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2 emissions from airport sources. The following are key ac- 5. Expand current understanding of the health impacts of complishments of the project: PM emissions, especially for the fine and ultrafine parti- cles, which are believed to have the most significant Eighty (80) airports were surveyed to determine their views impacts on human health. of the significance of airport PM emissions and to solicit their thoughts on what information they need to manage The knowledge gained from pursuing these avenues of their concerns. investigation will allow the aviation community to address its Detailed interviews were conducted with several airport environmental impacts confidently and plan effectively for operators and PM researchers to gain a more complete the future. understanding of current need for information on airport To prioritize research projects for ACRP to pursue, the PM emissions. authors considered other research initiatives currently un- Scientific literature was reviewed to gather the latest data derway or planned. Existing aviation PM research initiatives and information on PM emissions from airports and emis- funded by FAA, NASA, DOD, and other research organiza- sion characterization for airport sources. tions are developing plans to expand the aircraft engine PM The information collected in the previous steps was com- emissions database and include advanced technology engines piled and summarized to present an overview of current in their research plans. EPA and public health researchers are knowledge of PM emissions from aircraft, APUs, GSE, investigating the effects of particles on human health and the ground access vehicles, construction equipment, and other focus of their efforts continues to move toward the smaller emission sources at airports. This allowed us to identify cur- particles. With this in mind, the following priority projects rent knowledge gaps, which were used to define a prioritized are proposed for ACRP consideration to address the remain- research agenda. ing priority knowledge gaps for understanding aviation PM The research agenda and information about active PM emissions. research currently underway or planned for the near future led to the assessment of the need for three proposed projects. Priority 1--Characterize PM emissions of APUs, GSE, tires, and brakes This report describes the project accomplishments, offers for source apportionment. an assessment of research needs relative to PM emissions, and presents problem statements for future research to meet the Emissions from these sources remain either unknown or at most critical needs that would be of significant benefit to best poorly characterized and represent a unique focal point airport operators. for ACRP. Reliance on any existing estimates of such emis- sions to predict emissions inventories for future airport ac- tivities is likely to result in significant overestimations, which Prioritized Research Agenda may impose unnecessary restrictions on needed expansion. Based on research findings, the authors have identified five areas of investigation in which additional work can close the Priority 2--Develop an understanding of most significant knowledge gaps in understanding airport the atmospheric evolution of aviation PM. PM emissions. One distinguishing feature of aviation emissions is the sig- 1. Expand the current database of aircraft engine emissions nificant presence of volatile particle precursors that condense to capture data on current advanced technology engines, on preexisting particles or create new, very small particles as which will become the most significant airport PM emis- hot exhaust gases cool. Information regarding the evolution sions sources within airport planning horizons. of these particles is required to assess airport impacts on em- 2. Develop a deeper understanding of the evolution of PM, ployees, passengers, and the local community. To address this especially the volatile component, as it moves from the lack of understanding, a study of the atmospheric evolution engine exit to the point of impact on airport workers, pas- of PM emissionscoupling operational factors with source sengers, and local communities. emissions within the airport fence lineis needed. 3. Improve the characterization of PM emissions from APUs, GSE, and aircraft brakes and tires to enable source Priority 3--Review airport emissions data apportionment of airport PM inventories. for source chemical markers or fingerprints. 4. Develop measurement methods to improve the character- ization and understanding of PM from the various airport Particulate matter emissions from various airport sources sources, especially the volatile components. combine as they move off the airport and it is difficult to

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3 isolate individual emission sources, for example, when could be defined that were unique to individual sources. evaluating the impact of airport operations on nearby com- Some airport emission sources have been studied individu- munities. It would be a significant benefit to airports if char- ally and others are proposed in the top priority project. These acteristic markers or "fingerprints," based on for example, data should be reviewed to identify the unique features or particle size, mass, composition, or a combination of these, chemical compositions representative of individual sources.