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Glossary Chemical management practice. For the purpose of this report, activities consisting of transportation across and within facility boundaries, waste reduction, storage and handling, and on-site tracking and treatment of toxic chemicals. Closure. In a mass balance application, closure is achieved when all inputs to a manufacturing facility, outputs from it, and accumulations within have been identified and the masses measured. The mass of in- puts should equal the mass of outputs plus accumulations, within the accuracy of the measurements. The masses used may be total mass, masses of individual, nonreact- ing chemicals, or masses of individual chemical elements or combinations of ele- ments. EMB (engineering mass balance). An ap- plication of the principle of mass balance to a production unit or facility. For each unit and for the whole facility, the mass of inputs, outputs, and accumulations are determined by measurement. The masses used may be the total mass, mass of a nonreacting chemical, or the masses of individual chemical elements or combinations of elements. Facility. All buildings, equipment, struc- tures, and other stationary items that are 71 located on a single site or on contiguous or adjacent sites and that are owned and operated by the same person (or by any person who controls, is controlled by, or shares control with such person). Manufacture. For the purpose of this re- port, to produce, prepare, import, or com- pound a chemical. MA (materials accounting). An approach to obtaining mass balance data that relies on information likely to be collected routinely at a facility for various purposes. Such information usually describes only material flows across facility boundaries; closure is not the goal. Examples of information used in MA are shipment records of raw materials into a facility and production records indi- cating the specific amounts of chemicals contained in products shipped from the faci- lity. More exacting measurements made for ail EMB could also be included as MA data. Mass balance. The principle that the sum of the mass of chemical inputs equals the sum of the outputs after all chemical changes and accumulation within a facility have been accounted for. Mass balance data (or information). An ac- cumulation of the quantities of chemicals transported to a facility, produced at a
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72 facility, consumed at a facility, used at a facility, accumulated at a facility, released from a facility, and transported from a facility as a waste or as a commercial product or byproduct or component of a commercial product or byproduct. New Jersey Industrial Survey. A project conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection between 1979 and 1982 to establish a MA database about the manufacture, use, storage, processing, for- mation, release, disposal, and repackaging of a group of chemical substances selected on the basis of their carcinogenicity or other toxic effects. NGA (National Governors' Association). Under agreement with the National Research Council, NGA conducted a survey to obtain information from the states about their past or current collection of mass balance- oriented data. Normalization. A procedure for adjusting the reported amount of waste by dividing it by such mass balance data as amount of input (e.g., raw material) or output (e.g., product). Precision. A measure of the agreement among individual measurements made of the same property of a sample. Process. To prepare a chemical, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce: (1) in the same form or physical state in which or in a different form or physical state from which it was received by the person so preparing such chemical, or (2) as part of an article containing the chemical. Production unit. An assemblage of equip- ment used to produce one or more chemicals or other manufactured goods. Release. Release of a toxic chemical is the discharge into the environment of the chem- ical through such actions as spilling, leak- ing, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment M45S BALANCE INFORMATION (including the abandonment or discarding of barrels, containers, and other closed recep- tacles). SARA. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. P.L. 99-499. Toxic chemicals. The 308 specific chemi- cals and 20 chemical categories listed by the EPA for the first cycle of reporting to the TRI. TRI (Tonics Release Inventory). The data- base resulting from the information reported to EPA as specified in the Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Final Rule (53 Federal Register 4525, February 16, 1988) and re- quired under SARA Section 313. TRI-listed chemical. The same as toxic chemical. Use of a toxic chemical. Any use, including those covered by the terms to "manufacture" or to "process" and including use of a toxic chemical contained in a mixture or trade- name product. The definition of "use" pre- sented in 40 CFR 372.3 of the Community Right-to-Know Final Rule (see Chapter 1) is more narrow than the definition used in this report. Waste minimization. Same as waste reduction. Waste reduction. Any of the following activities performed on wastes generated within a facility: recycling and/or reuse on site; recycling and/or reuse off site; modify- ing equipment and/or technology; modifying production and/or processing procedures; re- designing and/or reformulating a product; substituting raw materials; improving housekeeping, training, and inventory con- trol; and any other technique that results in the reduction or elimination of waste released to any environmental medium. Waste-reduction efficiency. A quantitative measure of progress in waste reduction, normalized for changes in the production rate of the facility generating the waste.