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23 about HAPs emissions from aircraft. Also, health-related im- III. OBJECTIVE pacts are generally not considered the province of ACRP. Perform a high quality multidimensional study of PM Each problem statement, including its estimated budget emissions from GSE, APUs, and brakes and tires cou- and time to complete, is self-contained. ACRP could achieve pling source emissions at the tailpipe/exhaust plane and certain synergies and cost savings, however, by combining cer- in the near field to define specific source profiles that tain tasks within these projects with those funded by other along with emissions inventories can produce reliable stakeholders such as the FAA and NASA. There are economies source apportionment estimation tools for airports. This of scale that would reduce costs by using monitoring equip- study should include an investigation of the impact of ment and staff for multiple projects once they have been alternative fuels such as ultra-low sulfur diesel (and pos- positioned at a cooperating airport. For example, after col- sibly biodiesel) on the nature of the PM emissions. These lecting data from the main aircraft engines, it may be less high quality multidimensional studies should include a expensive to then collect data on APU emissions and GSE thorough physical (size, number, mass) and chemical rather than beginning a separate project at a later date neces- composition analysis at the emissions source and in the sitating a redeployment of equipment. The primary analytical near field (<20m downstream). (Note: it may not be fea- capabilities and instrumentation requirements are similar or sible to capture tire and brake emissions at the source on identical for all of the projects. an active airport in which case it may be necessary to de- Following the completion of these projects there would be termine this in brake and tire friction laboratories.) a benefit to the airport community from conducting a syn- thesis project evaluating the combined data from all projects. IV. RESEARCH PROPOSED That analysis may produce insights that an evaluation of the The research proposed would be envisaged to be similar data from any single project alone would not. Preparing a to the approach defined in the APEX and Delta Atlanta problem statement for this evaluation has been left for ACRP Hartsfield series of experiments for aircraft engine emis- consideration in the future. The proposed synthesis report is sions using point source extractive sampling. described at the end of this chapter. Task 1--Select and coordinate airport measurement sites with appropriate mix of GSE, APUs, tires, and Problem Statement 1 brakes. I. PROBLEM TITLE Task 2--Develop airport specific measurement plan PM Emission Characterization for Source Apportion- for available GSE, APUs, tires, and brakes, to include ment for GSE, APUs, and Aircraft Tires/Brakes exit plane and near field measurements where appro- priate (e.g., APU). II. RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT Task 3--Execute measurement plan; anticipated 7 Particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft engines days at airport venue to complete all measurements. and other emission sources at airports are growing in Task 4--Develop a detailed equipment/incident in- importance as demand for air travel grows. Without ventory for GSE, APUs, and aircraft touchdowns (for better information about PM emissions, airports will tire and brake emissions) at the airport, including op- face increasing barriers to expansion. Little or no data erating cycles, time of use, equipment vintage, and are available on APUs, GSE, and tire and brake emis- similar data to accurately capture all data needed to sions during landing operations, and their source develop an emissions inventory. Document method- apportionment. One distinguishing feature of all avia- ology as appropriate for future use at other airports. tion emissions is the presence of volatile particle pre- Task 5--Reduce and analyze data with a goal of pro- cursors (sulfate and organic material), which will, with ducing emissions indices. proportions that depend on the environment, condense Task 6--Develop source apportionment computa- on preexisting particles or nucleate new particles, form- tional tools (or modules for existing tools such as ing nanometer-sized particles as the hot exhaust gases EDMS) for GSE, APUs, tires, and brakes. cool. Information regarding both the volatile and non- Task 7--Develop a model and associated manual for volatile components of these particles is required to airports on PM emissions and source apportionment assess airport impacts on local and regional air quality. strategies using the tools developed in this study. To address this lack of data on emissions from APUs, Task 8--Prepare and submit draft and final report. GSE, and tires and brakes, a measurement campaign for quantifying these PM emissions at the source tailpipe The anticipated product is a data set with interpretation and in the near field of these sources is needed. consistent with a thorough physical (size number, mass)