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24 enough to offset the higher insurance costs. Finally, the sup- of receiving funding for certain programs directed at meeting plied vehicles will eventually need rehabilitation or replace- the needs of older individuals, persons with disabilities, and ment, which will require a significant financial outlay to keep low-income persons. The plan must be developed through the service in operation. Appendix E provides other findings a process that includes representatives of public, private, and from this demonstration project. non-profit transportation providers and public, private, and non-profit human service providers and participation by the public. Complete plans, including coordination with the full Opportunities for Improved Efficiency range of existing human service transportation providers, are required by fiscal year 2008. Taxicabs are a more efficient vehicle for system operators because they can be used for other revenue purposes. As fleets The current public face of coordination at the federal level continue to include converted minivans or purpose-built vehi- is the United We Ride program ( It is cles such as the Standard Taxi, the efficiencies can be realized intended to gather all the information and technical assistance in the other direction. In other words, when general taxi busi- at one location. It also provides links to all of the state action ness is slow, the accessible taxis can be used to further supple- plans for coordination. ment paratransit operations. In addition, companies with the vehicles are finding that there is demand for accessible taxi- A number of states have mandated some level of coordina- cabs from people in the disabled community not eligible for tion. According to a recent TCRP report, at least 12 states fund subsidized paratransit (Lave and Mathias 1998). local public transportation for older adults and persons with disabilities: Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Taxi companies are changing by adopting sophisticated dis- North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, patching capabilities and by entering into contracts to provide Washington, and Wisconsin (TranSystems et al. 2004). other transportation services. Companies are actively compet- ing with private paratransit contractors for health maintenance More coordination at the local and regional level is taking organizations and Medicaid transportation contracts and for place--a requirement of receiving transportation funding from ADA service (Lave and Mathias 1998). Having vehicles that the nine federal departments that, along with the Social Secu- can operate either as paratransit vehicles or as taxis for the gen- rity Administration and the National Council on Disabilities, eral public provides maximum flexibility for taxicab compa- comprise the Federal Interagency Coordinating Council on nies that also serve as contractors for paratransit services. Access and Mobility. COORDINATION OF ADA PARATRANSIT The references cited in chapter two, along with the website WITH OTHER TRANSPORTATION SERVICES for United We Ride, provide extensive information on current coordination activities. However, as cited in chapter three, the Coordination of transportation services for the transportation respondents to the survey overall did not see themselves as car- disadvantaged has been an ongoing activity and goal since the rying out many innovative policies or practices in coordina- 1970s. In 1980, the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and tion. The following paragraphs present some of the transit Welfare published two documents: Planning Guidelines for agency responses to the open-ended question on coordination Coordinated Transportation Services (Applied Resource Inte- (Question 34). gration Ltd. 1980a) and Implementation Guidelines for Coor- dinated Agency Transportation Services (Applied Resource Transit agencies in several states, including California, Integration Ltd. 1980b). Although the technology certainly has Florida, and Pennsylvania, indicated that they are the county evolved (and the department no longer exists), much of the or regional transportation coordinator or broker. Other transit guidance in these two documents remains valid. agencies contract for their ADA paratransit service with an agency that is doing the county coordination or with a private More recently at the federal level, 2004 Presidential operator that also has transportation contracts with social ser- Executive Order 13330 created an interdepartmental Federal vice agencies. Council on Access and Mobility to undertake collective and individual departmental actions to reduce duplication among For some of the agencies, ADA rides are a small portion of federally funded human service transportation services; their total paratransit operation. For example, the Red Rose increase the efficient delivery of such services; and expand Transit Authority (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) wrote that "ADA transportation access for older individuals, persons with dis- comprises about 10% of the total trips." abilities, persons with low income, children, and other dis- advantaged populations within their own communities. Here are some examples of coordination activities by respondents to the survey: In 2005, SAFETEA-LU created a requirement that a locally developed, coordinated public transit/human service planning Santa Fe Trails (Santa Fe, New Mexico) indicated that it process and an initial plan be developed by 2007 as a condition has "a coordinated call center which gives transportation