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70 APPENDIX C Bridge Inspection Practices of Canadian Transport Agencies TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES AND · The city of Ottawa inspects 667 bridges having an INFORMATION SOURCES aggregate deck area of 294,604 m2. · Transports Quebec inspects 8,600 bridges. Quebec also The questionnaire on inspection practices that was prepared for inspects sign structures. U.S. state departments of transportation (DOTs) was also dis- tributed to Canadian transportation agencies. Six agencies responded: provincial agencies of Alberta, New Brunswick, Documents Ontario, and Quebec, and municipal agencies of Edmonton and Ottawa. Two provinces, Alberta and Ontario, provided copies Alberta has a two-volume manual for bridge inspection and of their bridge inspection manuals (see Table 2). maintenance (BIM) (C1,C2). The two volumes correspond to two levels of inspection; Level 1 is routine visual inspection Inspection information from the six Canadian agencies is and Level 2 is in-depth inspection and can involve material presented in this appendix. The information is useful itself, sampling and testing. BIM manuals are maintained by but is not a full report on Canadian practices. Most Canadian Alberta's Bridge Preservation Specialist. BIM is the inspec- provinces and territories are not represented. tion component of Alberta's Transportation Infrastructure Management System (TIMS). TIMS, deployed in 2005, Canada has road agencies at three administrative levels: absorbed Alberta's older Bridge Information System (BIS) federal (national, Ministry for Transport, Infrastructure, and and Culvert Information System (CIS). Communities), provincial/state [provincial and territorial agencies (13; see Table C1)], and municipal (local). The Min- Edmonton, a city in Alberta, also uses the BIM manuals. istry for Transport, Infrastructure, and Communities has a The Edmonton Bridge Engineer has general responsibility broad portfolio that includes roads, ports, recreational for documentation of inspection methods. resources, cultural resources, and the postal service. Transport Canada, a part of the federal ministry, administers roads, Ontario province publishes the Ontario Structure Inspection marine ports, and airports. Infrastructure Canada (http://www. Manual (OSIM) (C3). The manual is maintained by Ontario's infrastructure.gc.ca/index_e.shtml), a program within the Bridge Inspection Program Manager. The province of New federal ministry, addresses renewal of infrastructure. The Brunswick and the city of Ottawa also use Ontario's inspection Canadian Transport Agency (http://www.cta-otc.gc.ca/about- manual. nous/role_and_structure_e.html), a seven-member tribunal within the federal ministry, decides economic matters arising Quebec has a two-volume bridge inspection manual main- from air, rail, and marine transport. Canada's National High- tained by the structural head office. way System includes interprovincial and international roads. There are about 27,000 km of national highways. INSPECTION PROGRAM PERSONNEL Inspection Program Manager INSPECTION PROGRAM Inspection program manager titles for each responding Inspection Inventory agency in Canada are listed in Table C3. Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation is responsible for approximately 5,600 bridges. The province has direct over- Three provinces, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, have sight of inspections of 2,000 bridges and delegates inspection regional or district managers in addition to a central manager. of the remaining 3,600 bridges to local road authorities. In New Brunswick reports that three technical assistants man- addition, 8,200 bridge-size culverts are inspected by the age the inspection program. Edmonton and Ottawa report provincial ministry or by local road authorities. Alberta's only a head for inspection programs. inspection program includes bridges, culverts, ferry struc- tures, and sign structures (Table C2). Bridge Load Rater · The city of Edmonton inspects 270 bridges. All four provinces reported a person in charge of bridge load · The New Brunswick DOT inspects 2,823 bridges. rating. Provinces also have engineers in regional offices that · The Ontario Ministry of Transportation inspects 2,700 perform ratings as a part of their duties. Ottawa uses consul- bridges. tants for load rating (see Table C4).
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71 TABLE C1 CANADIAN PROVINCIAL TRANSPORT AGENCIES Province or City Agency Portfolio Alberta Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation Roads, water, and wastewater British Columbia Ministry of Transportation Roads, ports, commercial transportation Manitoba Manitoba Infrastructure and Roads and water stewardship Transportation New Brunswick Department of Transportation Roads Newfoundland and Transportation and Works Roads, ports, and marine transport Labrador Northwest Territories Department of Transportation Roads, ports, community airports, and ice crossings Nova Scotia Transportation and Public Works Roads, government buildings, environmental projects Nunavut Pivalliayuliqiyikkut Ingilrayuliqiyitkullu, Roads, mining, fishing, tourism, (Department of Economic cultural industries Development and Transportation) Ontario Ministry of Transportation Roads and Rails Prince Edward Island Transportation and Public Works Roads Quebec Transports Quebec Roads; public transportation; air, rail, and marine transportation Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Roads, ferries, and airports Yukon Territory Highways and Public Works Roads, government buildings, government property TABLE C2 and Class B bridge engineers who are qualified for complex CANADIAN INSPECTION bridges and for simple bridges, respectively. Quebec also has INVENTORY Class B inspectors and Class B2 assistants. Both work with Structures Class A bridge engineers. DOT Bridges Culverts Alberta 5,600 8,200 Edmonton 270 Ontario identifies both inspection team leaders employed by New Brunswick 2,823 the agency and inspection senior structural engineers employed Ontario 2,700 by the agency or by inspection consultants. Ottawa reports that Ottawa 667 Quebec 8,600 it has inspection technologists as team leaders assisted by struc- ture inspectors. Edmonton and New Brunswick reported inspection team leaders only (Table C5). Inspection Team Leaders, Inspectors, and Inspection Assistants Underwater Inspection Leaders and Inspectors Alberta certifies two classes of bridge inspector. Class A inspectors are qualified for all structures including major Quebec employs two staff members as leaders for underwater bridges and complex bridges. Class B inspectors are qualified inspections. Ottawa employs consultants for dive inspections. for standard bridges and culverts. Quebec identifies Class A Alberta's BIM manual requires that underwater inspectors be TABLE C3 CANADIAN DOT EXECUTIVES AND INSPECTION PROGRAM MANAGERS Inspection Program Regional Inspection Agency Executives Managers Managers Alberta Director, Bridge Engineering Bridge Preservation Regional Bridge Manager Specialist (1) (4) Edmonton Bridge Engineer New Brunswick Assistant Director--Bridge and Senior Technical Advisor Ferry Maintenance (3) Ontario Manager Bridge Office Head Inspection and Head Regional Structural Evaluation Engineer (1) Engineer (5) Ottawa Program Manager, Needs and Programming Infrastructure Assessment and Engineer--Structures Program Development Unit (1) Quebec Head of structural department State Bridge Inspection Ingénieur régional en Program Manager (1) structures (1 per district) Note: Shown in parentheses is the number of DOT staff holding each title.
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72 TABLE C4 CANADIAN BRIDGE LOAD RATERS DOT State Load Rater Regional/Other Load Rater Alberta Bridge Rating Engineer (1) Varies--Numerous consulting firms are used Edmonton New Senior Bridge Design Brunswick Engineer (2) Ontario Inspection and Evaluation Regional Structural Engineer (responsible for all aspects of Engineer (3) structures--No individual responsible for only inspection) (30) Ottawa Structural Engineering Consultant--Structure/seismic evaluation (15 firms to call on) Quebec State Bridge Load Rater (1) Ingénieurs en évaluation de la capacité portante (7) experienced bridge inspectors or work under the direct super- RESPONSIBILITIES OF INSPECTION STAFF vision of bridge inspectors. Program Manager Inspection Specialists Responsibilities for inspection program managers at Cana- dian transportation agencies are collected under several Quebec province has specialists for equipment inspections, headings. fracture-critical inspections, scour inspections, in-depth inspections, and sign structures. Other Canadian agencies employ consultants for special inspections (Table C6). Administration Alberta uses consultants for most specialized inspections At most Canadian agencies, the inspection program manager except damage inspections. Alberta's Senior Bridge Main- is involved in hiring inspection consultants. Edmonton's in- tenance Technologist is responsible for initial damage in- spection program manager oversees program budget and spections, with further inspections done by consultants as workforce, and hires agency personnel and inspection con- needed. sultants (Table C7). TABLE C5 CANADIAN TEAM LEADERS, INSPECTORS, AND ASSISTANTS DOT Team Leader Inspector Assistant Alberta BIM project manager Various titles (agency 20, (consultant 3) consultant 75) Class A inspector (major bridges) Class B inspector (standard bridges and culverts) Edmonton Bridge technologist New Bridge maintenance technician Brunswick (agency 2) Ontario Team leader (agency 15) Senior structural engineer (50 Structural technician or total, 50% agency, and 50% engineering trainee (5 consultant) to 10) Senior structural engineer (50% agency, 50% consultant) Ottawa Structure inspection Structure inspector (3) technologist (3) Quebec Class A bridge engineer Class B inspectors Class B2 inspectors (complex bridges) (agency (technicians) (agency 40, (agency 40) 25, consultant 30) consultant 50) Class B bridge engineer (simple bridges) (agency 30)
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73 TABLE C6 CANADIAN INSPECTION SPECIALISTS DOT Inspection Staff Title Alberta Fracture-critical Consultants Scour Consultants In-depth Consultants Damage Senior bridge maintenance technologist (1) Edmonton Fracture-critical Consultants Scour Consultants In-depth Consultants Damage Consultants New Brunswick Electrical equipment Consultants Mechanical equipment Consultants Fracture-critical Consultants Scour Consultants Ontario None Ottawa Electrical equipment Consulting firms (13) Mechanical equipment Consulting firms (13) Fracture-critical Consulting firms (13) Scour Consulting firms (2) Damage Structure inspection team Quebec Electrical equipment Electrical equipment inspector (10) Other equipment Signage structure (5) Fracture-critical Fracture-critical inspector (2) Scour Scour-critical inspector (4) In-depth In-depth inspector (4) Damage Damage inspector (3) Inspection Policies Bridge Load Rating At all six reporting agencies, program managers develop in- Two of the six agencies (Edmonton and Ottawa) reported that spection reporting forms. At most agencies, managers set inspection program managers keep bridge load rating data. In inspection methods, inspection intervals, and formats for Quebec, the program manager sets load rating methods. bridge databases (Tables C8 and C9). At most agencies, man- agers direct the use of bridge monitoring, and may direct the Bridge Maintenance application of special, damage, and in-depth inspections (Table C10). In New Brunswick, the inspection program manager allocates repair funding. In Ottawa, the manager prepares scoping doc- uments for bridge design and construction. Inspector Training and Qualifications At three agencies, program managers direct the training of Bridge Load Rater inspection staff. In Alberta and Quebec, program managers certify bridge inspectors (Table C11). Bridge load raters at the Canadian agencies request inspec- tions, if needed, for re-rating. Alberta's load rater initiates reviews of ratings, Edmonton uses consultants to provide Quality Programs assessment reports that include load ratings, New Brunswick's load rater reviews requests for load permits, Ontario's load Four Canadian agencies reported that program managers set rater responds to requests for review from inspection team policies and procedures for the quality control and quality leaders, Quebec's load rater performs inspections as needed assurance of bridge inspections (Table C12). for re-rating (Table C13). TABLE C7 ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITIES OF CANADIAN PROGRAM MANAGERS Hires Hires Inspection Inspection Agency Hires Agency Annual Annual Inspection Inspection Leaders and Inspection Load DOT Report Budget Workforce Equipment Inspectors Consultants Raters Alberta Yes Edmonton Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes Ontario Ottawa Yes Yes Yes Yes Quebec Yes Yes
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74 TABLE C8 CANADIAN PROGRAM MANAGERS AND PROGRAM PROCEDURES Bridge Bridge Inspection Reporting Database Local DOT Manual Methods Forms Format Bridges Alberta Yes Yes Yes Edmonton Yes Yes Yes New Brunswick Yes Yes Ontario Yes Yes Yes Ottawa Yes Quebec Yes Yes Yes TABLE C9 CANADIAN PROGRAM MANAGERS AND INSPECTION DETAILS Assigns Selects Identifies Identifies Forms Bridges Access Sets Identifies Fracture- Scour- Agency to Methods Assigns Inspection Complex Critical Critical Inspection Agency or Bridges to DOT Intervals Bridges Bridges Bridges Teams Teams Equipment Consultants Alberta Edmonton Yes Yes Yes New Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Brunswick Ontario Yes Yes Ottawa Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Quebec Yes Yes Yes TABLE C10 CANADIAN PROGRAM MANAGERS AND INCREASED INTENSITY INSPECTIONS Orders Orders Orders In- Orders Orders Orders Field Orders Identifies Damage Special Depth Hands-On Bridge Tests for NDT Critical DOT Inspection Inspection Inspection Inspection Monitoring Inspection Methods Findings Alberta Edmonton Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes New Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Brunswick Ontario Ottawa Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Quebec Yes NDT = non-destructive testing. TABLE C11 CANADIAN PROGRAM MANAGERS AND TRAINING Trains Certifies Decertifies Certifies Leaders and Leaders and Leaders and Inspection DOT Inspectors Inspectors Inspectors Consultants Alberta Yes Yes Yes Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Yes Ottawa Yes Quebec Yes Yes TABLE C12 CANADIAN PROGRAM MANAGERS AND QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE ACTIVITIES QA/QC Agency Consultant Standards and QA/QC QC/QA DOT Oversight Execution Execution Alberta Yes Yes Yes Edmonton Yes New Brunswick Ontario Yes Ottawa Yes Quebec Yes
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75 TABLE C13 CANADIAN BRIDGE LOAD RATER RESPONSIBILITIES Inventory Load Permit DOT Inspection Role Data Review Reports to Alberta Requests inspection Load ratings Director, bridge engineering Edmonton Requests inspection Bridge engineer Requests monitoring New Brunswick Requests inspection Yes Assistant director--Structures Requests monitoring Requests measurement Ontario Requests inspection Head evaluation and inspection Requests monitoring engineer Requests measurement Ottawa Quebec Requests inspection State bridge engineer Requests monitoring Requests measurement TABLE C14 CANADIAN INSPECTION TEAM LEADER RESPONSIBILITIES Inspection Traffic Access Critical Load DOT Planning Control Equipment Findings Posting Alberta Plans Recommends Edmonton Plans Requests Requests New Brunswick Ontario Plans Requests Requests Recommends Ottawa Plans Requests Quebec Plans Requests Requests Recommends Bridge Inspection Team Leader Refresher Training Inspection team leaders have responsibilities for inspection Alberta provides additional training when there are changes planning, field operations, and data entry reporting (Tables to inspection practice. Ontario provides a 3-day course that C14 and C15). At three agencies (Alberta, Ontario, and Que- all bridge inspectors must complete every 2 years. Quebec bec), the team leader performs QC for inspection reports will require refresher training in the future (Table C19). (Table C16). Special Training Inspection team members, where used, perform similar activities as leaders but with less independence (Table C17). Quebec provides special training courses for hands-on and fracture-critical inspections. Other agencies do not provide training, but do consider experience in special inspections QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTION STAFF when hiring inspection consultants. Training Inspection Program Manager In Alberta, inspection personnel complete a combination of in-house training and field training. There are separate training Four Canadian agencies require a Professional Engineering (PE) courses for Class A and Class B inspector certification. license for inspection program managers (Table C20). All six Quebec has in-house training courses for inspectors. Other agencies require an engineering degree. Four agencies require Canadian agencies use on-the-job training or employ consul- 5 years or more experience in bridge inspection. Requirements tants for training (Table C18). for regional inspection managers are similar (Table C21). TABLE C15 CANADIAN TEAM LEADER FIELD RESPONSIBILITIES Directs Inspection Special Inspections, Hands-On DOT Methods Monitoring Inspection Note Alberta Directs Yes Edmonton Directs Yes New Brunswick Ontario Directs Recommends Yes Ottawa Directs Yes Quebec Directs
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76 TABLE C16 leaders, Ontario requires either a PE license or certification CANADIAN INSPECTION TEAM LEADERS as a civil engineering technologist. Edmonton, Ottawa, and AND INSPECTION DATA Quebec require a college education for team leaders. Most Inspection Performs Verifies Data agencies require bridge inspection experience (Table C23). DOT Report Data Entry Entry Alberta Yes Yes Quebec measures individual experience as aggregate deck Edmonton Yes Yes area, in square meters, inspected. New Brunswick Ontario Yes Yes In the current workforce, many Canadian inspection team Ottawa Yes Yes Quebec Yes Yes leaders (agency and consultant) are licensed engineers and have many years experience (Tables C24 and C25). Bridge Load Rater Qualifications for inspection team members, other than Four agencies reported on the qualifications for bridge load leaders, are listed in Table C26. raters; all four require engineering degrees. Three agencies require PE licenses (Table C22). Underwater Bridge Inspection Team Leader, Underwater Bridge Inspector Inspection Team Leader Qualifications for leaders of underwater inspections were reported by three agencies. Edmonton requires an engineer- In Alberta, Class A inspectors must have a civil engineer- ing degree for leaders, whereas Ontario and Quebec require ing degree or certification as a civil engineering technolo- PE licenses (Table C27). gist (certified by the Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists). Class B inspectors must Other Certifications have a high school diploma. Training and examinations differ for Class A inspectors (all bridges) and Class B Alberta, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Ottawa all recognize inspectors (standard bridges). Inspectors' certifications certification as a civil engineering technologist as one measure are reviewed every 3 years. Individuals must demonstrate of inspector preparation. Quebec issues certificates to adequate continuing practice in bridge inspection. For team inspectors completing the agency's in-house training courses. TABLE C17 CANADIAN BRIDGE INSPECTOR RESPONSIBILITIES Hands-On In-Depth Traffic Lane Access Bridge Critical DOT Inspection Inspection Closures Equipment Monitoring Findings Data Entry Report QC Alberta Recommends Recommends Requests Recommends Recommends Verifies Performs Edmonton Recommends Requests Requests Recommends Performed and verifyies New Brunswick Recommends Requests Requests Recommends Recommends Ontario Recommends Requests Requests Recommends Performs and verifies Performs Ottawa Recommends Performs and verifies Performs Quebec Recommends Performs TABLE C18 CANADIAN BRIDGE INSPECTION TRAINING DOT Training Alberta In-house and field training programs for inspectors, leading to two levels of certification: Class A is all bridges; Class B is standard bridges and culverts only. Edmonton New Brunswick On-the-job training Ontario In-house training Ottawa College education, on-the-job training, training consultants Quebec In-house; two courses of 4 days each TABLE C19 CANADIAN REFRESHER TRAINING DOT Course Interval Alberta In-house As needed for changes to inspection practice Edmonton No requirement New Brunswick No requirement Ontario 3-day inspection course 2 years Ottawa No requirement Quebec No present requirement; may in future
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77 TABLE C20 CANADIAN QUALIFICATIONS FOR INSPECTION PROGRAM MANAGERS Bridge Bridge Inspection Inspection DOT Certification Education Experience Training Alberta PE Engineering degree 10 years Yes Edmonton Engineering degree 5 years New Brunswick Engineering degree Ontario PE Engineering degree 5 years Yes Ottawa PE Engineering degree 10 years Quebec PE Engineering degree 5 years Yes TABLE C21 CANADIAN QUALIFICATIONS FOR REGIONAL INSPECTION PROGRAM MANAGERS Bridge Bridge Inspection Inspection DOT Certification Education Experience Training Alberta PE Engineering degree 10 years Yes Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario PE Engineering degree 5 years Yes Ottawa Quebec PE Engineering degree 5 years Yes Inspector Requirements for Fitness, Vision, In Ontario and Ottawa inspection teams work together and Color Perception consistently. Alberta, Edmonton, and Ontario prefer to assign the same bridges to the same teams (Table C31). Edmonton, New Brunswick, and Quebec require that inspectors be adequately fit to perform their work. Quebec Quebec reported that maintenance crews may perform requires that divers meet commercial qualifications. routine inspections. Other Canadian agencies reported no No agency reported that there was a periodic review of inspections outside of agency inspection staff and consultants. physical fitness (Table C28). No formal requirements or pe- riodic review are reported for vision, color perception, or Alberta uses consultants for 95% of its bridge inspections, hearing. whereas Ontario and Quebec use consultants for 50% or less of their bridges. Edmonton, New Brunswick, and Ottawa reported that all inspections are by agency staff (Table C32). INSPECTION TEAMS Bridges are assigned to consultants as needed for individual Ontario and Ottawa use two-person inspection teams in bridges, or by region and route when many bridges are summer and three-person teams in winter. Edmonton and included in a contract (Table C33). Quebec use two-person teams, and New Brunswick uses one-person teams year round. Team size varies in Alberta INSPECTION TYPES AND INTERVALS (Table C29). Alberta defines two levels of inspection. Level 1 inspections are All six agencies reported the use of specific teams for frac- routine visual inspections. Reporting forms are tailored to the ture-critical inspections and for special inspections. At five type of main structure. There are 25 dedicated forms for in- agencies, these are consultant teams and can be agency teams spection reporting (Table C34). Level 1 inspections report only in Quebec (Table C30). the worst condition rating among similar elements at a bridge. TABLE C22 CANADIAN QUALIFICATIONS FOR BRIDGE LOAD RATERS Bridge Bridge Inspection Inspection DOT Certification Education Experience Training Alberta PE Engineering degree 10 years Other training Edmonton Engineering degree New Brunswick Ontario PE Engineering degree 5 years Ottawa Quebec PE Engineering degree 2 years Yes
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78 TABLE C23 CANADIAN INSPECTION TEAM LEADER QUALIFICATIONS Bridge Bridge Inspection Inspection DOT Title P Ea Cert. BSb ADc HSd Experience Training Alberta Team Yes 10 years Yes leader Class A Yes 2 years Class A training and exam Class A 3 years Class A training and exam Class B Yes 2 years Class B training and exam Edmonton Team Yes leader New Brunswick Ontario Team PE Engineering 5 years Yes leader Structural college 5 years Yes technician Ottawa Team Yes Yes leader Quebec Team Yes 5 years Yes leader a Registered Professional Engineer. b College bachelorís de gree; usually Bachelor of Science in engineering. c Associate's degree in engineering technology, usually civil engineering technology. d High school diploma or equivalent. Level 2 inspections are in-depth inspections of specific · Timber coring components using special tools, techniques, or equipment. · Special structure monitor Level 2 inspections usually are element-level inspections · Underwater that report condition ratings for individual elements. Level 2 · Linear polarization testing of concrete inspections include: · Bond testing · Steel culvert corrosion testing · Concrete deck · Pin and hanger connection · Copper sulfate electrode testing · Steel girder cover plate. · Chloride testing · Ultrasonic truss Some Level 2 inspections are periodic. Alberta conducts · Culvert barrel measurements (barrel shape) periodic half-cell testing on approximately 500 bridge decks. · Vertical clearance measurements The program began in 1977. Electrical potential measure- · Paint ments are taken at all points in a 1.2 m x 1.2 m grid and along · Concrete girder (crack measurement and mapping) all curb lines. The data are used to make predictions of the · Scour monitoring progress of deterioration. TABLE C24 CANADIAN AGENCY TEAM LEADERS--CURRENT WORKFORCE Bridge Inspection DOT PE Experience Note Alberta Edmonton 100% Team leaders (other categories blank) New Brunswick 100% 28 years Team leaders 100% 10 years Bridge inspectors Ontario 100% 10 years Agency team leaders 90% 8 years Agency bridge inspectors Ottawa 0 19 years Team leaders 0 6 years Bridge inspectors Quebec 100% 5 years Team leaders 50% 2 years Bridge inspectors 2% 10 years Underwater inspectors
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79 TABLE C25 · Substructure condition survey CANADIAN CONSULTANT TEAM LEADERS-- · Detailed coating condition survey CURRENT WORKFORCE · Underwater investigation Bridge · Fatigue investigation Inspection DOT PE Experience Note · Seismic investigation Alberta · Structure evaluation. Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario 100% 10 years Team leaders 75% 8 years Bridge inspectors INSPECTION INTERVALS Ottawa 100% 15 years Underwater inspectors 100% 15 years Equipment inspectors Alberta sets inspection intervals at 21 months for bridges along Quebec 100% Team leaders primary highways, 39 months along secondary highways, and 50% 2 years Bridge inspectors 57 months along local roads. Ultrasonic inspections of fatigue- prone bridges are performed at 5- to 7-year intervals. Alberta also makes periodic ultrasonic inspections of Ontario uses 24- and 48-month inspection intervals. The approximately 75 truss bridges built in the 1920s and earlier. longer interval is for culverts in good condition. Quebec has intervals ranging from 24 to 60 months for routine inspec- Ontario's inspection types include routine inspection, tions (Table C35). emergency inspection, and the following set of specialized inspections: Hands-On Inspection · Detailed deck condition survey · Non-destructive delamination survey of asphalt covered All six agencies reported the use of hands-on inspections in re- decks sponse to floods, accidents, critical findings, or other singular TABLE C26 CANADIAN INSPECTION TEAM MEMBERS Bridge Inspection DOT Inspector Certification Education Experience Training Alberta Inspector Yes High school 2 years Yes Edmonton Inspector Yes College degree New Brunswick College degree Ontario Ottawa Quebec Inspector PE Engineering degree 2 years Yes Electrical Yes College degree 5 years Yes equipment TABLE C27 CANADIAN UNDERWATER INSPECTION TEAM LEADER AND UNDERWATER BRIDGE INSPECTOR DOT Leader Inspector/Diver Certifications Experience Training Education Alberta Edmonton Team Engineering leader degree Inspector College degree New Brunswick Ontario Team PE 5 years Bridge Engineering leader inspection degree Inspector 5 years Ottawa Quebec Team PE 2 years Bridge Engineering leader inspection, degree diving Inspector NICET III 2 years Bridge Engineering inspection, degree diving NICET = National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies.
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80 TABLE C28 CANADIAN FITNESS REQUIREMENTS Good DOT Health Agility Strength Equipment Note Alberta No specific requirements or review Edmonton General physical suitability No periodic review New Brunswick Ability to climb Work in confined space No periodic review Ontario Must be able to get around at bridge site No periodic review Ottawa No specific requirements or review Quebec Good Ability to climb Commercial qualification for health Able to work at divers height Other, no periodic review TABLE C29 CANADIAN INSPECTION TEAM SIZE Team Team DOT Size Make Up Formation/Stability Note Alberta Varies Based on assignment and consultant's experience Edmonton 2 Leader + inspector New 1 Inspector Brunswick Ontario 2 Leader + inspector Long-term 3 Leader + two inspectors Long-term Near ice or fast water Ottawa 2 Leader + inspector Long-term Some rotation to accommodate annual leave 3 Leader + two inspectors Long-term In winter Quebec 2 As needed TABLE C30 CANADIAN INSPECTION TEAMS AND INSPECTION TYPES Fracture- Critical Special Increased Bridge Movable DOT Members Inspections Intensity Access Type Bridges Notes Alberta Yes Yes Yes Consultants with recognized experience engaged Edmonton Yes Yes No Consultants New Yes Yes Yes Yes Consultants Brunswick Ontario Yes Yes No Consultants selected among list of qualified firms Ottawa Yes Yes No Consultants Quebec Yes Class A No Fracture or scour inspector specialists join inspection team as needed Special inspections performed by Class A inspectors. TABLE C31 CANADIAN ROTATION OF INSPECTION TEAMS Teams Teams DOT Repeat Rotate Neutral Notes Alberta Yes Team inspects same bridges to the extent possible Edmonton Yes New Brunswick Yes Ontario Yes Same bridges; encourages familiarity Ottawa Yes Random assignments Quebec
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81 TABLE C32 CANADIAN USE OF INSPECTION CONSULTANTS DOT DOT Inspections, % Consultant Inspections, % Alberta 5 95 Edmonton 100 0 New Brunswick 100 0 Ontario 50 50 Ottawa 100 0 Quebec 40 60 TABLE C33 CANADIAN INSPECTION CONSULTANT TEAM ASSIGNMENTS Assignment Assignment Assignment DOT Inspections Basis Term Repeat Alberta All types of inspection By region 3 years No policy Edmonton Damage As needed Fracture-critical In-depth Scour-critical special Underwater New Brunswick Damage Fracture-critical In-depth Scour-critical underwater Ontario All types of inspections By region No Ottawa Most types of inspections Pre-qualified firms No Quebec In-depth By region No Damage Hands-on TABLE C34 ALBERTA INSPECTION FORMS Reporting Form Bridge Type TH Through trusses PT Pony truss SG Rolled beams Riveted plate girders Welded girders Steel rigid frames SS Other trusses and arches DT Deck trusses TT All timber bridges PCS Standard precast bridges PSR Regular prestress bridges CON All cast-in-place concrete bridges Concrete tee girder bridges Concrete flat slab bridges CUL1 Single culverts CULM Multiple culverts CULE Culverts extended with different material and/or size SIGN Sign structures THTT Through trusses with timber approaches THPCS Through trusses with standard precast approaches THPSR Through trusses with regular prestress approaches THSG Through trusses with steel girder approaches THPT Through trusses with pony truss approaches PTTT Pony trusses with timber approaches PTPCS Pony trusses with standard precast approaches SGTT Steel beams with timber approaches SGPCS Steel beams with standard precast approaches PSRPCS Regular prestress with standard precast approaches SSSG Special steel with steel girder approaches DTSG Deck truss with steel girder approaches
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82 TABLE C35 CANADIAN INSPECTION INTERVALS Agency Inspection Standard Interval Alberta Bridges and culverts on primary highways 21 months Bridges and culverts on secondary highways 39 months Bridges and culverts on local roads 57 months Pedestrian bridges in parks 57 months New bridges, bridge after major repairs Immediate on completion Ontario Bridges and culverts with spans more than 3 m 24 months All retaining walls All movable bridges Culverts in good condition with spans up to 6 m 48 months Retaining walls in good condition Structures with extensive poor condition <24 months Posted structures Structures with restricted clearance Single-load-path structures Structures with fatigue-prone details Structures with fracture-critical components Pins and hangers in arch structures Pins in suspended spans and pinned arches Underwater 60120 months Ottawa Routine 24 months Underwater 120 months Quebec Routine 2460 months Underwater 120 months Fracture-critical As needed events. Four of the six agencies set maximum intervals be- dive inspections in water depths of greater than 1 m. Ontario's tween hands-on inspections. Two agencies consider bridge age interval for dive inspections ranges from 5 to 10 years. Ottawa in the application of hands-on inspection (Table C36). reported that 257 bridges require wading during inspections and 113 bridges require dive inspections. Quebec performs Underwater Inspection wading inspections for all components in water and dive in- spections for approximately 10% of water crossings. Ottawa Alberta reported that approximately 15% of its bridges require and Quebec reported 10-year intervals for dive inspections. wading for inspection of some components. Dive inspections are not routinely performed. Edmonton reported that no bridges require either wading or diving for inspections. New Fracture-Critical Inspection Brunswick reported that approximately 1% of bridges that cross water require dive inspections. Ontario reported that ap- As noted earlier, Alberta performs periodic Level 2 ultra- proximately 10% of bridge inspections include wading, and sonic inspections of approximately 75 truss bridges built in only 30 to 40 bridges require dive inspections. Ontario uses the 1920s and earlier. TABLE C36 CANADIAN ROUTINE, HANDS-ON INSPECTION DOT Name Location on Component Notes Alberta Hands-on Locations identified in report Specific elements; extent of hands-on varies as needed Edmonton Hands-on Locations identified in report Can include entire bridge or specific elements New Hands-on Locations identified in report and in database Can include entire bridge or Brunswick specific elements Ontario Hands-on Locations identified in report and in database Specific elements; extent of hands-on varies as needed Ottawa Routine, Locations identified in stand-alone report via By consultants; use and hands-on detailed element maps. Database indicates extent based on findings of occurrence and date of hands-on inspection regular inspection Quebec Hands-on Locations identified in report Entire bridge, often; specific element(s) in response to accident or flood
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83 Complex Bridges TABLE C37 CANADIAN COMPLEX BRIDGE TYPES Cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, tied arches, and Bridge Types Complex Type or Inspection orthotropic decks are identified as complex by four of six Cable-stayed 4 Agencies agencies. No agencies identified complex bridges based on Orthotropic decks Suspension bridge length, span, or age. Complex bridge types are listed Tied-arch in Table C37. Ontario reported that no bridge types are iden- Fatigue-vulnerable 3 Agencies tified as complex. Swing Vertical-lift Complex bridge inspections are most often assigned to Bascule 2 Agencies Class A inspectors (Alberta) or Class A bridge engineers Box beams with external post-tensioning (Quebec). Edmonton, New Brunswick, and Ontario reported Cantilever arm Eyebar no special methods, training, or experience for inspections Floating of complex bridges. Ottawa noted that requirements for Jack-arch special access equipment or traffic management are complex Patent-truss inspections. Bridges lacking design documents 1 Agency Bridges with obsolete reinforcing steel Informal Inspections Flatcar Historic Post-tensioned timber decks All six Canadian agencies respond to damage reports submit- Single box--concrete ted by maintenance crews, state police, or the public. Alberta Single box--steel Two-girder keeps initial reports as part of paper bridge files (Table C38). Bridge age 0 Agencies Monitoring of Bridges Concrete without shear reinforcement Covered Length of bridge Five agencies equate bridge monitoring with interim inspec- Length of main span tion and employ visual inspection as the most common form of bridge monitoring (Table C39). Alberta uses monitoring when a problem or potential Edmonton reported only visual monitoring of bridges and problem of a critical nature is found (e.g., a fracture-critical New Brunswick uses only visual monitoring at short or member in a two-girder bridge has evidence of cracks) or interim intervals. Inspections can be as frequent as monthly. there is major deterioration in condition from one inspec- Monitoring continues until repair or replacement. tion to the next (e.g., sudden shifting of an abutment). Methods vary: Visual monitoring is common and instru- Ontario applies measurements of crack opening, move- mentation is used where needed. Monitoring continues ments, or deflections in response to observed problems such until the deterioration halts or rehabilitation or repairs are as tilting or settlement. These measurements become part of made. routine 24-month inspections of bridges. Measurements may TABLE C38 CANADIAN INFORMAL INSPECTIONS Store in State Bridge Maintenance Police Public File Stored in DOT Source Source Source (paper) BMS/Database Alberta Yes Yes Yes Yes Inspection in response to high-load strike or other event. Initial report is in bridge file, but not part of database. Edmonton Yes No New Yes No Brunswick Ontario Yes No Ottawa Yes Yes Yes No Note for significant information; may be added to database. Quebec Yes No Reports are very seldom BMS = bridge management system.
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84 TABLE C39 CANADIAN BRIDGE MONITORING DOT Method Notes Alberta Visual monitor Interim inspection Instrumentation Annual ultrasonic inspection of two-girder bridges Sonic radar inspection of footings at 15 river bridges after significant flood event Edmonton Visual monitor 1-, 2-, and 5-year cycles; for poor condition; indefinite duration New Visual monitor Interim inspections as frequent as monthly Brunswick Ontario Measurement Crack opening, movement, or deflection, often at 2 years Ottawa Measurement Relative movement using slide gauges and survey points Instrumentation Acoustic monitoring of a large post-tensioned bridge Quebec Visual monitor Hands-on inspection at 6 or 12 months Instrumentation Usually with data logging occur more often if needed, and continue until repairs are among each common group of elements. The rating "N" made or until movement becomes stable. means not visible for inspection or inadequate access for inspection. Rating "X" means an element is not present at the Ottawa monitors bridges in response to known problems bridge (Table C40). There are also general ratings; one each or deterioration. The monitoring often is by measurement of for superstructure and for substructure. Inspection reports movements. Intervals range from 3 to 12 months and con- require that inspectors estimate the year of future repairs or tinue until repairs are made. At one large post-tensioned replacement of bridges. bridge, acoustic emission sensors were installed during con- struction and are still monitored. Level 2 inspections report condition ratings for all elements, not just the worst one in a group. Level 2 inspections also report Quebec employs instrumentation and data logging to quantitative data collected from testing or sampling. monitor known problems at bridges. In most cases, data transmission and office review occurs weekly. Instrumenta- tion is deployed until defects are repaired, usually in 24 Ontario months or less. Ontario reported deterioration severity and extent for bridge elements. There are four deterioration states: Light, Medium, CONDITION DATA Severe, and Very Severe. The extent is reported as a percent- age of element quantity. Ontario reported on performance Alberta deficiencies. These are similar to U.S. smart flags and include: Alberta uses a 1 (poor) to 9 (good) scale for condition ratings. · Load carrying capacity In Level 1 inspections, the rating is set to the worst condition · Excessive deformations TABLE C40 ALBERTA CONDITION RATINGS Rating Commentary Maintenance Priority 9 Very good New condition No repairs in foreseeable future 8 Almost new condition No repairs in foreseeable future 7 Good Could be upgraded to new condition No repairs necessary at this time with very little effort 6 Generally good condition No repairs necessary at this time Functioning as designed with no signs of distress or deterioration 5 Adequate Acceptable condition and functioning No repairs necessary at this time as intended 4 Below minimum acceptable condition Low priority for repairs 3 Poor Presence of distress or deterioration or Medium priority for replacement, repair, not functioning as intended and/or signing 2 Hazardous condition or severe distress High priority for replacement, repair, and/or or deterioration signing 1 Immediate Danger of collapse and/or danger to Bridge closure, replacement, repair, and/or action users signing required as soon as possible N Not Element cannot be visually inspected accessible X Not Element not applicable to this bridge applicable
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85 · Continuing settlement QUALITY PROGRAMS · Continuing movements Quality Program Documentation · Seized bearings · Bearing not uniformly loaded, unstable A chapter in Alberta's BIM manual addresses quality pro- · Jammed expansion joint grams for bridge inspections. Ontario reviews inspection · Pedestrian/vehicular hazard reports, but does not have formal documents for quality pro- · Rough riding surface grams. Quebec requires that all regional offices be certified · Deck drainage to ISO 9001-2000 (C4) (Table C42). · Slippery surfaces · Flooding/channel blockage · Undermining of foundation Program Staff in Quality Control and Quality Assurance · Unstable embankments. Quality programs are executed by Class A inspectors in Ontario inspectors indicate maintenance needs, Alberta, by the Head Inspection and Evaluation Engineer in mostly using selections from a standard list of actions Ontario, and by special staff for ISO 9001 procedures in Que- (Table C41). bec (Table C43). TABLE C41 ONTARIO STANDARD ACTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE Action Maintenance Description 1 Lift and swing bridge The operation, maintenance, and repair activities that are unique to lift maintenance and swing bridge structures, including all mechanical equipment and electrical devices such as signals, flashers, lighting, navigation lights, etc., but not including work defined by other structural maintenance operations. 2 Bridge cleaning The cleaning of bridge components including: 1) Washing of bearings, bearing seats, truss members, etc. 2) Sweeping of bridge decks, curbs, and gutters. 3) Removal of debris from expansion joints. 4) Debris pick-up or minor removal of aggregate. 5) Cleaning of catch-basins, manholes, and deck drains. 3 Bridge handrail The painting, repair, and/or replacement of metal handrails and posts, as maintenance well as touch-up painting activities. 4 Painting steel bridge The preparation (sandblasting, etc.) and painting of structural steel. structures Includes handrails when performed as part of an overall bridge painting operation. 5 Bridge deck joint The repair and/or replacement of expansion and/or fixed-deck joints and repair end dams. 6 Bridge bearing The adjustment, repair, and/or replacement of bridge bearings. Includes maintenance all work directly associated with bridge bearings. 7 Repair to structural The repair of all structural steel, including repair or replacement of steel steel components, bolts, and fasteners. 8 Repair of bridge The repair of all concrete components of the structure, such as decks, concrete curbs, pedestrian walks, concrete handrail posts, parapet walls, abutments, and piers, except when the repair is more directly associated with one of the other defined bridge maintenance operations. 9 Repair of bridge The repair of all bridge timber, including the repair of timber decks on timber steel bridges. 10 Bailey bridges-- The installation, removal, repair, and maintenance work that is unique to Installation, Bailey Bridges, but not including work defined by other structural maintenance, and maintenance operations. removal 11 Animal/pest control The installation and maintenance of animal/pest control devices under bridge structures such as pigeon proofing. 12 Bridge surface repair The repair of bridge surfaces such as pothole patching. 13 Erosion control at Operations performed to prevent or repair damage due to erosion, bridges such as scour at abutments and around piers, and washouts on slopes. Includes removal of obstructions to water flow, clearing of vegetation growth, etc. 14 Concrete sealing The sealing or treatment of bridge concrete surfaces with approved materials, as well as the preparation of surfaces prior to treatment. 15 Rout and seal -- The routing of joints and/or cracks in concrete and asphalt pavement and Concrete and the filling of same with joint fillers or rubberized asphaltic sealing asphalt pavement compounds. on bridge decks 16 Bridge deck drainage The repair, maintenance, and replacement/extension of deck drains. Includes steaming and calcium application to unthaw.
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86 TABLE C42 CANADIAN QUALITY CONTROL DOCUMENTS DOT Documents Alberta Chapter 2 of the BIM Inspection Manual provides a general outline for QC/QA requirements. Detailed QC/QA is further defined in the contracts signed with the consultants performing our BIM inspections. Edmonton No formal procedure New Brunswick N/A Ontario Informal review of reports; no documentation is produced Ottawa No documentation Quebec Every regional office has to be certified ISO 9001-2000. N/A = not applicable. TABLE C43 CANADIAN PERSONNEL FOR QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE DOT Personnel Qualification Alberta Bridge preservation specialist Class A Inspector Regional bridge managers Class A Inspector BIM inspection reviewer (consultant) Class A Inspector Edmonton No response New Brunswick N/A Ontario Head inspection and evaluation engineer Ottawa Structure inspection technologists Structure inspectors Quebec Specific staff Special ISO 9001 training courses N/A = not applicable. Quality Control of Inspector Qualifications Ontario makes spot checks of some inspection reports. Ottawa and Quebec review all inspection reports (Table C46). For QC of bridge inspectors, Alberta tracks the individuals' certification as Class A or Class B inspector. Ontario reviews resumes of personnel at the time of their assignment to bridge Quality Control of Inspections by Consultants inspection work and Quebec has its inspectors registered with an external QC firm (Table C44). Transportation agencies in Alberta, Ontario, and Ottawa re- view inspection reports submitted by inspection consultants (Table C47). Ontario keeps records of errors in reports and these records can affect future awards to the contractor. Quality Control Review of Inspection Reports In Alberta, all inspection reports are reviewed by Class A in- Quality Control Program Validation spectors. Each report is placed in one or four "Lots" depend- ing on the significance of repair needs (Table C45). Alberta's Alberta relies on routine QC review of inspection reports as inspection reporting forms show both current and prior con- means of validation of the quality program. Ontario has its dition ratings for every element. Inspectors must provide program manager and regional heads conduct peer reviews adequate notes on all changes to condition ratings. of QC. TABLE C44 CANADIAN QUALITY CONTROL OF INSPECTION LEADERS DOT Certification Agency Consultants Alberta Certified as Class A Database with certification (A or B), Same or Class B courses completed, date of inspector certification, expiration date of certification Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Resumes of inspectors, submitted at time of assignment Ottawa No formal procedure Quebec Registration with external QC firm
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87 TABLE C45 ALBERTA INSPECTION REPORT LOTS Inspection Report Description Lot 1 Reports for structures requiring major repairs, a Level 2 inspection, reduced inspection cycle, or an engineering assessment Lot 2 Reports for structures requiring minor or routine repairs Lot 3 Reports for municipal structures requiring minor repairs not funded by the department Lot 4 Reports for structures requiring no action or monitoring TABLE C46 CANADIAN QUALITY CONTROL OF INSPECTION REPORTS DOT Review Set Review by Action Alberta All inspection reports Class A inspector; prior to Return for errors or database entry omission Reports with large change in Class A inspector Possible re-inspection condition Reports having ratings that do not match photos Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Spot check for data integrity Random QA re-inspection Reports having gross errors Possible re-inspection Ottawa All inspection reports Needs and programming Review prior to engineer acceptance of report Quebec All inspection reports Verification of report Reports inconsistent with Possible re-inspection recent maintenance QUALITY ASSURANCE Intervals for Quality Assurance Review In Ontario, QA programs are performed by regional struc- Alberta makes QA reviews of team leaders and regions every tural engineers. Quebec uses bridge inspectors who are 4 years. Ontario makes annual reviews of regions and bien- trained in ISO 9000 procedures to perform QA activities. nial reviews of team leaders. Quebec performs QA audits every 3 years (Table C50). Both Alberta and Ontario use annual meetings and close-out meetings with inspection consultants to discuss their perfor- mance. Alberta conducts quality audits of inspection consul- Tolerances Used in Quality Assurance Review tants. In Quebec, QA is part of the ISO audit report (Table C48). Alberta requires that condition ratings by inspectors be within ±1 of ratings obtained in verification inspections. Ontario Alberta verifies inspection reports at 15 bridges each year. requires that element condition reports of inspectors vary by Ontario verifies 50 bridge inspections per year. Quebec veri- less than 10% from verification inspections. Quebec uses fies approximately 5% of all bridge inspections each year overall field verification to assess the quality of inspection (Table C49). work (Table C51). TABLE C47 CANADIAN QUALITY CONTROL FOR INSPECTIONS BY CONSULTANTS DOT Consultant Review QC QA Alberta Review all inspection reports by Class A inspector C, A Agency does periodic audits/spot checks of consultant inspections Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Regional structural engineer and head evaluation and inspection engineer A Ottawa Design and construction project manager assigned to the project A Quebec Agency staff using ISO 9000 procedures Notes: A = agency or DOT; C = consultant.
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88 TABLE C48 CANADIAN BASIC ELEMENTS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE REVIEW Office DOT Target Review Field Review Reviewer Report Alberta All inspection Senior Bridge A hard copy of the QA reports, reviewed Technologist, results is maintained for maintenance Class A on file. recommendations inspectors Inspection report Verification Senior Bridge In annual meetings Technologist, with the BIM Class A consultant, the inspectors consultant is informed of any outcome of a QA audit. Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Regional structural Agency staff: engineers, Personnel head inspection performance reviews and evaluation are filed. engineer Consultants: Corporate performance rating at end of assignment. Rating considered for next award. Ottawa Quebec Bridge inspectors ISO audit report with ISO 9000 training TABLE C49 CANADIAN QUALITY ASSURANCE REVIEW OF BRIDGE INSPECTIONS Review Bridge Current Review Review Review Unit Bridge Review Basis for Bridge Inspection Bridge Load DOT Unit Reviews Activity Selection Report File Rating Alberta Report 100% 100% Bridge 15 per year Poor condition Yes Yes Specific bridge types Edmonton Bridge 100 per year Type, age, and use Yes Yes New Brunswick Ontario Report 100% 100% Re- Isolated, for inspection verification Bridge 50 per year Various bridge types Yes Yes (2%) and locations Ottawa Quebec Bridge 5% 5% per year Yes Yes Random TABLE C50 CANADIAN QUALITY ASSURANCE INTERVALS Team/Team Leader Region/District DOT Interval Interval Note Alberta 4 years 4 years Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario 24 months 12 months Ottawa As required As required Quebec 3 years Full verification
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89 TABLE C51 Alberta and Ontario consider quality in their selection of CANADIAN TOLERANCES FOR QUALITY inspection consultants Tables C53 and C54. Additional ASSURANCE REVIEW training can restore firms and individuals who have been DOT Object Tolerance disqualified. Alberta Condition rating (1 to 9) ±1 Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Element condition reports >10% REFERENCES Ottawa Quebec Element condition reports Site verification C1. BIM Inspection Manual, version 3, Alberta Infrastruc- Benchmarks in Quality Assurance Reviews ture and Transportation, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2005. C2. BIM Inspection Manual--Level 2, version 1, Alberta In- Alberta files reports on field verifications that include the frastructure and Transportation, Edmonton, AB, overall ranking of inspection work. Quebec prepares ISO Canada, 2004, 153 pp. audit reports (Table C52). C3. Ontario Structure Inspection Manual (OSIM), Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2000, Disqualification of Inspection Program Staff 380 pp. C4. Chung, H.W., Understanding Quality Assurance in Only Quebec reports a basis for disqualification of individual Construction--A Practical Guide to ISO 9000, E&FN inspectors and that is related to a lack of current experience. Spon, London, United Kingdom, 1999, 251 pp. TABLE C52 CANADIAN QUALITY ASSURANCE BENCHMARKS DOT Benchmark QA Report Consultant Benchmark Alberta No formal A report of the number of structures A report of the number of structures benchmark audited, variations in ratings, and audited, variations in ratings, and overall ranking of the inspections overall ranking of the inspections (not acceptable, marginally (not acceptable, marginally unacceptable, acceptable, very unacceptable, acceptable, very good) good) Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario No formal benchmark Ottawa Quebec ISO audit report TABLE C53 CANADIAN BASIS FOR DISQUALIFICATION OF INSPECTION PROGRAM STAFF Load DOT Team Leaders Raters Inspection Consultants Alberta No set policy; corporate rating affects award process Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario No set policy; corporate rating affects award process Ottawa Quebec 5 years without bridge inspection work TABLE C54 CANADIAN INSPECTOR REMEDIES, DISQUALIFICATION, AND ADVANCEMENT DOT Inspector QA Remedies Personnel Re-Qualify Promotion/Award Alberta Training No for agency staff, yes for consultants Edmonton New Brunswick Ontario Training Yes for consultants Ottawa Quebec Training New training + exam Yes