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7 CHAPTER TWO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES U.S. INSPECTION INVENTORY and, by reference, in FHWA guides and manuals (3,4), AASHTO manuals (57), and National Highway Institute U.S. federal regulations require the periodic inspection of (NHI) courses. State DOTs, acting within the limits of bridges on public roads with a span of greater than 20 ft (1). federal regulation, develop additional requirements and State DOTs may inspect other highway structures such as provide more detailed statements of inspection program sign bridges, high mast lights, tunnels, and retaining walls, as requirements. well as minor bridges with span of 20 ft or less. Structures such as pedestrian bridges and railroad bridges that cross ROAD AGENCIES IN OTHER NATIONS public roads are also inspected, either directly by the DOT or bridge owners. Denmark--Danish Road Directorate The counts of National Bridge Inventory (NBI)-eligible The Danish Road Directorate administers 4000 km of road- structures among U.S. states range from fewer than 800 in ways; approximately 5% of the total public road network in Rhode Island to more than 49,000 in Texas (Table 5). These Denmark (see Table 6). The Directorate's responsibilities in- include bridges owned by the state government, local gov- clude bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, noise barriers, sign ernments, tollway authorities, and others. Although the re- structures, and ferry berths. sponsibility for compliance with federal regulations at all bridges is imposed on the state government and by extension In 2006, Denmark had national roads, regional roads, and the state DOT, inspection of bridges may be done by bridge local roads, and a corresponding three levels of road agen- owners, subject to review and approval by the state DOT. cies. A reorganization that became effective in 2007 elimi- nated county agencies and reduced the number of municipal The set of NBI-eligible structures includes approximately agencies (see Table 7). Some roads and major bridges are 471,000 bridges and 125,000 culverts. Of these, 499,000 are conceded, and some crossings, including the Great Belt and water crossings, 38,000 require underwater inspection, the Oresund, are private roads. 22,000 are fracture-critical, and 84,000 are posted for load capacity (see Table 5). The Road Directorate is responsible for planning, creation of standards for road design and construction, and for inspec- ADMINISTRATIVE LEVELS tions of structures. The Directorate prepares a guide to inspec- tion of bridges (8), which is followed by the Directorate and by U.S. road agencies exist at national, state, and local levels. At local agencies. Local agencies frequently hire consultants for the national level, the FHWA is concerned with the infra- bridge inspection, and inspection data for local bridges are structure of public roads throughout the nation. The FHWA usually reported to the Directorate, although this is not manda- executes the bridge inspection programs for many federally tory. Local agency bridges are designed, inspected, and rated owned bridges on public roads and regulates the inspection of in conformance with Directorate standards. public roads bridges owned by others. U.S. state transporta- tion departments execute bridge inspection programs for Finland--Finnish Road Administration state-owned bridges and variously execute, regulate, or re- view inspection programs for bridges owned by others within The Finnish Road Administration (Finnra) manages 78 000 km the state. Local governments are among these other owners. of roads, 11,191 bridges, and 2,935 culverts. Finnra oversees Inspection of local governments bridges are performed by contract work, with design, construction, maintenance, and local agency staff, by consultants hired by local road agen- most inspections performed by contractors. cies, or by state DOT staff. Finnra sets national standards for bridges, offers expert Federal regulations address bridge inspection population, guidance to regional and local road agencies, and addresses inspection intervals, inspection methods, inspection person- all issues that must be coordinated at the national level. nel, and inspection reporting. Federal requirements are Finnra's guides and handbooks are followed by local road presented primarily in the Code of Federal Regulations (1) agencies, by other Finnish agencies such as the forestry

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8 TABLE 5 U.S. NATIONAL BRIDGE INVENTORY STRUCTURES Structures Owner Special Inspection Load Postings Water Crossings Fracture Under- Other DOT Bridges Culverts State Local Other Critical water Special Bridges Culverts Bridges Culverts Alabama 9,921 5,784 5,602 9,925 178 260 945 380 2,982 47 8,342 5,783 Alaska 1,125 53 756 123 299 103 175 12 273 2 1,042 49 Arizona 3,361 3,849 4,469 2,268 473 65 12 43 201 26 2,242 3,844 Arkansas 9,690 2,792 7,084 5,239 159 347 7,536 707 1,836 13 8,822 2,791 California 20,757 3,274 11,900 11,342 789 1,007 638 80 803 25 12,699 3,164 Colorado 6,617 1,661 3,442 4,534 302 207 75 61 672 31 5,383 1,621 Connecticut 3,569 599 2,775 1,235 158 169 309 289 106 8 1,779 595 DC 244 2 211 0 35 13 13 2 29 1 91 2 Delaware 649 203 812 7 33 29 77 21 7 2 407 203 Florida 9,352 2,189 5,295 5,477 769 339 3,950 578 988 31 6,302 2,176 Georgia 9,081 5,444 6,499 7,767 259 82 2,170 94 2,050 15 6,843 5,430 Hawaii 948 158 704 370 32 10 102 19 146 4 762 157 Idaho 3,962 110 1,269 1,620 1,183 173 306 71 593 4 3,485 109 Illinois 21,664 4,142 7,513 17,613 680 550 1,293 271 1,128 8 18,068 4,131 Indiana 16,832 1,442 5,132 12,664 478 523 710 905 1,923 114 14,706 1,428 Iowa 21,270 3,583 3,972 20,665 216 1,660 144 939 5,298 20 19,722 3,582 Kansas 17,834 7,682 4,829 20,090 597 1,109 201 572 9,803 2,861 16,102 7,628 Kentucky 10,672 2,851 8,784 4,624 115 349 2,147 84 1,346 51 9,284 2,781 Louisiana 10,995 2,356 7,794 5,241 316 142 1,198 7 2,124 11 10,909 2,355 Maine 2,034 336 1,936 208 226 45 371 14 99 1 1,557 331 Maryland 3,914 1,170 2,504 2,174 406 285 421 135 356 26 2,346 1,161 Massachusetts 4,624 298 2,816 1,536 570 329 756 448 433 9 2,194 289 Michigan 9,488 1,399 4,408 6,368 111 105 353 187 1,253 51 6,485 1,391 Minnesota 7,261 5,773 3,571 9,245 218 248 338 187 350 76 5,400 5,593 Mississippi 13,647 3,258 5,537 10,879 489 244 304 1,715 3,828 151 12,269 3,252 Missouri 19,239 4,645 10,134 13,637 113 1,589 174 318 5,656 86 16,652 4,633 Montana 4,725 204 2,449 1,938 542 310 499 24 648 8 3,930 197 Nebraska 12,510 2,947 3,471 11,795 191 1,289 95 50 5,246 0 11,849 2,944 Nevada 952 682 956 613 65 34 122 25 25 2 365 668 New Hampshire 2,127 244 1,289 861 221 144 137 53 222 8 1,556 233 New Jersey 6,035 410 2,370 2,532 1,543 652 708 391 291 6 3,235 405 New Mexico 2,164 1,672 2,933 699 204 53 7 32 180 4 1,560 1,628 New York 15,665 1,677 7,424 8,512 1,406 1,777 804 4 1,145 19 10,425 1,651 North Carolina 12,725 4,788 16,531 712 270 140 2,142 27 4,427 9 9,802 4,780 North Dakota 3,641 837 1,111 3,298 69 239 38 37 1,040 4 3,273 829 Ohio 26,296 1,770 8,855 18,448 763 1,099 290 29 2,434 17 21,240 1,739 Oklahoma 16,722 6,665 6,759 15,767 861 754 71 1,129 5,818 144 14,748 6,633 Oregon 6,937 314 2,661 3,918 672 347 676 42 796 30 5,840 313 Pennsylvania 20,613 1,694 14,812 6,004 1,491 1,896 3,881 1,981 2,618 48 15,595 1,653 Puerto Rico 1,816 327 1,812 322 9 22 30 40 198 13 1,322 322 Rhode Island 721 28 588 138 23 35 89 97 70 1 321 28 South Carolina 8,120 1,084 8,326 818 60 65 241 322 601 26 6,845 1,075 South Dakota 4,811 1,150 1,811 4,021 129 228 112 26 1,333 54 4,313 1,144 Tennessee 11,388 8,381 8,038 11,330 401 271 543 46 1,258 32 8,775 8,376 Texas 31,408 17,818 32,086 16,467 673 624 796 108 3,602 86 23,501 17,815 Utah 2,302 526 1,706 967 155 62 78 46 211 8 1,387 503 Vermont 2,530 173 1,077 1,597 29 161 53 41 125 1 2,178 124 Virginia 10,275 2,974 11,696 1,086 467 344 697 134 1,269 18 7,341 2,969 Washington 7,395 250 3,080 3,869 696 364 315 170 802 17 5,574 238 West Virginia 6,417 504 6,628 108 185 563 256 337 314 3 5,755 474 Wisconsin 11,765 1,926 4,869 8,682 140 116 276 12 378 6 9,088 1,918 Wyoming 2,609 424 1,938 839 256 97 61 13 448 27 1,758 422 Source: National Bridge Inventory Data (2). TABLE 6 TABLE 7 ROADS AND BRIDGES IN DENMARK ROAD AGENCIES IN DENMARK National Directorate Local Agencies Prior to 2006 Current (2007) Roads (route miles) 4000 km 70 000 km County Road Agencies 14 0 Bridges* 3,500 7,000 Municipal Road Agencies 273 99 *Approximate number.

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9 administration, and by private bridge owners. Local road placements of bridges. Funds for these activities come from agencies (primarily municipal governments) can store their the national government, and decisions on repairs and replace- bridge information in Finnra's registry if the local user is cer- ments are subject to review and approval by the national tified for the registry. road directorate. Documents prepared by Finnra include guidelines and pol- National funds for bridge repairs are allocated to interde- icy for bridge maintenance, rehabilitation, and repair partmental road agencies through five general supervisors. operation; guidelines for bridge inspection; a bridge inspec- The supervisors belong to the General Bridge Inspection tion manual; and a bridge repair manual [SILKO Guidelines, Service and each supervisor is charged with a geographic Siltojen Korjausohjeet (Bridge Repair Guidelines)]. region in France. General supervisors control DDE activities that affect bridges. France--French National Road Directorate Local road agencies include approximately 100 Conseil French road authorities exist at three levels: national, de- Gnral, and more than 38,000 towns and villages. Local partmental (similar to U.S. states), and local (cities, towns, road agencies are assisted by the Assistance Technique and villages). The French National Road Directorate, an fournie par l'etat pour des raisons de Solidarit et de l'Am- agency within the French Ministry of Equipment (Ministre nagement du Territoire (ATESAT), a program of the Min- de l'quipement, des Transports, de l'Amnagement du istry of Equipment, to ensure the safety of roadways. territoire, du Tourisme et de la Mer (Ministry for Infra- structure, Transport, Spatial Planning, Tourism, and the Technical organizations involved in bridge engineering Sea), provides funding to national road agencies acting in and road operations include: the departments (states) and establishes national policies for road transport. The Directorate develops and operates SETRA (Service d'Etudes Techniques des Routes et the bridge management system. Departmental agencies Autoroutes)--reviews proposed repair projects and operates [Direction Dpartementale de l'Equipement (DDE), an LAGORA, the French bridge management system. agency of the Ministry of Equipment] do repairs of bridges and conduct specialized studies and investigations as CETE (Centre d'Etudes Techniques de l'Equipement)--a needed. Local agencies, called subdivisions, each guided group of eight regional centers providing technical advice to by its departmental agency, do routine bridge inspection local road agencies and assisting in bridge investigations and and maintenance. planning for repair projects. In France, the Instruction Technique pour la Surveillance et LCPC (Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses)--the l'Entretien des Ouvrages d'Art (ITSEOA) (9) establishes central (national) laboratory performing bridge research and procedures for inspection of most roadway infrastructure providing expert technical advice on bridges. including bridges, tunnels, culverts, retaining walls, and embankments. The first part of the ITSEOA addresses admin- istrative issues. The second part consists of 30 documents LRPC (Laboratoire Rgional des Ponts et Chausses)--a addressing methods and techniques for particular materials and group of 17 regional laboratories engaged in detailed inspec- structures. Condition assessment is further guided by the Image tion, testing, instrumentation, and diagnosis for bridges and de la Qualit des Ouvrages d'Art (IQOA) (10), which presents structures. standard classifications for each kind of deterioration and dam- age encountered on some 25 types of structures. CETU (Centre d'Etudes des Tunnels)--performs detailed inspection, testing, and studies of tunnels. Two substantial reorganizations of French road agencies have occurred since the 1980s. Before 1982, the Ministry of Road concessionaries are required to adhere to the guides Equipment controlled 105,000 bridges. Between 1982 and and standards of the French National Road Directorate; local 2006, the ministry had direct control of 23,000 bridges and government road agencies are not. In practice, most local controlled the activities of six private companies that man- agencies do follow national standards, and it is the policy of aged conceded motorways. There are 7,000 bridges along Interior Ministry (Ministre de l'Intrieur, responsible for these motorways. In 2006, further decentralization reduced departments, towns, and cities) to advise local governments the Directorate's inventory to fewer than 15,000 bridges. on their bridge inspections. Roadway concessionaires have consolidated, and there are now three large corporations managing most conceded roads. Germany--German Federal Roads Overall, maintenance responsibilities at most bridges are del- egated to private companies. German federal roads are administered by the Bundesminis- terium fr Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS) There are 11 interdepartmental road agencies that have (Federal Ministry of Transport, Building, and Urban direct control of inspections, maintenance, repairs, and re- Affairs). The ministry provides advice and technical support

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10 to German states and to other federal agencies. States admin- nine provincial departments of transport and numerous ister inspections, control data in the bridge management sys- municipal transport agencies. tem, and develop five-year plans for maintenance programs. There are approximately 120,000 bridges on all roads; of SANRAL is decentralized. Four regional branches admin- these, 37,000 are on federal highways and trunk roads, and ister roads. SANRAL has a total staff complement of approx- 83,000 are on state, county, municipal, and rural routes. imately 140 individuals. SANRAL outsources most road de- [A note on wording: Germany distinguishes federal roads sign and construction work to private firms. from national roads. Two German states, Bavaria and Sax- ony, refer to their state roads as national roads.] Inspections are also out-sourced. Firms hired by SANRAL to provide inspection services are assigned a section of road German guides and standards for inspection of structures and a set of bridges. On conceded roads, concessionaires and for standardized reporting of condition include: arrange all inspections, using their own personnel or hiring consulting engineers. Based on inspection reports, repair Inspection and Testing of Engineering Structures in needs are identified and prioritized. Design consultants, in- Connection With Roads, DIN 1076, 1999 (11). dependent of inspection consultants, are hired to make de- Recording and Assessment of Damages, Guideline RI- tailed evaluations of bridges and to prepare plans and speci- EBW-PRF, 2004 (12). fications for repair projects. Structure Inventory, ASB, 2004 (13). Through training consultants, SANRAL offers certifica- These publications are revised and updated by working tion courses for bridge inspectors. The agency reviews groups that have representatives from BMVBS, from inspection reports; however, it does not verify inspection Bundesanstalt fr Strassenwesen (Bundesanstalt fr Strassen- findings directly, although the overlapping work of inspec- wesen is the Federal Highway Research Institute of tion consultants and project development consultants yields BMVBS), and from some federal states. Deutsches Institut such verification for some bridges. fr Normung (DIN), the German Institute for Standardization, provides standards for a wide range of engineering and man- SANRAL produces a manual for bridge inspection and ufacturing activities. reporting and maintains standards for design and construc- tion. These standards apply to the national roads whether German federal standards for bridge inspection apply to maintained by SANRAL or by concessionaires. The agency states for inspection of bridges on federal roads. Inspections does not formulate national regulations. It does not direct of bridges on state roads and bridges on county and munici- inspection practices of provincial governments or local gov- pal roads are not required to meet federal standards; how- ernments, nor does it receive inspection data or otherwise ever, local agencies are strongly encouraged to do so. monitor the condition of bridges other than bridges on na- tional roads. Norway--Norwegian Public Roads Administration Road agencies in each of South Africa's nine provinces are autonomous and perform all inspection and maintenance of The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (Statens veg- bridges on provincial roads. Provincial agencies often follow vesen) has a central office, 5 regions, and 30 districts. All SANRAL standards for bridge design, inspection, and main- construction and maintenance are done by contract. In each tenance, although this is not required. The provinces do not region there is one engineer responsible for bridges. This participate in the inspection or maintenance of national roads engineer is involved in all activities including bridge man- within their boundaries. agement, inspection, maintenance, repair, strengthening, and construction. Swedish Road Administration South Africa--South African National Roads Agency Vagverket, the Swedish Road Administration (SRA), has approximately 6,500 employees in 16 groups that include the The South African National Department of Transport devel- head office; 2 support and development divisions; 7 regional ops policy, strategy, and high-level regulation for all modes offices; and groups for vehicle registrations, driver licensing, of transport. The Department of Transport directs the operat- ferry operations, engineering consulting, construction and ing agencies. The operating agency for roads is the South maintenance, and road sector training. African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL), which administers the national road system. SANRAL's assets in Three groups are profit centers: construction and mainte- roads, structures, and equipment are valued at 30 billion nance, consulting services, and ferry operations. Profit centers Rand (US$3.8 billion). In addition to SANRAL, there are operate as subsidiary companies of SRA and compete with

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11 private contractors and engineering consultants for work in TABLE 8 bridge design, construction, and maintenance. SRA's con- STRUCTURES INSPECTED--FOREIGN AGENCIES struction and maintenance group holds 62% of SRA routine Nation Structures Inspected maintenance contracts. Work performed by SRA includes Denmark Bridges Culverts strategic management, planning of projects, specifications for Decks on piles bridge works, procurement of bridge works, and supervision Sign bridges of contract work. SRA performs about half of all bridge Retaining walls Cable ducts inspections, with other inspections done by consultants. Work Pipe ducts by consultants and SRA profit centers include bridge design, Sluices maintenance and repair projects, bridge construction, and All structures of importance to the traffic network bridge inspections. Finland Inspectors are mostly employees of consulting firms that inspect all varieties of civil structures and highway assets. Germany Bridges SRA maintains guides and manuals for bridge design, con- Culverts struction, and inspection. These are mandatory only for SRA Sign structures Signal structures bridges. Sweden does not have national regulations for bridge Tunnels inspection, but these may be developed in the near future. Noise barriers Retaining walls High mast lights There are seven regional road agencies in Sweden. The Sweden Bridges agencies maintain bridges on regional roads and on national Culverts roads. SRA provides funding and sets standards for the Retaining walls inspection and maintenance for SRA bridges, although the work is executed through the regional road agencies. The Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (14) was created and is maintained by the Highways Agency. The Municipal road agencies are autonomous, operate without manual's provisions are mandatory for work on highways SRA oversight, but usually adhere to SRA standards in bridge controlled by the Highways Agency. design, construction, and inspection. The Highways Agency works in association with trunk road United Kingdom of Great Britain and authorities in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland to produce Northern Ireland--United Kingdom Highways Agency requirements for the inspection and management of structures. Requirements are published as BD 62/94 and BD 63/94. The United Kingdom Highways Agency has a network of These are not statutory instruments; instead, they are enforce- 9400 km of trunk roads that link population centers, ports, able as contract provisions. Interim Advice Note IAN 45 mod- and key cross-border routes. The network has approxi- ifies the requirements in BD 62/94 and BD 63/94. The revised mately 10,000 bridges and 6,000 other structures (tunnels, BD62/BD63 will be supplemented by advice in a bridge in- retaining walls, and sign structures). There are approxi- spection manual, which will have a scope similar to the mately 100,000 other bridges and structures that are the re- FHWA/NHI training manual for inspectors. sponsibility of local authorities. In total, the United King- dom has approximately 155,000 bridges on roadways, Highways Agency standards apply only to Highways waterways, and rails. Agency bridges; however, many regional and local road agencies also follow agency standards. These agencies may The Highways Agency has a staff of 1,700 people involved in development of guides and specifications, and in contract include Highways Agency standards as contract clauses to administration. It develops policies for the entire life cycle of TABLE 9 bridges including construction, inspection, maintenance, and MINIMUM SIZE FOR INSPECTION--FOREIGN improvement. The direct tasks of construction, maintenance, AGENCIES inspection, etc., are done by contractors under Highways Nation Structure Type Min. Inspection Size Agency oversight. Denmark Highway bridge 2 m span Finland 2m All Highways Agency bridge inspections are performed France 2m Germany 2m under contract. Increasingly, the agency relies on long-term Norway 2.5 m contracts for the operation and maintenance of roads. It has South Africa 6m assigned 14 areas to Maintenance Area Contracts (MACs). Sweden (pre-1989) 3m Sweden (today) 2m MACs are usually let for 7 years. The 14 maintenance areas United Kingdom 1.8 m are regional in extent, with exact boundaries adjusted to Germany Noise barrier 2 m height achieve viable work programs. MACs operate in accordance Germany Tunnel 80 m length with Highways Agency standards. Finland Pipe bridge 2 m span