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32 80. New York, New York (2007) Manhattan (91). This was measured by the question: "Do you support or oppose the Bloomberg administration's congestion Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: N = pricing plan?" Upstate voters opposed the idea 42% to 27%, 1,150. Margin of error: Not applicable. Sample type: Opt-in. whereas New York City voters opposed it 57% to 35% and suburban voters opposed it 54% to 34%. Those who usually In April, New York City's mayor put forth several proposals traveled into and out of Manhattan by car opposed it 62% to to improve the environment of the city including congestion 11%, compared with 50% to 11% for those whose usual means pricing (89). An online poll conducted by Crain's New York of travel was public transit. Business a few days after the Mayor's announcement found that more than half of respondents supported the Mayor's pro- When asked whether they would "support congestion pric- posal (53%), with 45% saying that congestion pricing was ing if the money were used to prevent an increase in mass tran- needed to reduce gridlock and 8% saying that the surcharge sit fares and bridge and tunnel tolls," support among statewide would help generate needed funds for the city. Of the 47% voters increased to 52% and opposition decreased to 36%. who opposed the plan, 38% said congestion pricing was New York City voters would back the idea 50% to 33%. unfair to small business owners and residents who have no choice but to drive into Manhattan; 9% said the plan would When asked "how much have you heard or read about con- increase congestion elsewhere in the city. Under the Mayor's gestion pricing, a plan adopted by some major cities to reduce proposal, the city would impose a surcharge on cars and traffic by charging a fee to drive into congested areas," most trucks entering Manhattan during peak hours on weekdays. persons had heard "a lot" (31%) or some (30%). Very few The charge would be $8 for car drivers and $21 for truck oper- knew "nothing at all" (22%) or "not much" (13%). Indeed, 52% ators to drive into Manhattan south of 86th Street. The fee of respondents in New York City had heard or read "a lot." would only be imposed during the week, between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. Also, motorists driving major highways along Manhat- tan's east and west sides would not be charged, so it would be PUBLICPRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS possible to go from Brooklyn to Harlem along Franklin D. To meet the gap in funding highway infrastructure with public Roosevelt Drive without entering the zone. The fee would be capital, policy makers are considering PPPs for selected toll reduced by the toll commuters who already pay to enter Man- road projects. Typically, these agreements are complex, long- hattan by bridges and tunnels and who do not use E-ZPass term arrangements that involve the private sector agreeing transponders. A network of cameras would capture the license to construct or rehabilitate a public access toll facility in plate numbers of vehicles crossing the cordon and either exchange for rights to the future toll revenues. Although PPPs charge a driver's existing commuter account or generate a bill (or concessions) are not new, the entry of this issue into the to be paid each time. Revenues from fees would be used to public opinion realm is just beginning. make improvements in the transit system. 83. Dallas, Texas (2005) 81. United States National Poll (2007) Method: Survey. Universe: Individuals 18 years of age or Method: Survey. Universe: Individuals who opted-in to web- older, residing within targeted census tracts in the Dallas/Fort site poll. Sample size: N = 1,150. Margin of error: Not appli- Worth area, who have at least one household vehicle avail- cable. Sample type: Opt-in. able for use and travel State Highway 121 at least once per A Harris Poll found that 37% of U.S. adults say that traffic week. Sample size: N = 1,011. Margin of error: 3%. Sample congestion is a serious problem in their community (90). Two- type: RDD. thirds of that 37% say it is not being addressed. The poll asked In August, a stated preference survey was executed as part of questions about London-type congestion pricing, calling it a an Investment Grade Traffic and Revenue Study in connection congestion tax. Sixty-six percent were opposed, most of them with State Highway 121 (92). The stated preference survey strongly. Only 22% said they would support it. measured public opinions, acceptance, travel behaviors, and preferences relating to tolling and the private development of 82. New York, New York (2007) the State Highway 121 toll road located in Denton and Collin counties, north of Dallas, Texas. A majority of respondents Method: Survey. Universe: New York City registered voters. (56%) believed that it was a good idea to complete necessary Sample size: N = 1,369. Margin of error: 2.7%. Sample type: construction on State Highway 121 through the use of tolls, Not reported. 38% believed it was a bad idea, and 6% did not know. Much fewer (42%) believed it was a good idea for TxDOT to allow In June, a Quinnipiac University Poll found that New York a private firm to build State Highway 121 in exchange for City voters statewide oppose 52% to 31% Mayor Michael the right to collect tolls. About the same percentage (41%) Bloomberg's proposal to charge a fee for drivers entering believed it was a bad idea, and 18% did not know.

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33 84. San Antonio, Texas (2006) a bad idea (95); 6% were not sure. The governor's administra- tion reported that most of the money would be used to help Method: Survey. Universe: Not reported. Sample size: Not finance hundreds of highway and other transportation projects, reported. Margin of error: N/A. Sample type: Opt-in. many of which otherwise would never happen or would have been decades away. Democrats made their opposition to the In February, a San Antonio Business Journal online Business lease a top campaign issue going into November's election. Pulse survey indicated that 74% of participants voting in the Republicans were more likely than Democrats to support the poll opposed hiring private contractors to build and manage lease (46% and 30%, respectively). Those respondents in the toll roads in San Antonio (93). Twenty-two percent supported northern part of the state were more likely to be opposed such a move, whereas 3% were undecided. Toll roads are cur- than those in the south (the toll road bisects the northern rently planned in San Antonio along stretches of U.S. High- Indiana county of St. Joseph). In a list of important issues way 281 and Loop 1604 and possibly a portion of Interstate facing the state, toll roads were far down on the list (6%), Highway 35. compared with health care costs (18%), taxes and state spending (17%), education funding (14%), illegal immigra- 85. Statewide Indiana (2006) tion (10%), and gas prices (5%). Method: Survey. Universe: Indiana residents age 18 and older. Sample size: N = 501. Margin of error: 4.4%. Sample 87. Statewide New Jersey (2007) type: RDD, probability. Method: Survey. Universe: New Jersey residents. Sample size: In March, 30% of respondents to a statewide telephone poll N = 1,000. Margin of error: Not reported. Sample type: Not believed that the deal to lease the Indiana Toll Road (i.e., take reported. over operations, maintenance, and revenues) to an Australian Spanish consortium for 75 years to raise money for highway In February, a statewide poll commissioned by AAA's Mid- projects was a good idea, whereas 60% said it was a bad idea Atlantic chapter indicated that 56% of residents opposed sell- (94). Nearly half of those polled who were against the lease ing or leasing the New Jersey Turnpike and Garden State (47%) said they opposed it primarily because of foreign Parkway to private interests to pay down the state's debt (41% control, 13% of those opposed believed tolls would likely strongly opposed and 15% somewhat opposed) (96). Twenty increase, 12% were against private control of a public asset, percent supported the concept (4% strongly supported and 27% cited a variety of other reasons, and 1% were not sure of 16% somewhat supported). Twenty-four percent were unde- the reason for their opposition. When asked if money raised by cided. Respondents who opposed selling or leasing the New leasing the toll road should used be only for highway and Jersey Turnpike and Garden State Parkway to private inter- transportation projects, 50% said it should be used for other ests were more supportive (65%) of using the money from the programs as well as transportation, whereas 41% said it should sale or lease for transportation investment. Sixty-eight percent be restricted to highway/transportation uses and 9% were were aware of the issue. The poll found that 65% of the unsure. Also indicated in the poll was that governor's approval respondents said money from a sale or lease should go toward rating (in 2006) decreased to 37% from the 55% rating of 2004, transportation investment. The article indicated that the poll a few months after taking office. Several residents quoted in the results show that many residents are concerned about losing article (94) mentioned that the governor was "trying to do too control of well-maintained toll roads that have had few toll many things too fast." The article noted that in trying to build increases. A spokesperson for the state's Treasury Depart- support for the toll road lease, the governor has courted busi- ment was quoted as saying, "the public is not well-served nesses and labor groups, held town meetings, and lobbied law- when public opinion is tested before the Corzine administra- makers, always underscoring the state's road construction tion has made any proposal." needs in a 10-year timetable of projects, called Major Moves. The governor had cast the toll road lease as "the jobs vote of a 88. Dallas, Texas (2007) generation." Method: Survey. Universe: Individuals 18 years of age or 86. Statewide Indiana (2006) older, residing within targeted census tracts in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, who have at least one household vehicle available Method: Survey. Universe: Likely voters. Sample size: N = 800. for use and travel State Highway 121 at least once per week. Margin of error: 3.5 percentage points. Sample type: Not Sample size: N = 1,011. Margin of error: 3 percentage reported. points. Sample type: RDD. In September, 39% of respondents to a statewide telephone In May, a stated preference survey was executed as part of an poll believed the deal to lease the Indiana Toll Road to an Investment Grade Traffic and Revenue Study in connection AustralianSpanish consortium for 75 years to raise money with L.B.J. Highway (97). The stated preference survey for highway projects was a good idea, whereas 55% said it was measured public opinions, acceptance, travel behaviors, and