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13 A list of airports receiving the survey, a copy of the trans- Carrol Bryant, KB Environmental Sciences, Inc., consult- mittal letter, the survey form, and a summary of survey re- ant for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. sponses are included in Appendix A. Particulate matter is not considered a big problem for Atlanta except for the need to comply with air quality regulations and must be analyzed for EISs. There is a great deal of public uncer- Interviews tainty about the toxicity of and consequently the significance of As noted above, many U.S. airports have prepared envi- airport PM emissions. ronmental studies in support of expansion programs or for Brenda Pope, Vice President Environmental Manage- other reasons. Some airports have hosted PM sampling ment Service, Rhode Island Airport Corporation, T.F. programs for research projects. To capture the knowledge of Green Airport. Elevated cancer rates found in the vicinity of scientists and other experts involved in these projects, the the airport, both upwind and downwind, prompted the team conducted 11 interviews, either in person or by phone. Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management These interviews included four PM research scientists (one (DEM) to initiate emissions monitoring around the airport. interviewed twice to discuss two separate projects), four The community has expressed concern over butadiene and airport environmental managers, and two airport environ- formaldehyde in addition to PM. mental consultants. Barbara Morin, Department of Environmental Manage- John Froines, Professor of Environmental Health and ment, Rhode Island (RI-DEM), Project Manager for T.F. Head of EPA PM Center at UCLA. Froines conducted a PM Green Airport Air Quality Study. The Rhode Island DEM is research project at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) leading the study monitoring PM2.5 and black carbon at T.F. focusing on ultrafine (
14 Britt Johnson, Airport Environmental Planner, Oakland Roger Gardner, Chief Executive, OMEGA, Manchester International Airport (OAK). Currently at OAK, HAPs, no- Metropolitan University Center for Air Transport and the tably acrolein (C3H4O, a hazardous air pollutant that is a Environment, United Kingdom. Mass estimates for PM from product of incomplete combustion), are a more significant brakes and tires are similar to that for engine-generated PM. concern than PM although PM is likely to receive additional Priority PM emission data needs from his perspective are: scrutiny as a result of the ultrafine particles identified in air- (1) airside vehicle emission factors, (2) relationship between port studies. Johnson is anticipating that release of the JETS operations and emissions loadings, (3) environmental impacts APEX2 data will shed light on the significance of both HAPs of alternative (synthetic) fuels, and (4) gaining a full under- and PM. standing of emissions in and around airports. As automobiles Paul Manasjan, Environmental Affairs Director, San get cleaner, environmental impacts from aviation in and Diego International Airport (SAN). According to Manasjan, around airports takes on greater significance. PM emissions are an immediate problem at SAN with respect The overriding message from these interviews is that to an emissions inventory being prepared as a component of airports would like assistance in being able to address regula- an expansion-related EIS. This is driving their interest in more tory requirements with good, reliable estimates of the airport and better data on PM emissions. Also, particle deposition on contribution. The concerns are that there is much uncertainty surfaces in the vicinity of the airport is a persistent source of with current data, yet they will need to live with the current complaints. For SAN, PM is a more prominent concern than data unless and until better estimates and methods can be HAPs. Nonaviation sources of dust, such as unpaved areas, are developed. also a problem. Markers or fingerprints to apportion PM Highlights from the interviews are discussed here. Com- emissions among various sources (e.g., aircraft, GSE, landside plete notes from each of the interviews are included in vehicles) are needed. Appendix B.