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5 CHAPTER 3 State Needs As part of the development of the Toolkit, a survey of state the statewide transportation improvement program. Some transportation departments was conducted in March 2003 to states mentioned the desire to identify short-term freight identify the need for freight forecasting tools. The objectives improvement priorities in cooperation with freight stake- of the survey were to: holders to demonstrate short-term benefits and keep freight stakeholders engaged in longer-term capital plans and proj- Identify policy and planning needs for freight analysis and ect prioritization for freight. forecasting; and Review current applications of the freight forecasting tools. Modal Diversion Analysis This section examines the survey responses through discus- A few states have conducted modal diversion analysis sion of the policy and analytical needs identified by the states, between truck and rail and more see the need to do so. Some current application of freight tools, the needs not being states feel that major highway corridors will be unable to han- addressed by these tools, and individual state responses. Table dle the forecast truck travel and wish to analyze the potential 3.1 shows the state departments of transportation (DOT) that for the rail system to accommodate a greater share of the were interviewed as part of the survey. growth. 3.1 Freight Policy Needs Pavement, Bridge, and Safety Management As shown in Table 3.2, the survey responses revealed a wide A few states mentioned the need for truck data and tools range of state needs for analytical freight tools. These needs to support pavement, bridge, and safety management are discussed in greater detail below. systems. State Transportation Planning Policy and Economic Development Studies State transportation planning, including preparation of Many ad hoc freight policy requests as well as more exten- state multimodal transportation plans and freight plans, is a sive policy studies are often required from departmental offi- basic function common to most states. Most see the need for cials, the governor's office, or the legislature. These special improved freight elements within their multimodal statewide analyses often are tied to economic development issues and transportation plans. Some have initiated state freight plans sometimes to state economic models maintained by the state to more specifically address freight issues within their overall economic development agency. state multimodal planning processes. Needs and Economic Analysis Project Prioritization, Statewide A few states mentioned the use of freight forecasting Transportation Improvement tools for needs and economic analysis. Economic needs Program Development outputs have been fed into economic models to determine Many states identified the need for tools to help set prior- state or regional economic development effects in various ities among freight projects and to develop specific inputs to industries.

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6 Table 3.1. State departments of transportation participating in the survey. Location in Population International Survey State United States Sizea Ports Land Borders Phone California Southwest Large Pacific Southern Colorado Mountain Medium None Florida Southeast Large Atlantic; Gulf Maine Northeast Small Atlantic Northern Maryland Northeast Medium Atlantic New Jersey Northeast Medium Atlantic Texas Southwest Large Gulf Southern Washington Northwest Medium Pacific, River Northern Wisconsin Midwest Medium Great Lakes; River E-mail/Internet Arkansas South Small River Iowa Midwest Small River Idaho Mountain Small None Northern Kansas Midwest Small River Minnesota Midwest Medium Great Lakes; River Northern Montana Mountain Small None Northern North Dakota Midwest Small River Northern Oklahoma Southwest Small None Pennsylvania Northeast Medium Great Lakes; River South Carolina Southeast Medium Atlantic South Dakota Midwest Small River Tennessee South Medium River Virginia Southeast Medium Atlantic Vermont Northeast Small None Northern a Population size is defined here as follows: Small state = under 4 million; Medium state = between 4 million and 15 million; Large state = over 15 million. Commodity Flow Analysis Operational Needs Some states identified the need for commodity flow analy- Operational needs include a broad array of operational sis to better understand the types, values, and economic im- issues. Topics mentioned were the importance of focusing on portance of freight movement to, from, and within the state. short-term operational improvements for freight, the possi- This applies to general policy and planning efforts to improve bility of special truck lanes, rest area truck parking needs, freight knowledge, support state economic development, hazmat and other truck routings, security issues related to support specialized freight analyses, and prepare briefings goods movement, the need for improved truck accident data and presentations to DOT management, the legislature, and and analysis, truck size and weight, and motor carrier hours- the governor's office. of-service changes. Rail Planning Project Development or Design Needs Many states see a growing need for rail planning. States are Many states mentioned needs for freight forecast to sup- concerned that, without adequate rail capacity, more freight port project-level detail for development or design. will shift to trucks, thus overburdening already congested highway corridors. States believe that short-line railroads Terminal Access Planning should play a greater role in reducing wear on highways and improving access to service provided by major railroads. States with major ports such as New Jersey and South Carolina identified port access planning as a major priority for freight models and analysis. New Jersey specifically is Trade Corridor and Border Planning using a refined version of its statewide freight model for the Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agree- purposes of access planning at the Port of New York/New ment (NAFTA) and the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Jersey. More detailed network, zone, and truck data were Century (TEA-21) in the 1990s has generated considerable required for the subregion around the port. Some Midwest- interest in multistate border and corridors planning. Several ern states identified grain movement and grain elevator states have already developed state strategic corridor efforts. access as an issue for potential application of freight tools.

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7 Table 3.2. States' primary freight policy and analytical needs. Need Response Frequency State transportation planning, including preparation of state multimodal High transportation plans and/or freight plans Project prioritization, statewide transportation improvement program High (STIP) development Modal diversion analysis High Pavement, bridge, and safety management Medium Policy and economic studies for governor, legislature, commission, etc. Medium Needs analysis Medium Commodity flow analysis to understand types, values, and economic Medium importance of freight movement to, from, and within the state Rail planning Medium Trade corridor and border planning Medium Operational needs Medium Project development or design needs; e.g., forecasts and loadings Medium Terminal access planning; forecasting truck loadings for highway access Medium facilities to ports, other intermodal terminals, and grain or other heavy commodity terminals Truck flow analysis and forecasting Medium Performance measurement/program evaluation Medium Bottleneck analysis Medium Note: States listed multiple primary freight policy and analytical needs. Truck Flow Analysis and Forecasting measures. Current models provide very little output useful to performance measurement. Measures such as freight vehicle Truck flow models are used for basic highway planning, for travel time and delay, reliability, cost, freight corridor condi- special generator analysis, corridor analysis, project develop- tion and performance, intermodal connector condition and ment, and as input to air quality model analysis. Florida, performance, and customer satisfaction have been suggested Texas, and Vermont have developed statewide truck models as measures but are relatively undeveloped as compared to and Washington is in the process of doing so. Statewide mod- passenger systems. One interesting FHWA project involves els are virtually nonexistent for the other modes and few testing measures of freight travel time, delay, and reliability in states have them under development, although several states freight-significant corridors using satellite tracking devices on mentioned a future need. trucks. This is an example of public/private cooperation to collect freight performance data while respecting important Performance Measurement/Program privacy issues. Evaluation Bottleneck Analysis According to the survey, freight performance measurement is a relatively new area for state DOTs. Minnesota is one of the A few states mentioned the potential use of tools for few states that has developed any freight-specific performance freight bottleneck analysis, although there has been little