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12 TABLE 8 RANGE OF PEAK PARATRANSIT FLEETS AMONG RESPONDENTS Peak Fleet Size <25 25 to 99 100 to 199 200 % of Respondents 65% 27% 4% 4% Question 24--Who Is Responsible To seek out possible trends, each question on policies and for the Following? practices was studied in two ways: (1) in summary form and (2) cross-tabulated by average weekday total paratransit trips, Table 9 presents a distribution of responsibility among in- as reported by the respondents in Question 15. Average week- house, broker, other contractor, or a combination. Responsi- day total paratransit trips is a gauge of an operation's size, bility for eligibility determination, customer information, and which can be viewed as having an important influence (more vehicle ownership are overwhelmingly handled in-house. Only so than age or geography) over the decisions an agency makes. 2% to 7% of respondents reported broker responsibility for any paratransit function. On the other hand, 15% to 43% of respondents reported that paratransit functions are handled Analysis of Policies and Practices for More by other contractors, with the training, hiring, and supervision Effective and/or Efficient Paratransit Service functions garnering the highest rate of response. Because questions about responsibilities allowed respondents to check Question 25--Does Your ADA Paratransit Service more than one answer, the survey found that nearly 20% of Make Use of Any of the Following Eligibility Policies or Practices? respondents reported multiple responsibilities for customer information and for training of other paratransit staff. Question 26--Please Include Any Comments on Your Eligibility Responses Here. PARATRANSIT POLICIES AND PRACTICES USED Table 10 shows that the majority of all respondents use con- BY SURVEY RESPONDENTS ditional eligibility (68%), periodic recertification (69%), and Introduction travel training (56%) as eligibility policies and practices in their ADA paratransit services. Participants were asked a number of questions concerning the following six areas of ADA paratransit service: Table 10 also shows that the use of these three policies and practices is especially high among respondents of the sec- 1. Eligibility policies and practices, ond largest size (large weekday total paratransit trips): 87%, 2. Trip reservation policies and practices, 93%, and 87%, respectively. Travel training is a highly used 3. Daily operations, practice as well (88%) among the largest respondents (more 4. Use of taxis, than 1,000 total weekday paratransit trips). 5. Coordination with social service agencies, and 6. Management and administrative programs. On the other hand, the table shows a deviation from the summary majority response regarding travel training among Of the 124 unique survey responses received, 21 respon- the smallest respondents (fewer than 250 weekday total para- dents did not answer the questions on paratransit policies and transit trips). The responses from this group indicate that a practices used; therefore, the tables that follow cover the majority of these agencies (58%) do not have travel training responses received from the remaining 103 agencies. programs. Also showing a reversal from the summary trends is TABLE 9 PARATRANSIT RESPONSIBILITIES AMONG RESPONDENTS Other Multiple Responsibility In-House Broker Contractor Answers Eligibility Determination 88% 4% 19% 11% Customer Information 89% 7% 25% 19% Trip Reservations 69% 5% 32% 5% Vehicle Scheduling 69% 4% 32% 6% Vehicle Dispatching 67% 4% 35% 6% Vehicle Ownership 93% 2% 15% 10% Vehicle Maintenance 67% 4% 36% 7% Driver Hiring and Supervision 65% 3% 39% 6% Driver Training 68% 2% 43% 13% Training for Other Paratransit Staff 76% 3% 39% 18%

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13 TABLE 10 ELIGIBILITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES USED IN ADA PARATRANSIT SERVICE (by weekday paratransit trips) Overall Small Medium Large Very Large Policy/Practice Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Conditional Eligibility 68% 32% 60% 40% 71% 29% 87% 13% 71% 29% Trip-by-Trip Eligibility 39% 61% 38% 62% 33% 67% 60% 40% 29% 71% Periodic Recertification 69% 31% 58% 42% 62% 38% 93% 7% 88% 12% Feeder Service to/from Fixed 37% 63% 34% 66% 33% 67% 53% 47% 35% 65% Route Travel Training 56% 44% 42% 58% 62% 38% 87% 13% 65% 35% Other Eligibility Policies and 33% 67% 28% 72% 29% 71% 47% 53% 41% 59% Practices the use of eligibility practices, trip-by-trip eligibility, and feeder Question 30--Please Include Any Comments service to/from a fixed route among the "Large" respondents on Your Daily Operations Responses Here. (500 to 999 average weekday total paratransit trips). A major- ity of transit agencies in this group reported that they employ Table 12 shows that the most common type of innovative trip-by trip eligibility (60%) and feeder service (53%). practices among the survey respondents was use of tech- nology and flexible staffing (both 40%). The majority of Question 27--Does Your ADA Paratransit Service the "Large" respondents use innovative practices in vehi- Make Use of Any of the Following Policies cle scheduling (53%); technology (67%); flexible staffing or Practices for Trip Reservations? (53%); and allocation of drivers, vehicles, or other resources (60%). A majority of the "Very Large" operators responded Question 28--Please Include Any Comments on Your Trip Reservations Responses Here. that they have innovative practices in use of technology (65%). Table 11 shows that a slight majority of all respondents offer on-demand or same-day reservations (54%) and that the Question 31--Does Your ADA Paratransit Service "Small" and "Medium" operations are more likely to do so Make Use of Taxis in Any of the Following Ways? than the "Large" and "Very Large" operations. Only 10% of Question 32--Please Include Any Comments all respondents use the Internet for trip reservations. Chapter on Your Taxi Responses Here. four reviews some of the respondents that are testing this method of receiving trip requests. Table 13 shows that a majority of all respondents do not use Question 29--Does Your ADA Paratransit Service taxis in their ADA paratransit services. Although this is true Use Special Policies or Practices in Any of for all respondent groups, the use of accessible taxis, taxis as the Following Elements of Daily Operations? regular contractors, taxis as overflow contractors, and taxis as TABLE 11 TRIP RESERVATION POLICIES AND PRACTICES USED IN ADA PARATRANSIT SERVICE Overall Small Medium Large Very Large Policy/Practice Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No On-Demand or Same- 54% 46% 54% 46% 62% 38% 53% 47% 47% 53% Day Reservations Internet Access for Trip 10% 90% 4% 96% 14% 86% 20% 80% 12% 88% Requests, Changes, Confirmations, Cancellations TTDs 59% 41% 54% 46% 43% 57% 80% 20% 76% 24% Multi-Lingual Call 50% 50% 40% 60% 38% 62% 73% 27% 71% 29% Takers Other Trip Reservation 41% 59% 48% 52% 24% 76% 40% 60% 41% 59% Policies and Practices

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14 TABLE 12 INNOVATIVE DAILY OPERATIONS POLICIES AND PRACTICES USED IN ADA PARATRANSIT SERVICE Overall Small Medium Large Very Large Policy/Practice Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Vehicle Scheduling 36% 64% 40% 60% 14% 86% 53% 47% 35% 65% Dispatching 37% 63% 42% 58% 19% 81% 40% 60% 41% 59% Feeder Service 16% 84% 16% 84% 14% 86% 27% 73% 6% 94% Use of Technology 40% 60% 28% 72% 29% 71% 67% 33% 65% 35% Flexible Staffing 40% 60% 46% 54% 24% 76% 53% 47% 29% 71% Allocation of Drivers, 36% 64% 40% 60% 24% 76% 60% 40% 18% 82% Vehicles, or Other Resources Other Daily Operations 26% 74% 30% 70% 5% 95% 33% 67% 35% 65% Policies and Practices same-day contractors is significantly higher among the largest Question 35--Does Your ADA Paratransit Service respondents (47%, 41%, 47%, and 29%, respectively). Only Have Any of the Following Special Management or Administrative Programs? 6% of all respondents said that they used taxis as other pre- mium service contractors. Question 36--Please Include Any Comments on Your Management/Administrative Program Question 33--Does Your ADA Paratransit Service Responses Here. Coordinate with Social Service Agencies in Any of the Following Ways? Table 15 shows that service monitoring was the only type of management or administrative program in which a majority of Question 34--Please Include Any Comments on Your Coordination Responses Here. the survey respondents (57%) reported that they were doing something innovative. In addition, a large portion of the "Very Table 14 shows that a majority of all respondents generally Large" operations (76%) reported that they had some innova- do not coordinate with social service agencies in running tive service monitoring policies or practices. their ADA paratransit services. The exception to this rule is the practice of coordinating program schedules for more Although no other management or administrative program efficient schedules, for which half of all transit agencies was reported to be in use by the majority of respondents over- responded in the affirmative. When broken down by size, all or by the majority in any subcategory, a closer examination the respondents who average fewer than 250 weekday of this question reveals a few interesting variations. Respon- total paratransit trips are slightly more likely to coordinate dents from the "Very Large" operators used incentive pro- program schedules for more efficient schedules (54%), grams for riders somewhat more frequently than respondents whereas the "Medium," "Large," and "Very Large" sys- in other groups, but used alternate sources of revenue far less tems were somewhat less likely to do so. In addition, other frequently than respondents in the other groups. Respon- coordination policies and practices received a particularly dents from the "Large" operations used creative budgeting high positive response rate (59%) among the "Very Large" (as defined by the respondents) significantly more than respon- respondents. dents in other groups. TABLE 13 TAXI POLICIES AND PRACTICES USED IN ADA PARATRANSIT SERVICE Overall Small Medium Large Very Large Policy/Practice Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Accessible Taxis 17% 83% 6% 94% 10% 90% 27% 73% 47% 53% Taxis as Regular 16% 84% 8% 92% 5% 95% 27% 73% 41% 59% Contractors Taxis as Overflow 21% 79% 10% 90% 19% 81% 33% 67% 47% 53% Contractors Taxis as Same-Day 12% 88% 6% 94% 5% 95% 20% 80% 29% 71% Contractors Taxis as Other Premium 6% 94% 4% 96% 0% 100% 13% 87% 12% 88% Service Contractors Other Uses of Taxis 15% 85% 16% 84% 5% 95% 20% 80% 18% 82%