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1 CHAPTER 1 Summary Particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft engines exposure to various types and sizes of PM. Aircraft emissions and other emission sources at airports are a concern because are comprised primarily of ultrafine (< PM0.1) particles, and of the lack of information on their quantity and their impacts general understanding of their health effects is limited. on health and the environment. The level and nature of these Volatile PM may include toxic and hazardous compounds, emissions are growing in importance as demand for air travel and these need to be identified and quantified along with grows. Data on PM emissions from aircraft have not been well information on the degree to which airport workers and res- defined or quantified. Yet as airports expand to meet future idents living close to airports are exposed. capacity needs, they must be able to evaluate their impact on There are many sources of PM emissions associated with the community and the local environment. The Clean Air Act airport activity and from nearby sources in the community specifically requires states to demonstrate compliance with such as cars, trucks, and other commercial activity. As a result, ambient PM standards. Residents adjacent to airports are monitored data include both the background (nonairport) voicing concern over exposure to potentially hazardous and emissions and the emission sources of interest (airport- toxic pollutants, which might be chemicals or small particles. related), and separating the contributing sources from the In addition, citizens are reporting that material is being data ensemble is not currently feasible since particle size deposited on their property from airport activity. Airports do distribution and chemical composition are not adequately not have an authoritative source to reference research findings defined for all sources. Quantifying the individual sources is concerning this material or to acknowledge that additional essential to developing reliable inventories and effective emis- research is needed. Without better information about PM sion mitigation strategies. emissions, airports potentially will face increasing barriers to Models and analytical tools used to evaluate airport emissions airport improvement and expansion projects. and their impacts do not yet have the required data to capture a Sources of airport-related PM emissions include aircraft en- complete and thorough PM picture, one that would include gines, auxiliary power units (APU), ground support equipment primary PM (both nonvolatile and volatile particles) directly (GSE), construction vehicles and related activity, ground access emitted and secondary PM formed later in the atmosphere from vehicles (e.g., passenger cars, delivery and freight trucks, and NOx, SOx, and organics. rental car vans), and stationary equipment. Particulate emis- Without a better understanding of PM emissions from sions from ground vehicles (including GSE and ground access airport sources, airport operators will be unable to address vehicles), construction activity, and stationary sources are the regulatory and community demands for assurance that generally well characterized, at least for particle emission mass; airports are not damaging the local environment or the health emissions from aircraft main engines and APUs much less so. of their workers or nearby residents. Without these assur- Also, data on the combined emissions from all airport sources ances, airports may not be allowed to expand to meet the have not been developed. growing demands for their services, which are only expected Several studies in the past few years have begun to collect to increase over the coming years. detailed data on aircraft engine PM emissions, since it is an important PM source at airports. More work is needed, how- Project Overview ever, to relate aircraft and airport operations to PM emissions. The present understanding of particle properties is insuf- This report presents an overview of the needs of the airport ficient to evaluate the health and environmental effects from and scientific communities for further information on PM