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8 Table 3.3. State needs versus model classes. Type of Toola Facility O-D Factor Truck Commodity Economic- Policy and Analytical Needs Flow Factor Models Models Models Based Models 1 State transportation planning P P P P 2 Project prioritization, STIP P S P P P development 3 Modal diversion analysis S P P 4 Pavement, bridge, and safety P S P P P management 5 Policy studies 6 Needs analysis P S P P P 7 Commodity flow analyses P P P 8 Rail planning S P P 9 Trade corridor and border planning 10 Operations, safety, security, truck size and weight issues, etc. 11 Project development or design P S S S S needs; e.g., forecasts and loadings 12 Terminal access planning S S P 13 Truck flow analysis and forecasting S P P P 14 Performance measurement/ program evaluation 15 Bottleneck analysis S S S a P, primary; S, secondary. such application to date. Oregon recently completed a study Policy Studies Owing to the difficulty of relating trans- of the Interstate 5 corridor that identified and analyzed a portation investments to quality of life or economic devel- bottleneck at the Columbia River crossing. Ohio plans to opment policy goals; conduct a freight bottleneck analysis in the future. Trade Corridor and Border Planning Owing to the sim- plified treatment within the models of freight flows beyond a state's border, or more commonly the U.S. border; 3.2 Available Methods Operations, Safety, Security, Truck Size, and Weight The survey revealed that existing methods, which prima- Issues Owing to the absence of connections of the freight rily produce facility-level forecasts of freight flows, are gener- models to microsimulation tools (a shortcoming shared ally able to respond to changes in the transportation system with traditional passenger travel demand forecasting mod- and meet the state needs identified in Table 3.2. The degree els); and to which the five classes of freight models described in Section Performance Measurement/Program Evaluation Owing 5.0 meet these needs shown as a primary or secondary output both to a lack of information on appropriate freight perfor- or function based on professional judgment, is shown in mance measures (which will be addressed in Section 7.0) and Table 3.3. Four policy needs were identified as currently to the absence of techniques to directly utilize the outputs of unmet by existing freight methods: freight models to calculate these measures.