recommends in-depth inspection Requests traffic lane closures Requests access equipment Recommends damage, special inspections, Recommends critical findings or bridge monitoring Verifies data entry Performs data entry of inspection report Performs QC for inspection report Additional bridge inspector responsibilities: Underwater Bridge Inspectors What is the job description for agency underwater bridge inspectors? Underwater bridge inspector job description: Please indicate the responsibilities of underwater bridge inspectors. (Check all that apply. Comment below as needed). Recommends hands-on inspection Recommends in-depth inspection Requests access equipment Requests closure to river traffic Recommends Level II, III cleaning Recommends damage, special inspections, Recommends critical findings or bridge monitoring Performs data entry of inspection report Performs QC for inspection reports Verifies data entry Additional underwater bridge inspector responsibilities: Inspection Specialists For specialists among your inspection staff, please provide information on job description and job responsibilities. Specific entries are requested for the categories listed below. If your Agency does not recognize specialization in a category, please indicate that. Fracture-critical inspectors: Description/ Responsibilities Number Agency: Consultant:

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62 Scour-critical inspectors: Description/ Responsibilities Number Agency: Consultant: In-depth inspectors: Description/ Responsibilities Number Agency: Consultant: Damage inspectors: Description/ Responsibilities Number Agency: Consultant: Complex bridge inspectors: Description/ Responsibilities Number Agency: Consultant: Other inspector titles: Description/ Responsibilities Number Agency: Consultant: Inspection Teams What is the typical size and composition of your inspection teams (i.e., one leader plus two inspectors, etc.)? Team size: How are inspection teams formed? Are leaders and inspectors assigned to teams that consistently work together or are teams formed as needed? Team formation: Are there special teams for fracture-critical inspections, scour-critical inspections, or other inspections requiring particular training or experience? Or are there specialist inspectors or leaders who join other teams as needed for these inspections? Fracture-critical/scour-critical teams: Are there special teams for in-depth inspection, damage inspection, inspections of "48-month" bridges, inspections of complex bridges, or other inspections requiring particular experience? How many types of special teams does your Agency have? Special teams: Do inspection teams specialize in certain types of bridges? For example, are there teams for prestressed concrete bridges, teams for timber bridges, teams for masonry bridges, etc.? Bridge-type teams:

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63 Bridge Portfolio Does a team leader and/or an inspection team usually inspect the same bridges each cycle? Or is there a random assignment of leaders and teams to bridges? Is it Agency policy to encourage or to avoid repeated cycles of the same team inspecting the same bridges? Method of team assignments: What types of bridge inspections are performed by consultants? Inventory inspection Routine inspection Damage inspection In-depth inspection Special inspection Hands-on inspection Underwater inspection Fracture-critical inspection Scour-critical inspection Consultant inspection types: How are bridges assigned to consultants? Are assignments by region, by route, by roadway class, by bridge type, etc.? Consultant bridge assignments: Do these assignments persist over many inspection cycles? Does the same consultant inspect the same bridges routinely? Assignment persistence: Inspection by Other Branches Are some types of inspection performed by agency groups outside of the bridge inspection program? For example, do maintenance crews conduct damage inspections or inspections after emergencies? For each type of inspection below please indicate whether other branches perform the inspection. Please identify the other branch, where appropriate. Inspection type Performed by others? Other branch Routine inspection Never Damage inspection Never Special inspection Never Scour-critical inspection Never Fracture-critical inspection Never Complex bridge inspection Never Specific bridges or inspection types (identify) Never BRIDGE INSPECTION STAFF--TRAINING, QUALIFICATIONS, CERTIFICATIONS Please provide your agency's requirements in certification, education, experience, and training for personnel in your bridge inspection program. Please indicate requirements for job titles in the table below: Bridge Inspection Bridge Inspection Job Title Certification Education Experience Training State Bridge Inspection ? ? ? ? Program Manager Regional Inspection ? ? ? ? Program Manager Load Rater ? ? ? ? Team Leader ? ? ? ? (preferred criteria)

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64 Bridge Inspection Bridge Inspection Job Title Certification Education Experience Training Team Leader ? (other criteria) Underwater Team ? ? ? ?+? Leader Bridge Inspector ? ? ? ? Underwater Bridge ? ? ? ?+? Inspector Electrical Equipment ? ? ? ? Inspector Mechanical Equipment ? ? ? ? Inspector Additional information on requirements: Are there any additional or different requirements for consultant personnel performing the job functions for the titles listed above? Consultant requirements: Training Program Please state your agency's method of training for inspection personnel. Training may include one or more National Highway Institute (NHI) courses, in-house (agency) courses, courses by training consultants, on-the-job training, etc. Training: Does your agency use the following NHI courses for training of bridge inspection personnel? (Check all that apply. Provide additional comments below table.) FHWA-NHI-130054 Engineering Concepts for Bridge Inspectors FHWA-NHI-130055 Safety Inspection of In-Service Bridges FHWA-NHI-130078 Fracture Critical Inspection Techniques for Steel Bridges FHWA-NHI-130079 Bridge Coatings Inspection NHI courses: Special Training Does your agency require additional or special training for (Check all that apply. Comment below as needed): Inventory inspection Damage inspection Special inspection In-depth inspection Hands-on inspection Underwater inspection Complex bridges Fracture-critical inspection Scour-critical inspection Electrical equipment Mechanical equipment Other special training: Refresher Training Does your Agency use the NHI course FHWA-NHI-130053 Bridge Inspection Refresher Training or some other course or method for refresher training (if other, please describe)? Refresher: What is the preferred interval for refresher training? Refresher interval:

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65 Are there different requirements for refresher training for Team Leaders and for Bridge Inspectors? Refresher training: Current Workforce Among your current bridge inspection workforce what percentages of team leaders, bridge inspectors, underwater inspectors, and equipment inspectors hold Professional Engineer (PE) license, or National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET), or American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) certification? What is the average number of years of bridge inspection experience? Among Agency personnel: Bridge NICET Inspection PE (%) III or IV (%) ASNT (%) Experience, years Team Leaders Bridge Inspectors Underwater Inspectors Equipment Inspectors Additional comments on Agency workforce: Among consultant personnel: Bridge NICET Inspection PE (%) III or IV (%) ASNT (%) Experience, years Team Leaders Bridge Inspectors Underwater Inspectors Equipment Inspectors Additional comments on consultant workforce: Other Certifications Does your Agency recognize certification "Other" than PE license, NICET, or ASNT? If yes, please identify. Other certification: Fitness/Vision/Color Perception Requirements What are your agency's requirements for vision, for color perception, and for general physical fitness of bridge inspectors and team leaders? Vision, color perception, physical fitness: Are there specific requirements that are met by some, but not all, inspectors? These may include ability to climb, ability to work at height, ability to work in confined spaces, etc.? Specific physical requirements: What are your agency's physical fitness requirements for underwater bridge inspectors? Underwater physical requirements: Does your agency conduct periodic review of fitness/vision/color perception of bridge inspectors? Does this include periodic vision testing? Periodic fitness review:

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66 Quality Assurance/Quality Control What documentation does your agency maintain for bridge inspection QC/QA procedures? Is a copy of this documentation available for use in this Synthesis? QC/QA documentation: Quality Control Personnel Who (what job titles) perform QC procedures at your agency? Are there permanent QC staff? QC personnel: What training does QC staff complete? QC training: Quality Control Procedures What are your agency's procedures for tracking qualifications (qualifications include years and type of experience, training completed, and certifications/registrations) of inspection personnel? QC tracking: What are your agency's procedures for review and validation of inspection reports and data? QC procedure: Who performs QC for inspections by consultants? Consultant QC perform: What are your agency's procedures for identification and resolution of data errors, omissions, and/or changes? QC actions: What errors, discovered in a QC procedure, would warrant re-inspection of a bridge? QC re-inspection: What are your agency's procedures for review and validation of QC procedures? QC validation: Quality Assurance Personnel Who [what job title(s)] perform bridge inspection QA at your agency? What are the roles and responsibilities of QA staff? Are there permanent QA staff? QA staff: What training does QA staff complete? QA training: Quality Assurance Procedures What are your agency's bridge inspection QA procedures? QA procedure: What aspects of inspection field practice are evaluated in QA review? Appropriate methods of observation Discovery of deterioration Recognition of critical conditions Accuracy of condition ratings Complete and accurate inspection reports QA field review:

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67 How often are QA reviews performed: 12 months 24 months Other? For individual bridge inspectors? For individual team leaders? For individual bridges? For a region or district within the agency? For other unit or division within the agency? What special or additional QA procedures are used for: Underwater inspectors? Fracture-critical inspectors? Scour-critical inspectors? Complex bridge inspectors? Electrical equipment inspectors? Mechanical equipment inspectors? Quality Assurance Outcomes What differences are considered to be "out-of-tolerance" for: NBI condition ratings? Element condition reports? Bridge load ratings? How does your agency define poor performance for: Bridge inspectors? Team leaders? Bridge load raters? Inspection consultants? What records are kept of QA results (e.g., a database of personnel, their QA dates, QA results, recommendations for remedial actions, date of completion of remedies, etc.)? QA record: Are inspection personnel informed of their QA outcomes? QA inform: What remedies are used for inspectors having poor results in your QA process? QA remedies: What are your agency's procedures for disqualification of inspection personnel or consultants? Disqualification: What are your agency's procedures for re-qualification of inspection personnel or consultants? Re-qualification: Do QA outcomes affect promotion of personnel within the Bridge Inspection Program? Do outcomes affect selection of consultants for inspection services? QA promotion:

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68 Quality Assurance Bridge Review On average how many bridges per year, or what percentage of bridges per year, receive QA review? QA bridges: How are bridges selected for QA review? What aspects of bridge type, condition, age, average daily traffic, load rating, etc., are important? QA selection: What items are verified during QA review of a bridge (Check all that apply)? Current inspection report Bridge file Load rating Qualification of inspectors Qualification of team leader Qualification of load rater Other: Does every bridge undergo a QA procedure (at least once, or every 10 years, or other interval, etc.)? QA bridge interval: Quality Assurance/Quality Control Benchmarks What program-wide benchmarks are used to track overall QA/QC achievement for your agency? QA/QC benchmarks: Does your agency compile an annual, or other periodic, report of QA/QC procedures, applications, outcomes, and benchmarks? Please describe the content of this report. QA/QC periodic report: Does your agency track QA/QC benchmarks for consultants? QA/QC tracking: BRIDGE INSPECTION REGULATIONS This part seeks your agency's input on Federal regulations for bridge inspection. Kindly indicate changes, if any, that your agency recommends in each of the following areas. Please include your reason for each recommendation, the potential benefits of each change, and the potential impacts on inspection personnel, methods, training, certification, etc., as appropriate. Bridge inspection intervals: Underwater inspection intervals: Fracture-critical inspection intervals: Scour-critical inspection intervals: Requirements for training of personnel: Requirements for certification of personnel:

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69 Requirements for QA/QC procedures: Additional input on bridge inspection regulations: Who are the stakeholders in regulations for bridge inspection? What groups or functions among state governments, local governments, toll authorities, industry groups, and citizen groups would you include in review or approval of new regulations? Stakeholders: Additional comments: Please use this space for additional comments related to bridge inspection. Additional comments: