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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 614 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Refining the Simple Performance Tester for Use in Routine Practice

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 614 Refining the Simple Performance Tester for Use in Routine Practice Ramon Bonaquist ADVANCED ASPHALT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC Sterling, VA Subject Areas Maintenance Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 614 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 9-29 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-09938-7 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008928656 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 614 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 09-29 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Bituminous Materials Larry L. Michael, Hagerstown, MD (Chair) Ronald Cominsky, Pennsylvania Asphalt Pavement Association, Harrisburg, PA Gary A. Frederick, New York State DOT, Albany, NY Cindy LaFleur, Callanan Industries, Inc., Albany, NY Dean A. Maurer, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg, PA Murari M. Pradhan, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ John "Jack" Weigel, Jr., Payne & Dolan, Inc., Waukesha, WI Thomas Harman, FHWA Liaison Leslie Ann McCarthy, FHWA Liaison Audrey Copeland, Other Liaison John D'Angelo, Other Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported here was performed under NCHRP Project 9-29 by Advanced Asphalt Tech- nologies, LLC. The Simple Performance Test Systems evaluated in this report were developed by Indus- trial Process Controls, Ltd, Interlaken Technology Corporation and Medical Device Testing Systems. The Simple Performance Test Specimen Fabrication System evaluated in this report was developed by Shedworks, Inc. Ramon Bonaquist, Chief Operating Officer for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC, served as Principal Investigator for the project and authored this report. Donald W. Christensen, Senior Engineer for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC and Donald Jack, Laboratory Manager for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC assisted with the equipment refinements and equipment evaluation reported in this document.

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FOREWORD By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents the findings of a research project to develop a practical, economical simple performance tester (SPT) for use in routine hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mix design and in the characterization of HMA materials for pavement structural design with the Mechanistic- Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG, version 1.0 available for evaluation at www. trb.org/mepdg). In the work reported here, the effectiveness and efficiency of the SPT were sub- stantially improved for its use in routine, day-to-day pavement structural design with the MEPDG. Thus, the report will be of particular interest to materials and pavement structural design engineers in state highway agencies, as well as to materials suppliers. The present HMA volumetric mix design method used by the majority of state highway agencies was developed in the asphalt component of the Strategic Highway Research Pro- gram (19871993). This method--standardized as AASHTO M 323 and R 35--does not include a simple, mechanical "proof" test analogous to the Marshall stability and flow tests or the Hveem stabilometer method. Though the utility and soundness of the HMA mix design method are evident by its almost ubiquitous, present-day use, mix designers from the beginning have asked for com- plementary simple performance tests to quickly and easily proof-test candidate mix designs. In 1996, work sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration began at the University of Maryland--College Park to identify and validate simple performance tests for permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. In 1999, this effort was transferred to Task C of NCHRP Project 9-19, "Superpave Support and Performance Models Management," with major activity conducted at Arizona State University as well as the University of Maryland. NCHRP Project 9-19 recommended three test and parameter combinations as simple performance tests for permanent deformation: (1) the dynamic modulus, E*, determined with the triaxial dynamic modulus test; (2) the flow time, FT, determined with the triaxial static creep test; and (3) the flow number, Fn, determined with the triaxial repeated load test. The dynamic modulus, E*, also was chosen as the simple performance test for fatigue cracking. Under NCHRP Project 9-29, "Simple Performance Tester for Superpave Mix Design," Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC was assigned the task of designing, procuring, and evaluating an SPT for (1) proof-testing for permanent deformation and fatigue cracking in HMA mix design and (2) materials characterization for pavement structural design with the MEPDG. In the portion of NCHRP Project 9-29 reported here, the research team conducted two major tasks aimed at continued development of the SPT. In the first task, an abbreviated testing protocol for developing dynamic modulus master curves for use in routine mixture evaluation and flexible pavement design was developed and validated. The abbreviated test-

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ing protocol is based on analysis of numerous dynamic modulus master curves produced using AASHTO TP62. Details of the analysis are presented in Chapter 2 and a recommended Standard Practice for developing dynamic modulus master curves for routine mixture eval- uation and flexible pavement design is presented in Appendix A. The abbreviated testing protocol includes testing at three temperatures between 39.2 and 115F using four frequencies of loading between 0.01 and 10 Hz. The low temperature required some modification of the SPT developed earlier in NCHRP Project 9-29 to permit master curve testing, viz., (1) improved cooling capacity, (2) additional load capacity, and (3) software modification to include 0.01 Hz load control. Cost estimates from potential vendors indicated that the additional cooling and loading capacity would only add approx- imately 5 percent to the cost of the SPT. In the second task, the SPT equipment specification was revised to produce a device capable of performing dynamic modulus master curves using the abbreviated protocol described above. This version of the SPT maintains the capability to perform the flow num- ber and flow time testing. The revised equipment specification is presented in Appendix B and was used to (1) upgrade the first-article devices that were purchased and evaluated ear- lier in the project and (2) procure and evaluate additional production units from several vendors. This report presents the full text of the contractor's final report and three appendices, which present (1) proposed standard practices for (a) developing dynamic modulus mas- ter curves and (b) preparing cylindrical test specimens for use with the SPT (Appendix A); (2) a revised SPT purchase specification (Appendix B); and (3) a specification for an SPT test specimen fabrication system (Appendix C).

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 3 1.1 Problem and Purpose 3 1.2 Scope and Research Approach 3 1.2.1 Simple Performance Test System 4 1.2.2 Simple Performance Test Specimen Fabrication System 5 Chapter 2 Abbreviated Dynamic Modulus Master Curve Testing 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 MEPDG Dynamic Modulus Master Curve 7 2.3 Proposed Dynamic Modulus Master Curve Modification 8 2.4 Comparison of Master Curves Using Complete and Reduced Data Sets 11 2.5 Abbreviated Dynamic Modulus Master Curve Testing Conditions 14 2.6 Arrhenius Shift Factor Relationship 14 2.7 Example Using the Abbreviated Dynamic Modulus Master Curve Testing 14 2.8 Summary and Draft Standard Practice 16 Chapter 3 Revised Simple Performance Test System 16 3.1 Revised Simple Performance Test System Equipment Specification 16 3.2 Simple Performance Test System Procurement and Evaluation 16 3.2.1 Procurement 18 3.2.2 Upgraded First Article Devices 20 3.2.3 Medical Device Testing Services First Article 23 3.2.4 IPC Global Production Unit 27 Chapter 4 Simple Performance Test Specimen Fabrication System 27 4.1 Recommended Standard Practice for Performance Test Specimen Fabrication 27 4.2 Automated Specimen Fabrication Equipment 28 4.2.1 Equipment Selection Process 28 4.2.2 Equipment Development 30 4.2.3 Specification Compliance Testing 33 4.2.4 Needed Improvements 35 Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 35 5.1. Dynamic Modulus Master Curves 35 5.2. Simple Performance Test Systems 35 5.3. Simple Performance Test Specimen Fabrication 37 References 38 Glossary

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39 Appendix A Proposed Standard Practices 40 Proposed Standard Practice for Developing Dynamic Modulus Master Curves for Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Using the Simple Performance Test System 49 Proposed Standard Practice for Preparation of Cylindrical Performance Test Specimens Using the Superpave Gyratory Compactor 65 Appendix B Revised Simple Performance Test System Specification 138 Appendix C Simple Performance Test Specimen Fabrication System Specification