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3 CHAPTER 2 Background and Definitions 2.1 Definition of Freight Freight also can be labeled primary and secondary. Primary freight is defined in the Toolkit as goods moved over The term "freight," in its most basic sense, refers to goods long distances and between cities, significant for statewide transported from an origin to a destination. Freight movement planning applications. Depending on the sources of data and is not an end in itself, but serves an economic purpose: to ensure the techniques that can be supported, this definition of pri- that products reach a location where they can be consumed. For mary freight also includes goods moved by local truck that this reason, demand for freight is considered a derived demand are at the initial stage of a long-distance movement, such as rather than a primary demand. In other words, the demand for agricultural products traveling from farms to grain elevators. freight stems from the economic requirement to move goods Secondary freight moves to and from distribution centers from a production site to a market. or through intermodal facilities. Forecasting techniques for In transportation planning, goods transported incidental to secondary freight movements have been developed else- the primary purpose of a trip, such as luggage accompanying where and practitioners should seek other resources for this an airline passenger on a business trip or tools accompanying information, such as the Federal Highway Administration's a workman on a service call, are generally not considered Quick Response Freight Manual.3 For the travel forecasting freight. Other definitions of freight exclude certain types of processes, the Quick Response Freight Manual classifies com- goods movement due to the difficulty in identifying and fore- mercial vehicles into a) four-tire commercial vehicles, casting those freight shipments. For example, the Bureau of including delivery and service vehicles, b) single unit trucks Transportation Statistics' Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), an with six or more tires, and c) combined trucks consisting of important source of freight data, excludes shipments from a power unit (truck or tractor) and one or more trailing farms, government facilities, and most retail establishments units. (catalog and mail-order houses excepted). The CFS does not cover shipments of agricultural products from a farm to a pro- 2.2 Statewide Freight Forecasting cessing center or terminal elevator (most likely short-distance, local movements), but does cover the shipments of these This Toolkit focuses on three types of long-distance, inter- products from the initial processing center or terminal eleva- city freight movements: tor onward. These exceptions notwithstanding, goods moved over long 1. Shipments with an origin and destination in a single state; distances and between cities constitute freight movements. 2. Shipments with an origin and destination in two different Local shipments at the initial stage of a long-distance move- states; and ment also are part of freight movements, and all other ship- 3. Shipments with an origin and destination in two different ments including local delivery are called goods movements. states that pass through one or more intermediate states. Other definitions of freight focus on the modes that are used. Goods carried by rail, water, and air are generally con- In order to properly identify and forecast these three types sidered freight, while goods transported by truck may be con- of movements, the boundaries of the freight forecasting study sidered freight only if the truck in question carries goods that area may extend well beyond a single metropolitan region or are also likely to be carried by other modes or is not limited state. In many cases, a study area may include the entire con- to local delivery. tinental United States or even all of North America.