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28 lanes was higher than for HOT-3 and HOT-4 and opposition timed to coincide with the opening of the Oslo Tunnel, an was less (37% and 57%, respectively). express bypass for congested downtown arterials that is one of the road projects to be financed by toll revenues. The Oslo model does not represent congestion pricing. It was designed 65. Houston and Dallas, Texas (2006) primarily to generate revenue to finance desired transportation infrastructure improvements (6). The toll rates were low owing Method: Survey. Universe: Adults in Houston and Dallas; to 50% financial support from the national government and do English and Spanish. Sample size: N = 4,634. Margin of error: not vary much with congestion. An electronic charging option, N/A. Sample type: Opt-in, Internet. available by subscription at reduced daily or monthly rates, From May to July, an Internet survey was sponsored by uses a microwave technology; subscribers are billed monthly, TxDOT to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of providing and enforcement is by video camera. A survey before the pro- preferential treatment to HOVs in managed lanes (80). After gram was implemented found that 29% of respondents were an explanation of managed lanes, survey respondents were positive, 65% negative, and 6% unsure of the project. asked to respond to the question, "Would you be interested in using managed lanes?" There was considerable interest in the 67. Trondheim, Norway (1991) managed lane concept in both Houston and Dallas. Eighty-one percent of current toll road users polled in Dallas and 75% in Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not Houston expressed interest in using managed lanes. Seventy- reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: three percent of non-toll users in Dallas and 69% in Houston Not reported. also expressed interest. Private vehicle owners were much more likely to express interest than transit users. The percent- In April and May, a survey was conducted before the imple- age of interest was highest among individuals with a house- mentation of a toll ring system in Trondheim (Norway) (6). hold income greater than $100,000 and lowest among those The toll ring system operates 11 h per day on weekdays. Elec- with a household income less than $25,000. The top reasons tronic subscribers benefit from a discount for trips entering for interest were: travel time saving, increased travel time reli- after 10:00 and from ceilings on their charge liabilities in any ability, less stress, and that there were no large trucks on given hour or month. Seven percent of respondents were pos- the managed lanes. The primary reason travelers were not itive toward the toll ring system, 72% were negative, and 21% interested in using managed lanes was opposition to the tolls were unsure. After implementation later that year, 20% were required for their use. positive, 48% were negative, and 32% were unsure. The arti- cle noted that attitudes toward the entire package of tolls and road improvements were more evenly balanced. Before imple- CORDON TOLLING OR AREA CHARGING mentation, 28% were positive toward the entire package, 28% Data on public opinion associated with cordon tolling and area were negative, and 44 were unsure. After implementation, 32% charging are presented in this section. These strategies are were positive, 23% were negative, and 45% were unsure. employed to ease urban congestion. In cities that have used this method of pricing, there have been different methods of 68. Cambridge, England (1994) applying or implementing the schemes. Cordon tolling is gen- erally implemented as a set of tolled links surrounding a des- Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not ignated area so that all travelers entering or passing through the reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: area are tolled. A variant of cordon charging is area charging Not reported. (or area licensing) in which a charge is levied to use a vehicle within a defined area, rather than just to enter it. Although this Cambridge introduced the concept of congestion-specific synthesis focuses primarily on public opinion data starting in charging, making the charge vary in real time based on the 2000, the history of cordon tolling, which started in Singapore severity of the congestion. Although different real-time pric- in 1975, suggested that "older" data be reported. Altogether, ing schemes were proposed and tested, as in Hong Kong, the 16 data points are presented, most of which reflect research cordon tolling scheme was not enacted. Surveys in the summer activities outside of the United States. of 1994 found that the road pricing concept was viewed as "acceptable" by only one-third of respondents. This was a larger proportion than favored car bans or parking controls, but 66. Oslo, Norway (1989) far less than public transit improvements (6). Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: 69. Oslo, Norway (1999) Not reported. Method: Survey. Universe: Residents of the urban region. Oslo instituted a full-scale toll ring system in 1990, with 19 toll Sample size: N = 500. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample stations charging at all times. The imposition of the tolls was type: Not reported.

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29 In the fall, a public opinion survey was conducted to probe There are two road user charging schemes that might be consid- attitudes to transport policy measures and in particular to var- ered: an area road user license scheme for Central London, an area road user license scheme for Central and Inner London . . . the ious forms of collecting and utilizing road-user charges. The forthcoming Mayor would have the power to spend the money survey was carried out under the auspices of the "Pricing raised from such a road user charging scheme and this has to be Measures Acceptance" PRIMA project (81). Thirty-nine per- spent on additional transport and/or traffic and environmental cent of those surveyed supported cordon tolls on all access improvements in London. (82, p. 6). roads, 47% supported cordon charges only on urban high- ways, and 60% supported cordon charges only on new roads. Respondents were then asked whether they believed that a road-user charging scheme as described with a daily charge of 5 would be a "good thing" for London. Fifty-three percent 70. Stockholm, Sweden (1999) said it was a "good thing," 36% said it was a "bad thing," and 11% were neutral. Only 30% of car drivers in Inner and Cen- Method: Survey. Universe: Residents of Stockholm County. tral London believed a daily license for Central London would Sample size: N = 500. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample be a "good thing"; whereas 58% believed it was a "bad thing," type: Not reported. and 12% were neutral. Sixty-seven percent of the general pub- lic believed road-user charges would be a "good thing" if rev- In fall, a PRIMA survey was also carried out in Stockholm. enues were spent on a mix of transport improvements. This The survey was taken after a 1992 political agreement for percentage increased to 73% when the respondents' preferred cordon pricing fell apart in spring 1997 (81). The toll system transportation spending package was introduced into the ques- was cancelled. Fifteen percent of those surveyed supported tion. Respondents were asked their preferences in a prior cordon tolls on all access roads, 42% supported charges only question. Women more than men were supportive of the on urban highways, and 25% supported charges only on new road charging scheme as were younger residents, those with- roads. out access to a vehicle, and individuals who frequently used public transport. The level of positive response decreased with 71. London, England (1999) an increase in the level of the charge. Method: Survey. Universe: Residents across Greater London. The majority of the surveyed general public (57%) said Sample size: N = 2,100. Margin of error: Not reported. Sam- road-user charging was necessary and 35% said it was not. ple type: Not reported. There was little difference in response by demographics. Forty-eight percent believed road-user charging would be In March through August, a program was conducted of market unfair compared with 44% who believed it would be fair. research surveys that examined the public's current attitudes to Concerns for fairness were primarily among drivers on lower charging options in London (82). The first stage was 100 qual- incomes, followed by residents of the charging area and car itative interviews among residents, car drivers, visitors, and commuters. commercial vehicle operators, among other market segments. The car-using public voiced strong opposition to the idea of charging, particularly residents who might be affected. They 72. Helsinki, Finland (2002) resisted the idea of paying for driving in their own home area, Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not and charging residents was seen as particularly unfair. When reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: the concept of using the revenues to pay for transport improve- Not reported. ments was introduced, individuals's attitudes softened slightly. However, they expressed skepticism that improvements would A survey of residents of the metropolitan area was conducted be made and concerns about whether charging schemes could in relation to a road pricing proposal to reduce congestion actually be enforced. Visitors were also skeptical about charg- and raise revenue to improve the transit network (83). To ing and its enforcement. Although they could see some bene- implement road pricing in the region, new legislation would fits, they believed charging would be unfair, because travel to have to be passed allowing for such initiatives. There was no London was already expensive. Interest group representa- formal structure to the proposed road scheme: therefore, it tives were supportive of road charging in principle, when was developed through feasibility studies and through learn- they knew that the monies would be used to pay for transport ing from other cities' experiences, such as those of London improvements. and Stockholm. When residents were surveyed about trans- port issues, 60% believed that road pricing should never be The second stage was a set of quantitative surveys. Respon- implemented in the Helsinki area, with 69% arguing that dents were introduced to the road-user charging schemes. public transport improvements should be funded through taxes. Seventy percent believed that public transport should Because of increasing levels of congestion the Government intends be the first priority for improvement compared with only to provide local authorities with new powers to charge road users. Making driving more expensive can reduce traffic levels and pro- 18% who believed that improving conditions for car users vide a source of money to improve traffic and public transport . . . should be the priority.

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30 73. Ft. Myers Beach, Florida (2003) Banning cars in central Edinburgh, Fewer bus lanes, Method: Survey. Universe: Drivers stopped at one particular Stricter enforcement of parking regulations, intersection. Sample size: N = 1,398. Margin of error: N/A. More bus lanes, Sample type: Convenience. Higher parking charges, Increased fuel tax. Researchers from Texas A&M University re-analyzed data from a Ft. Myers Beach Congestion Mitigation Survey that Respondents were then asked how transport improvements was conducted in March to estimate the potential effective- should be funded. The options provided ranged from conges- ness of a cordon toll around Ft. Myers Beach (84). Self-mailer tion charging and higher parking charges to increased income questionnaires were handed to drivers at an intersection and at tax and fuel taxes; most car users and non-users preferred con- a grocery store in Ft. Myers. The survey population repre- gestion charging. sented non-residents, seasonal residents, and long-term resi- dents. Overall, 64% of respondents agreed that "tolls are a fair way to pay for transportation improvements." Agree- 75. Stockholm, Sweden (2005/2006) ment was highest among non-residents (80%) and lowest among long-term residents (53%). Approval increased to Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not 57% among long-term residents in response to the question, reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: Not "if there were a way to reimburse residents, how do you feel reported. about the tolls?" A congestion tax trial was implemented in central Stockholm from January to July 2006. The trial consisted of a cordon- 74. Edinburgh, Scotland (2003) based variable pricing scheme to enter the city center (86). Before the trial in fall 2005, approximately 55% of all Stock- Method: Survey. Universe: Residents of Edinburgh and sur- holm county residents believed that it was a "rather" or "very" rounding communities. Sample size: N = 2,406. Margin of bad decision to conduct a congestion tax trial. In May 2006, error: Not reported. Sample type: Not reported. only 41% believed that it was a "rather" or "very" bad decision. After the seven-month trial was complete, a referendum was In the fall, the city of Edinburgh Council assessed the public held to ascertain whether the people of Stockholm and the sur- acceptance of cordon tolling (85). The pricing proposal fea- rounding municipalities were in favor of a permanent system of tured two charging cordons; one operating from 7:00 a.m. to road-user charging. In the city of Stockholm, 53% voted 6:30 p.m. around the outskirts of the central heritage area, and "yes" to the introduction of a permanent scheme, and 47% one generally following the route of the city bypass, operating voted, "no." Outside the city in the commuter belt, 15 of 26 sur- from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. A total of 19,500 questionnaires rounding municipalities held their own referendums; 48% were were mailed, with 684 returned by Edinburgh residents and in support and 52% were against. 1,722 by residents of the surrounding areas. Respondents were asked to indicate how they would vote in the proposed 2005 referendum, and there was aggregate majority opposi- 76. Shanghai, China (2005) tion to the proposal. Non-car users gave the proposal clear majority support, whereas among car users there was clear Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not majority opposition. Another question on the survey asked for reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: agreement or disagreement with the statement, "Traffic con- Not reported. gestion on Edinburgh's road network will get worse and it needs to be reduced." There was clear majority support for Public opinion was measured related to a feasibility study for congestion reduction among both groups. Respondents were road pricing in Shanghai to reduce congestion and improve air then given a range of alternatives for reducing congestion and quality (83). Car drivers did not support the scheme. An inter- asked to select their preferred options. The rank order of pref- est survey indicated that 91% did not agree with the scheme, erences were compared with only 7% who did. The cordon scheme would operate only during weekday morning and evening peak peri- Better quality public transport, ods and would charge every time a vehicle entered the zone. More park and ride facilities, The priced areas covered the core of the commercial heart of Cheaper public transport, the city, where traffic concentration and congestion delays Provision of school buses, were greatest, with limited scope for new highway construction Increased road capacity on key routes, to resolve the problems. The technology would be a tag-and- Improved cycling and walking facilities, beacon-style approach. The scheme would be implemented as More car sharing schemes, part of a package that included public transport improvements, Congestion charging, metro construction, bus priority schemes, traffic management Re-opening closed road sections to traffic, improvements, and road network improvement.

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31 77. London, England (2006) dence that congestion pricing would ease traffic see it as a "bad idea." Congestion pricing is seen as a "good idea" by Manhat- Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not tan (49%) and Staten Island (58%) residents more often than reported. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: other boroughs and by those working in Manhattan (50%) Not reported. more often than by residents working elsewhere (40%). Rea- sons why respondents found congestion pricing a good idea The current Central London Congestion Charge run by Trans- included because they believe it would reduce traffic, traffic port for London (TfL) has been operational since February jams, and congestion in the area; increase use of public trans- 2003 (83,86). In this time, it has undergone several variations portation; decrease unnecessary cars, trucks, and people in the altering arrangements for payments and arrangements for area; bring increased revenue to the city; and reduce pollution. operations such as fleet schemes. Perhaps most significantly, the charge was increased form 5 to 8 in July 2005. The orig- Congestion pricing is seen as a "bad idea" by those who inal scheme was implemented with the aim of reducing con- travel to work in their cars (55%) more than public transit users gestion, making radical improvement to bus services, improv- (40%), by those in households with cars (49%) more often ing journey time reliability for car users, and making the than those without cars (38%), and by residents under the age distribution of goods and services more efficient. The scheme of 30 (53%) more than by those in their 40s and 50s (38%). has been proven to improve air quality and reduce levels of Reasons for believing it is a "bad idea" included: harmful emissions and particulates contributing to poor health and climate change. Public support has been tracked since There are already too many tolls or taxes; before the implementation of the scheme. This had demon- It will be too expensive for individuals who are already strated how support improves with awareness of the scheme paying too much; and when the positive impacts of the schedule are visible and It will increase traffic and congestion rather than reported. Surveys reported support to be around 40% in the run decrease it; up to the scheme and between 50% and 60% in the following It won't solve the problem; year. Sixty percent supported the congestion charge in 2006 It is unfair or not right to charge to enter Manhattan; and and more than 80% reported that they would accept charging It will hurt businesses and increase prices. if public transport improved. 79. New York, New York (2007) 78. New York, New York (2006) Method: Survey. Universe: New York City registered voters. Sample size: N = 1,013. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample Method: Survey. Universe: New York City residents 18 years type: Not reported. of age and older; English and Spanish. Sample size: N = 800. Margin of error: 3.5 percentage points. Not reported. Sam- In January, a Quinnipiac University Poll found that New York ple type: RDD. City voters oppose congestion pricing by a 62% to 31% mar- gin (88). This was measured by the question: "Do you support In June, the Tri-State Transportation Campaign commissioned or oppose charging vehicle owners a fee to drive below 60th a survey to explore and benchmark New York City residents' Street in Manhattan during rush hours?" There was greater awareness of congestion pricing, factors that would contribute support among Manhattan residents (rather than other bor- to support or opposition to congestion pricing in the Central oughs), Caucasians (as opposed to Blacks and Hispanics), and Business District of Manhattan, and concepts to inform the public transit users. There were several issues related to the development of a communications program, including identi- congestion pricing proposal that were tested with survey fication of relevant message and consumer-end benefits (87). respondents: (1) Congestion pricing would unfairly tax indi- One in five city residents (18%) stated that they have never viduals who live outside of Manhattan--57% agreed and 37% heard or read anything about congestion pricing. Respondents disagreed, with higher agreement among Blacks and Hispan- were almost equally divided on whether traffic congestion ics; women; and residents of the Boroughs of Bronx and pricing or charging a toll to cars and trucks entering Manhat- Queens, and Kings County; (2) It would be bad for the econ- tan below 60th Street would be a "good idea" (44%) or "bad omy because fewer individuals will come into Manhattan; idea" (45%). Twelve percent could not say. therefore, restaurants and other businesses will lose revenue-- 47% agreed and 47% disagreed, with higher agreement among After hearing a description of the congestion pricing pro- Blacks and Hispanics, women, and residents of Bronx and gram implemented in London, 73% of respondents (40% very Queens; (3) It would improve mass transit because increased likely and 33% somewhat likely) believe congestion pricing demand would lead to increased service--48% agreed and would be likely to reduce traffic congestion in Manhattan 45% disagreed, with higher agreement among men and resi- below 60th Street if put into operation in that area. Among dents of Manhattan and Staten Island; (4) It would be good for those who believe congestion pricing is very likely to reduce the economy because traffic congestion costs New Yorkers traffic, 62% believe the program is a "good idea" and 31% billions of wasted dollars every year--42% agreed and 49% view it as a "bad idea." Most (65%) of those with little confi- disagreed, with higher agreement among Manhattan residents.