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21 CHAPTER 7 Needed Research The following five topics identify the most pressing Inputs to models for PM inventory predictions focused research needs and all are of comparable priority. Some on coupling operations to emissions data and on a sys- sequencing of projects will be required to address the knowl- tematic study of the PM emissions of the most advanced edge gaps most efficiently; however, the information gained turbofan technology, GSE, APUs, and piston-engine from these proposed research areas is needed to complete aircraft airport PM inventories with commonly acceptable confi- Evaluation of aircraft PM emissions data to possibly dence levels. Chapter 8 proposes two separate research proj- develop chemical or other markers or fingerprints for ects and a synthesis report, describing rationale and estimated aircraft cost, to address several of these needs. The other research Size number, mass, and compositional studies for aircraft needs described in Chapter 8 are being addressed in research brake and tire PM emissions, including possibly markers sponsored by other organizations. or fingerprints Size number, mass, and compositional studies for other Broader Engine Emissions Database airport sources, particularly GSE and APUs, including Studies to correlate aircraft engine emissions to engine possibly chemical or other markers/fingerprints age and maintenance history (critical role for airlines) Methodology Development Studies to correlate fuel composition to PM production Measurement methods for volatile PM properties to be APU emissions database for PM developed (density, evolution, and sampling system, etc.) Role of lubrication oils in aircraft PM emissions Measurement methods for nonvolatile PM properties PM Evolution Studies to be refined Measurements Health Impacts Modeling Health impacts of nonvolatile PM as a function of size, Link emissions datasets to local and regional air qual- number, and composition ity models Health impacts of volatile PM as a function of size, Laboratory simulations number, and composition Develop Means of Estimating Relative Contributions of Organic speciation relative to carcinogens and other Aircraft and Other PM Sources to Airport PM Inventory toxic compounds for volatile and coated nonvolatile PM