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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 6 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Research Needs Associated with Particulate Emissions at Airports

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond UCG Associates Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, John K. Duval Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Angela Gittens HNTB Corporation Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Oakland International Airport Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Tom Jensen Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of National Safe Skies Alliance Technology, Atlanta Catherine M. Lang Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Federal Aviation Administration Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Carolyn Motz Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Hagerstown Regional Airport Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Richard Tucker Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Huntsville International Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Air Transport Association of America Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA National Association of State Aviation Officials Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Transportation Research Board John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2008. *Membership as of May 2008.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 6 Research Needs Associated with Particulate Emissions at Airports Sandy Webb ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING GROUP, LLC Annapolis, MD IN ASSOCIATION WITH Philip D. Whitefield WHITEFIELD SCIENTIFIC CONSULTING Rolla, MO Richard C. Miake-Lye Michael T. Timko AERODYNE, INC. Billerica, MA Theodore G. Thrasher CSSI, INC. Washington, DC Subject Areas Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 6 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-04 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11739-5 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2008905365 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2008 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 6 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christine L. Gerencher, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 2-04 PANEL Field of Environment Mary L. Vigilante, Synergy Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA (Chair) Keith L. Beasley, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA Anuj Bhargava, Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT Alison Bird, Federal Express Corporation, Mesa, AZ Elizabeth Leavitt, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport John R. Pehrson, Camp, Dresser and McKee, Inc., Irvine, CA Carl Ma, FAA Liaison Sabrina Johnson, EPA Liaison Tim A. Pohle, Air Transport Association of America Liaison Jessica Steinhilber, Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Chowen Chou Wey, U.S. Department of the Army Liaison

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FOREWORD By Christine L. Gerencher Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 6: Research Needs Associated with Particulate Emissions at Airports provides guidance on the most important research needed by the airport community in the area of particulate emissions. This report examines the state of industry research on aviation- related particulate matter (PM) emissions and identifies knowledge gaps that existing research has not yet bridged. These gaps and related research needs are then prioritized based on the ability of research in those areas to address airports' needs for more thorough and accurate aviation-related PM emissions inventories. While the main purpose of this report is to identify key research areas important to the airport community for ACRP con- sideration, research communities at large will also benefit from this report's comprehensive analysis of aviation PM emissions-related research needs. Domestic airports and the aviation-industry partners that rely on these airports must assure compliance with current particulate matter (PM) controls, as called for in existing environ- mental requirements and state implementation plans (SIPs) and in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) as enforced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In response to a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report released in February 2003 titled "Aviation and the Environment: Strategic Framework Needed to Address Challenges Posed by Aircraft Emissions" (GAO-03-252), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in consul- tation with the EPA and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is develop- ing a strategic framework for addressing emissions from aircraft-related PM sources, known as the Aircraft Emission Characterization (AEC) Roadmap. A foundational part of the AEC Roadmap is identifying needed research on aircraft PM emissions. However, from an airport operator's perspective, PM emissions from aircraft is only one component of the overall airport PM emissions inventory. Specifically, the relative contributions of other sources of PM, including the ambient environment, diesel combustion processes, and non-combustion releases of PM (and its precursors) from other airport equip- ment and sources, are not explicitly known. This report subsequently builds on the knowledge gained from the AEC Roadmap process by evaluating all significant knowledge gaps that affect the airport community's understanding of aviation-related PM emissions in their environ- ment, and prioritizes research needs to bridge those gaps based on their ability to assist air- ports in conducting more thorough airport PM emissions inventories. ACRP Report 6 concludes by identifying three suggested research projects for ACRP con- sideration, including detailed problem statements for submittal through the ACRP solici- tation process. These problem statements identify the highest priority research projects for airports relative to aviation-related PM emissions that are not included in other PM research programs.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Summary 1 Project Overview 2 Prioritized Research Agenda 4 Chapter 2 Background 5 Chapter 3 Primer on Particulate Matter Emissions from Aviation 5 What is PM? 5 How is PM Formed? 7 How Does PM Affect Health? 7 How is PM Regulated in the United States? 8 What are the Sources of PM at an Airport? 9 What are the Most Recent Aviation PM Research Efforts? 9 Why are Aviation-Related PM Issues so Important to Airport Operators? 10 What Tools are Available for Evaluating PM Emissions at Airports? 12 Chapter 4 Survey and Interview Findings 12 Survey 13 Interviews 15 Chapter 5 Composition and Physical Properties of Particulate Matter From Aircraft Engines-- Knowledge and Gaps 15 Soot (Nonvolatile PM)--Knowledge 16 Knowledge Gaps 16 Volatile PM--Knowledge 17 Knowledge Gaps 19 Chapter 6 Particulate Matter from Other Airport Sources 19 Knowledge 19 Gaps 21 Chapter 7 Needed Research 22 Chapter 8 Proposed Research Agenda and Problem Statements 23 Problem Statement 1 24 Problem Statement 2 25 Synthesis Report 26 Chapter 9 Literature Review and Bibliography 26 Literature Review 26 Bibliography

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33 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Airport Survey B-1 Appendix B Researcher and Airport Interviews C-1 Appendix C The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 List of Hazardous Air Pollutants