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36 Table 7.1. States' primary freight policy and analytical needs. Need Description State Planning State transportation planning including preparation of state multimodal trans- portation plans and/or freight plans. Project Prioritization Project prioritization, statewide transportation improvement plan development. Modal Diversion Modal diversion analysis. Pavement and Safety Pavement, bridge, and safety management. Policy and Economic Policy and economic studies for Governor, legislature, commission, etc. Needs Analysis Needs analysis. Commodity Flow Commodity flow analyses to understand the types, values, and economic importance of freight movement to, from, and within the state. Rail Planning Rail planning. Trade and Border Trade corridor and border planning. Operational Needs Operational needs. Project Development Project development or design needs, e.g., forecasts and loadings. Terminal Access Terminal access planning; forecasting truck loadings for highway access facili- ties to ports, other intermodal terminals, and grain or other heavy commodity terminals. Truck Flows Truck flow analysis and forecasting. Performance Measurement Performance measurement/program evaluation. Bottlenecks Bottleneck analysis. Many more freight-related performance measures are avail- marily to urban areas, and the practice of archiving these data able that are not easily forecastable or cannot be evaluated with is not yet widespread. Therefore, while direct measurement the current available tools. However, if a state or agency is will- and data collection are the desired goals, some degree of ing to collect extra data, build a new tool, or simply measure model application must be accepted if freight performance current performance, these additional measures could be use- measures are to be enacted in the near term. ful. Table 7.4 presents these additional freight performance Appendix B presents the tool components required for gen- measures. Many of the measures evaluate very specific con- erating data for each performance measure. Often, multiple tool cerns, such as the number of docks at a port. Several others are components can be used for a single measure. For example, to measurements of people's opinions and perceptions. calculate the "average cost per trip," one could potentially use the data from either the direct factoring of facility flows in a 7.3 Tools for Measuring facility flow or O-D flow model, or from network assignment Performance in an O-D flow, truck, four-step commodity flow, or economic activity model. For some performance measures, a tool com- Sections 4.0 and 6.0 provide detailed descriptions of five ponent can only be used from a specific class of model. Though freight model classes and their various components. These the mode split component can be found in O-D factoring, four- classes and components are presented in Table 7.5. Section 4.0 step commodity, and economic activity model classes, only also describes specific models currently being used in each class. mode split results from the four-step commodity class can be The most appropriate method of gathering data for input used to calculate "number of users of intermodal facilities." Ital- to the tools or of calculating performance measures is direct, icized measures form a short list of recommended measures, continuous measurement of shipments, vehicles, or facilities and are explained in detail in Section 7.4. (such as, vehicle travel time or average speed at a specific highway location). However, continuously collected data to 7.4 Recommended Toolkit develop freight performance measures are severely limited, at Performance Measures least currently. Monitoring individual vehicles and cargo on a large scale is problematic due to privacy concerns on the The performance measures listed in Section 7.3 can all be part of carriers and shippers as well as lack of standards for calculated using tools available in the Toolkit and all address reporting. Roadway surveillance coverage is restricted pri- one or more of the states' analytical or policy concerns. This

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37 Table 7.2. Policy needs and corresponding performance measures. Policy Needs Performance Measure Average fuel consumption per trip for selected trips (or shipments). Fuel consumption per ton-mile traveled. Market share of international or regional trade by mode. Modal Diversion Average cost per trip. Average shipment time, cost, variability in arrival time for freight shipments (local versus long distance, by commodity, by mode). Additional revenue earned by producers when shipping via rail. Average travel time from facility to destination (by mode). Administrative, engineering and construction cost/ton-mile (owner cost). Economic indicator for goods movement. Freight transport system supply (route miles, capacity miles, number of carriers, number of ports/terminals) per "demand unit" (dollar of manufacturing output, ton-mile of Policy and Economic commodity movement, capita, employee, etc.). Miles of freight routes with adequate capacity. Dollar losses due to freight delays. Mobility index (ton-miles of travel/vehicle-miles of travel times average speed). Project Prioritization Administrative, engineering and construction cost/ton-mile (owner cost). Delay per ton-mile traveled (by mode). Rail Planning Exposure (annual average daily traffic and daily trains) factor for rail crossings. Additional revenue earned by producers when shipping via rail. Trade and Border Market share of international or regional trade by mode. section presents a simplified, abridged list of more targeted or network assignment, and each agency generally has its performance measures. These measures address all of the own accepted unit costs. analytical and policy areas without overlapping, are easy to Average Circuitry for Truck Trips of Selected O-D measure with available tools, and provide the most mean- Pattern. This travel time-based or distance-based measure ingful information to analysts, decision-makers, and the addresses issues of accessibility and connectivity in truck public. This subset of measures can be used to create com- routes. It can be used for states' truck flow and project prehensive performance measurement. They are mostly development and design-related needs. Network assign- multimodal, and address both the performance of facilities ment results can be used to find the average truck trip as well as trips. travel time or distance for a selected O-D pattern, which is Table 7.3 and Appendix B show the 17 recommended per- then compared to an "optimal" time or distance (for formance measures in italics. By referring to Table 7.3, one example, based on a straight-line distance or an interstate can see the analytical and policy areas the measures address. connection between the O-D pair). By referring to Appendix B, one can identify the modeling Average Fuel Consumption Per Trip for Selected Trips (or components required to calculate them. Below is a brief Shipments) or Per Ton-Mile. This freight performance description of each recommended measure. measure considers environmental and resource conserva- tion, as well as operating efficiency. It is useful for modal Administrative, Engineering, and Construction Cost/ diversion analysis (measuring the environmental and mon- Ton-Mile (Owner Cost). This measure of operating effi- etary costs associated with different modal options) and ciency aids states in policy and economic studies; pavement addressing states' performance measurement and program and safety management; needs analysis; and project priori- evaluation needs. Fuel consumption calculations, generally a tization. It can help a state establish benefit/cost ratios. Ton- function of vehicle type, roadway functional classification, miles are derived from either direct factoring of facility flows and average speed, can use network assignment results and

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38 Table 7.3. Analytical needs and corresponding performance measures. Analytical Needs Performance Measure Bottlenecks Frequency of delays at intermodal facilities Average cost per trip. Average shipment time, cost, variability in arrival time for freight shipments (local Commodity Flow versus long distance, by commodity, by mode). Business volume by commodity group. Cost per ton of freight shipped. Modal Diversion Cost per ton-mile by mode. Delay per ton-mile traveled (by mode). Administrative, engineering and construction cost/ton-mile (owner cost). Average crash cost per trip. Dollar losses due to freight delays. Needs Analysis Economic indicator for goods movement. Freight transport system supply (route miles, capacity miles, number of carriers, num- ber of ports/terminals) per "demand unit" (dollar of manufacturing output, ton-mile of commodity movement, capita, employee, etc.). Fuel consumption per ton-mile traveled. Operational Needs Interference of movement at grade crossings delay time and speed. Administrative, engineering and construction cost/ton-mile (owner cost). Pavement and Safety Average crash cost per trip. Exposure (annual average daily traffic and daily trains) factor for rail crossings. Average fuel consumption per trip for selected trips (or shipments). Performance Measurement Mobility index (ton-miles of travel/vehicle-miles of travel times average speed). Average circuity for truck trips of selected O-D pattern. Project Development Frequency of delays at intermodal facilities. Project Prioritization Dollar losses due to freight delays. Average travel time from facility to destination (by mode). Terminal Access Average travel time from facility to major highway, rail, or other network. Average circuity for truck trips of selected O-D pattern. Average speed (passenger and commercial vehicles) on representative highway Truck Flows segments. Interference of movement at grade crossings delay time and speed. standard fuel consumption rates. Also, some post-processors needs. Assignment results yield average times on the (such as the Intelligent Transportation Systems Deployment selected facilities. Substandard performance can indicate Analysis System or IDAS) take highway networks and O-D needs for upgraded facility access infrastructure or system trip tables as inputs and calculate average fuel consumption management, or for a new major highway, rail, or other for selected areas. System-specific or facility-specific fuel con- modal link closer to the facility. sumption can be divided by total trips or total ton-miles to Delay Per Ton-Mile Traveled (by Mode). This travel time- normalize the result for comparison between different sys- based performance measure addresses mobility, and states' tems and facilities. needs for rail planning and modal diversion analysis. Data Average Travel Time from Facility to Major Highway, for calculating this measure can be taken from direct fac- Rail, or Other Network. Accessibility, mobility, and oper- toring of facility flows or network assignment; delay on any ating efficiency are all evaluated by this targeted travel time facility is the difference between the actual travel time and measure that addresses port and intermodal terminal access the free-flow travel time. Dividing delay by total ton-miles

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39 Table 7.4. Additional freight performance measures. Number of hazardous materials spills. Air cargo carrier route miles. Number of hazardous materials spills per vehicle- Amount of turning radius from major highway to mile of hazmat traffic. intermodal facility. Number of intermodal facilities that agency assists in Annual percent increase of unit costs of transport development. industries. Number of intermodal terminals by type. Availability of real-time cargo information. Number of marine barge operators. Average distance to intermodal terminals from differ- ent community shipping points. Number of overload permits rejected due to structural capacity deficiency. Average processing time for shipments at intermodal terminals. Number of package express carriers. Average time between arrival and clearance of Number of pipeline spills and accidents. hazardous materials spill. Number of ports with railroad connections. Average time between hazardous materials notifica- Number of posted bridges and bridge load carrying tion and response. capacity. Capacity of intermodal terminals. Number of registered trucks by type/asset. Capacity of package express carriers. Number of state-owned navigational aids Cost by commodity. Number of structures with vertical (or horizontal) Customer perception of time it takes to travel to clearance less than X feet. places people/goods need to go. Number of 20-foot equivalent units (TEUs, 10'x 20') Customs delays. (or railroad cars or containers) that can be stored on the premises of the intermodal facility. Delay time at primary commercial airports. Number of track-miles abandoned or under threat of Dollar expenditures for freight rail. abandonment. Dollar value of property loss per `X' users of inter- Number of trucking companies by type. modal transfer points. Number of trucks that can be loaded with bulk mate- Double-stack capacity (or rating). rial per hour of loading time. Environmental impacts related to spills of hazardous Pavement condition on links to intermodal facilities. materials. Percent lane-miles that are truck priority (or Freight carrier (or local shippers) appraisal of quality excluded) of highway service in terms of travel time/speed, delay, circuity, scheduling convenience. Percent of businesses that cite problems with transportation (access, travel time, cost, flexibility, Freight dock availability. reliability, damage/losses) as a major factor in Grade crossing safety improvements. productivity or expansion. Lift capacity (annual volume). Percent of commercial vehicles weighed that are over- Miles of double-stack track. weight (by fixed and portable scales). Miles of rail-line acquired and rehabilitated for rail Percent of intermodal connecting points and facilities service. accurately placed on a map. Miles of roadway not usable by certain traffic because Percent of manufacturers/shippers that have relo- of design or condition deficiencies. cated for transportation purposes. Miles of track by Federal Railroad Administration's Percent of railroad grade crossings under electronic speed rating. surveillance. Miles of track in operation (by Federal Railroad Percent of road system carrying unrestricted loads Administration rating). year round. Miles of track not usable by certain traffic because of Percent of shippers satisfied with access and service to design or condition deficiencies. global markets. Miles of trunk highway with springtime weight Percent of truck highway bridges sufficient in load restrictions. capacity, vertical and horizontal clearance. Number (or percent) of shippers able to access Posted bridges and bridge load carrying capacity by desired suppliers or markets by preferred and secon- functional class (number, percent, and area). dary mode within specified service parameters (e.g., Public expenditures on modal systems (freight versus shipment time, cost, circuity). passenger). Number of air cargo carriers. Rail freight revenue versus operating expenses. Number of airports within X minutes of agricultural Railroad/highway at-grade crossings. centers capable of supporting twin engine piston Route miles served by marine barge operators. powered aircraft. (continued on next page)

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40 Table 7.4. (Continued). Number of commercial vehicle safety inspections Shipment processing time at intermodal terminals. performed. Shipper satisfaction with modal/scheduling Number of commercial vehicles weighed (by fixed flexibility. and portable scales). Shipper satisfaction with on-time reliability, shipping Number of crashes (or injuries or fatalities) caused by costs, or shipping time. waterborne transportation. Total duration of hazardous materials spill. Number of crashes (or injuries or fatalities) per `X' Track capacity (size, acreage). users of intermodal transfer points. Track condition. Number of crashes per ton-mile traveled. Truck delivery and loading interference with street Number of dockage days at seaports. traffic. Number of fatalities and injuries occurring on the rail Truck turnaround time at intermodal terminals. system. Number of freight railroads by class. normalizes the measure for comparison among different Per Demand Unit (Dollar of Manufacturing Output, Ton- systems and facilities. Examining delay at a specific Mile of Commodity Movement, Capita, Employee, etc.). location, normalized by total trips passing through that This mobility measure more closely examines the supply side location, is an effective tool for bottleneck analysis. of transportation systems, helping states evaluate policy and Dollar Losses Due to Freight Delays. This measure is a func- economic studies and transportation needs. A variety of tool tion of "delay per ton-mile traveled (by mode)" and ad- components can be used, depending on the desired demand dresses mobility and operating efficiency. It can help states unit. Any mileage-based unit, such as ton-miles or vehicle- with policy and economic studies, project prioritization, and miles, will require direct factoring of facility flows or network needs analysis. This measure is particularly useful for ex- assignment. Other economic and production-related units plaining performance improvements and reductions to ship- may require an economic model component or a trip gener- pers and carriers. Data for calculating this measure can be ation component based on exogenous data. taken from direct factoring of facility flows or network as- Mobility Index (Ton-Miles of Travel/Vehicle-Miles of signment, and then applied to monetized values of time. Travel Times Average Speed). This mobility measure con- Freight Transport System Supply (Route Miles, Capacity siders policy and economic and performance measurement Miles, Number of Carriers, Number of Ports/Terminals) needs. It can be calculated using results from either direct Table 7.5. Freight model classes and components. Model Component Direct Trip Trip Traffic Economic/Land Model Class Factoring Generation Distribution Mode Split Assignment Use Modeling Facility Factoring Of facility Method flows O-D Factoring Of O-D flows Included Included Method Truck Model Based on ex- Included Not Applicable Included ogenously sup- plied zonal activity Four- Based on ex- Included Included Included Step Commodity ogenously sup- Model plied zonal activity Economic Activity Based on out- Included Included Included Included Model puts of eco- nomic model

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41 factoring of facility flows or network assignment. The needs. Direct factoring of facility flows or network assign- mobility index can be used as a primary marquee measure, ment can be used to forecast this measure. with other supporting measures to address other concerns. Ton-Miles Traveled by Congestion Level. This measure, Mode Split (by Ton-Mile). Mode split by ton-mile addresses based on volume-to-capacity (V/C) ratio, measures mo- operating efficiency, and aids states in model diversion bility in a transportation system and addresses project pri- analysis. It requires mode-split model component results, oritization and project development and design needs. It and to normalize by ton-mile requires data from direct examines how often freight must travel in congested con- factoring of facility flows or network assignment. ditions. Direct factoring of facility flows or network as- O-D Travel Times (by Mode). This mobility and connec- signment can be used to calculate this measure. tivity measure uses network assignment to derive modal Tonnage Originating and Terminating. This economic travel times between selected O-D pairs and assess modal development performance measure helps states evaluate diversion and truck flow needs. commodity flow issues. Although it does not measure spe- Percent of Freight Trips Occurring Within Peak Periods. cific or systemwide network problems, or shipment or ve- Calculating the percent of freight trips occurring within hicle performance, it can be used as an economic indicator peak periods measures the operating efficiency within a for a region and can help states plan future infrastructure region. This measure can assist states with their truck flow and create appropriate policies in the region. The measure can be calculated from trip generation tool components analysis and operational needs. While most work trips are based on either exogenous data or an economic model. confined to the peak periods and therefore the highest Truck Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Light Duty, Heavy Duty, levels of congestion, freight trips are usually not confined and Through Trips. Truck vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), a to a particular time of day. Understanding the percent of basic measure of mobility, is useful for state planning and freight trips occurring during the peak periods can help an project prioritization. It can easily be obtained from tool agency find policies to shift freight trips to less congested components that directly factor facility flows or from net- times of day, thereby improving all of the other travel time- work assignment. Stratifying the measure by light duty, based measures for freight. This measure can be calculated heavy duty, and through trips helps states understand the using direct factoring of O-D flows and trip distribution nature and purpose of truck trips in a region, as well as pre- tool components. dict safety and pavement preservation problems (see "Per- Percent of Manufacturing Industries Within X Miles of cent of Traffic on Regional Highway that is Heavy Truck"). Interstate or Four-Lane Highway. This accessibility meas- Volume-to-Capacity Ratio on Facility Access Roads and ure addresses needs for upgrading highway facilities, build- at Border Crossings. This targeted measure of mobility ing new four-lane or interstate facilities, or changes in land and economic development addresses states' trade and policies. Economic models can be used to forecast this border, terminal access, and bottleneck analysis needs. The measure. volume-to-capacity (V/C) ratio is a common and easy to Percent of Traffic on Regional Highway that is Heavy understand measure of congestion, often conveyed to Truck. High percentages of heavy truck traffic mixed with stakeholders by level of service (LOS) designations. It can passenger vehicle traffic can be a concern for both safety be applied to any transportation facility under study. This and system preservation. This measure addresses states' measure can be forecast from the direct factoring of facil- pavement and safety management needs and operational ity flows or network assignment.