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8 represent the range of public support and/or opposition as Two appendices complement the synthesis. Appendix A is measured by public opinion research. a copy of the original survey as sent to practitioners. Appen- dix B provides data tables that describe the survey or polls presented in chapter three. ORGANIZATION This synthesis is organized into five chapters. The remainder AUDIENCES of chapter one describes the balance of the report and identi- fies the intended audiences for the synthesis. This synthesis is intended to serve as a resource for the fol- lowing several types of individuals and organizations: Chapter two describes the methods used for the literature review and for a survey of tolling and road pricing agencies. · Public and elected officials who must make difficult deci- It also describes analysis techniques. This chapter is not sions about infrastructure policy and projects. intended to be a detailed discussion, but rather to provide a · State departments of transportation (DOTs) that are in general understanding of the study's methods. various stages of considering, planning, implementing, and operating tolled facilities. Chapter three is the core of the synthesis--the raw data. · Metropolitan planning organizations that are responsible We have defined data in this case as polls, surveys, inter- for developing and selecting projects to finance in urban views, or focus groups that were executed to capture public areas' long-range transportation plans where tolled facil- opinion about tolling, road pricing, and related issues. In ities are being considered. total, 104 data points are presented. The amount of informa- · Tolling authorities and operators who finance, construct, tion provided about each was dependent on the content of the operate, and manage priced roads. source materials. A source for each data point is provided in · Public relations, public education, or marketing profes- the Reference section. sionals charged with communicating with the public or other stakeholders. Chapter four presents the results of our data analysis. It · Consultants, academics, and other researchers interested identifies common themes, trends, and factors that influence in empirical research on this important and timely trans- public opinion on tolling and road pricing. portation issue. Chapter five offers conclusions drawn from the findings Although it is largely based on practice in the United States, and makes suggestions for future research in the area of pub- it is expected that the synthesis would be of interest to audi- lic opinion about tolling and road pricing. ences outside the country for adoption to their local contexts.