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10 World: The World Aeronautical Database contains de- software includes facilities to add, modify, or delete data, tailed, aeronautical information on nearly 10,000 airports make queries about the data stored, and produce reports and more than 11,000 Navigational Aids (NAVAID) summarizing selected contents. worldwide. The database includes, for each individual event or opera- tion, the reporting agency, the aircraft characteristics, the Many incident reports do not contain weather informa- runway and environmental conditions, result of the opera- tion, particularly when it is not deemed to be an important tion (accident or incident), and other relevant information factor in the incident and was obtained from other sources. such as consequences (fatalities, accident costs) and causal or Weather for normal operations data also has been obtained contributing factors and parameters required to develop the from other sources, particularly from the National Oceanic & risk models. A unique identifier was assigned to each event, Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. NOAA is a and the descriptions of each field and the database rules are federal agency focused on the condition of the oceans and the available in Appendix F. The final database includes the cat- atmosphere. egories and fields listed in Table 3. In many cases, particularly for accidents that occurred out- Neither the NTSB nor the FAA routinely compiles data in side North America, search engines available in the websites this manner. Both agencies investigate accidents for aero- of accident investigation agencies are not very effective to fil- nautical purposes to determine ways to improve the design ter out those events that were irrelevant to this project. Some and operation of aircraft and airports and to foster better of the events were identified using these databases and, for a pilot skills and techniques. If land use factors are examined at few cases, some accident data has been gathered from inde- all, it is incidental to the primary purpose of the investigation. pendent accident information websites. Two of the most used As previously noted, it was difficult to gather information during this study included: on incidents because they are rarely investigated to a level that could provide useful information for this study. Also, there ASN Aviation Safety Database: The Aviation Safety Net- are often few consequences associated with incidents. work is a private, independent initiative founded in 1996. It covers accidents and safety issues with regards to airliners, Normal Operations Data military transport planes, and corporate jets, and contained descriptions of more than 10,700 incidents, hijackings, and Another key approach in this study is the use of normal accidents. Most of the information are from official sources operations (nonaccident/nonincident flight) data for risk (civil aviation authorities and safety boards), including modeling. Various studies already have identified the lack of aircraft production lists, ICAO ADREPs, and country's NOD as a major obstacle to the development of quantitative accident investigation boards. risk models (Department of Transport, 1979; Piers et al., World Aircraft Accident Summary: The World Aircraft 1993; Khatwa et al., 1996; Khatwa and Helmreich, 1998; Accident Summary (WAAS), produced on behalf of the Eddowes et al., 2001; Li et al., 2001). The approach and the British Civil Aviation Authority by Airclaims Limited, pro- data utilized in this project were developed by Wong (2007). vides brief details of all known major operational accidents In the absence of information on risk exposure, even worldwide. though the occurrence of a factor (e.g., contaminated run- way) could be identified as a contributor to many accidents, A typical example of this complementary information was it is impossible to know how critical the factor is since many the calculation of wind speed. Since the NTSB database con- other flights also may have experienced the factor without in- tains wind speed and direction but not headwind and cross- cident. With NOD, the number of operations that experience wind components, determination of the orientation of the the factor benignly, singly, and in combination can be calcu- runway used by the accident aircraft allowed the research lated, risk ratios can be generated, and the importance of risk team to derive the headwind and crosswind components. factors quantified. This assessment may allow the prioritiza- Wreckage location often is described in words and required tion of resource allocation for safety improvement (Enders translation and interpretation to obtain estimates of location et al., 1996). coordinates relative to runway centerline and thresholds. A large and representative sample of disaggregate U.S. NOD covering a range of risk factors has been collected, al- lowing their criticality to be quantified. The basic idea was to Accident/Incident Database Organization use these data and the information on U.S. incidents and The accident and incident database was organized in accidents as a sample to develop the frequency models only, Microsoft Access. The system provides some software tools simply because the NOD represents only events occurring in that facilitate the use of the database in a flexible manner. The the United States. The larger dataset comprising both U.S.

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11 Table 3. Database structure. Category Field Level 1 Field Level 2 Accident ID Event ID Accident Class Event Type Researcher Basic Info Source Country Location State City Date Time Basic Notes Make Model Series Serial Number Age No. of hours or Years No. of Engines Engine Type Turboprop, Turbofan (Low or High) or Turbojet Aircraft Data Max Certified Landing Max Certified Takeoff Max Gross Weight Registration Number Regulations Reference ACFT Regulator Owner Operator Code IATA Code Latitude Longitude Runway Number Landing Distance Available Takeoff Distance Available Landing Elevation Landing Latitude Landing Longitude Takeoff Elevation Airport Data Takeoff Latitude Takeoff Longitude Runway condition Runway Grooved Yes/No ARFF Availability A to F Control Tower Yes/No Temporary Yes/No Construction Works Runway Width Runway Slope Surface Material Paved Overrun Length Notes Aircraft Damage Destroyed, Substantial, Minor or None Change of Terrain Yes/No Consequence Area No. of Passenger Seats Consequences Total No. Of Seats Difficulty in Getting to Yes/No Wreckage Detailed Consequence Area (continued on next page)

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12 Table 3. (Continued). Category Field Level 1 Field Level 2 Aircraft Collision Status Active/Passive/NA Visibility Min. Yes/No Violation Approach Min. Yes/No Violation Approach Category Visual/Non-Precision/ILS Cat1, 2 Required or 3 Approach Category Used Other Aircraft Involved Yes/No Detailed Info Crash Controllability Fully/Partially/No Glide slope Captured Yes/No Go Around Yes/No GPWS Yes/No GPWS type 1st or 2nd Generation Localizer Captured Yes/No Runway Change Yes/No Stabilized Approach Yes/No Takeoff Aborted Yes/No Takeoff Aborted Speed Actual Weight at Crash Was Weight Estimated Yes/No Max Weight for Operation Destination Country Departure Country Diverted Flight Yes/No ELT Fitted and Yes/No Operational Flight Delayed Yes/No Flight Duration Flight Data Fuel Load Load Factor Operation Type Scheduled Yes/No Landing Distance Required Takeoff Distance Required Takeoff Weight Takeoff Fuel Load Weight restriction Yes/No Violated Obstacle Depth Obstacle Height Hit Obstacles Obstacle Width Obstacle Location X, Y and Z Notes Terrain Depth Terrain Height Hit Terrain Terrain Width Terrain Location X, Y and Z Notes No. Passenger Injuries Fatal, Serious, Minor, None No. Flight Crew Fatal, Serious, Minor, None Injuries No. Cabin Crew Fatal, Serious, Minor, None Injuries No. Ground Crew Injuries Fatal, Serious, Minor Injuries On Ground Injuries Fatal, Serious, Minor Public Injuries Fatal, Serious, Minor Total Injuries Event Highest Injuries Notes

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13 Table 3. (Continued). Category Field Level 1 Field Level 2 Ceiling Dew Point Electric Storm Yes/No Fog Yes/No Frozen Precipitation Yes/No Wind Direction Wind Velocity Wind Shear Yes/No Gusts Icing Condition Yes/No Weather Light Level Dawn/Day/Dusk/Night Rain Heavy/Moderate/Light/None Snow Yes/No Temperature Visibility RVR Actual Weather Yes/No Different than Reported Weather General Local Variation Yes/No Tailwind Crosswind Explosion Fire No. Obstacles Hit Runway Exit Speed Total Wreckage Path Length Pilot Actively Avoided POFI Angle POFI Velocity POFI Location X,Y and Z Wreckage Location Longitude and Latitude Wreckage Location X,Y and Z Wreckage Info Runway Exit X Runway Touchdown X Touchdown Speed Wreckage Site Elevation Height Above Threshold Approach Speed Wreckage Path Length Up to 4 segments on Each Terrain Wreckage Slope Up to 4 segments Wreckage Surface Up to 4 segments Anomalies Power Brake (wheel brakes, spoilers or reversers) Aircraft System Fault Hydraulic Tire Other Weather Conditions Low Visibility Rain Wind Shear Tailwind Crosswind Gusts Low Ceiling Strong Wind Turbulence Freezing Rain Other (continued on next page)