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25 REFERENCES Andersson, F. 1984. Forest Ecosystem Research: Past and Present Trends. In State and Change of Forest Ecosystems: Indicators in Current Research, G. I. Agren, ed. Uppsala. Swedish University of Agricultural Research, Department of Ecology Environmental Research. Berry, C. R., and L. A. Riperton. 1963. Ozone: A possible cause of white pine evergreen tipburn. Phytopathology 53:552-557. Brodo, I. M. 1966. Lichen growth and cities: A study on Long Island, New York. Bryologist 69:427-449. Cobb, F. W., and R. W. Stark. 1970. Decline and mortality of smog-ir~jured ponderosa pine. J. For. 68:147-149. Cochran, W. G. 1983. Planning and Analysis of Observational Studies. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Cowling, E. B. 1985. Critical review discussion papers: Effects of air pollution on forests. I. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 35:916-919. Dochinger, L. S. 1968. The impact of air pollution on eastern white pine: The chlorotic dwarf disease. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 18:814-816. Fraley, L., Jr. 1971. The Response of Shortgrass Plains Vegetation to Chronic and Seasonally Administered Gamma Radiation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Hill, A. B. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causality. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 58:295-300. Holland, P. W. 1986. Statistics and causal inference. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 81:945-960. Johnson, A. H., and T. G. Siccama. 1983. Acid deposition and forest decline. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17:294a-305a. Koch, R. 1876. Die aetiologie der Milzbrand-Krankheit, begundet auf die Entwick- lungschiachte des Baiollus Antracis. Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 2:277. Kozlowski, T. T. 1985. Sulfur dioxide effects on plant community structure. Pp. 431-453 in Sulfur Dioxide and Vegetation, W. E. Winner, R. A. Mooney, and R. A. Goldstein, eds. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. Linzon, S. N. 1966. Damage to eastern white pine by sulfur dioxide, semimature-tissue needle blight and ozone. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 16:140- 144. McBride, I. R., P. R. Miller, and R. B. Laven. 1985. Effects of oxidant air pollutants on forest succession in the mixecl conifer forest type of Southern California. In Proceedings of Air Pollutants Effects on Forest Ecosystems. St. Paul, Minn.: Acid Rain Foundation.

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26 McCormick, F. 1963. Changes in a herbaceous plant community during a three-year period following exposure to ionizing radiation gradients. In Radioecology: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Radioecology held September 10-15, 1961, Colorado State University, V. Schultz and A. W. Klement, Jr., eds. New York: Reinhold. McLaughlin, S. B. 1985. Effects of air pollution on forests: A critical review. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 35:512-534. McLaughlin, S. B., D. I. Downing, T. I. Blasing, E. R. Cook, and H. S. Adams. 1987. An analysis of climate and competition as contributors to the decline of red spruce in the high elevation Appalachian forests of the eastern United States. Oecologia 72:487-501. Miller, P. R., and I. R. McBride. 1975. Effects of air pollutants on forests. Pp. 196-236 in Responses of Plants to Air Pollutants, I. B. Mudd and T. T. Kozlowski, eds. New York: Academic Press. Mosteller, F., and J. W. Tukey. 1977. Data Analysis and Regression: A Second Course in Statistics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. NRC (National Research Council). 1986. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Biologic Markers in Pulmonary Toxicology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Pitelka, L. F., and D. J. Raynal. 1989. Forest decline and acidic deposition. Ecology 70:2-10. Schutt, P., and E. B. Cowling. 1985. Waidsterben, a general decline of forests in central Europe: Symptoms, development, and possible causes. Plant Dis. 69:548-558. Sheffield, R. M., and N. D. Cost. 1987. Behind the decline. J. For. 85:29-33. Smith, W. H. 1981. Air Pollution and Forests. New York: Springer-Verlag. Woodman, J. N., and E. B. Cowling. 1987. Airborne chemicals and forest health. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21:120-126. Woodwell, G. M. 1970. Effects of pollution on the structure and physiology of ecosystems. Science 168:429-433. Woodwell, G. M., and R. A. Houghton. In press. The experimental impoverishment of natural communities: Effects of ionizing radiation on plant communities. In Patterns and Processes of Biotic Impoverishment, G. M. Woodwell, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. Yerushalmy, J., and C. E. Palmer. 1959. On the methodology of investigation of etiologic factors in chronic diseases. I. Chronic Dis. 10:27-40.