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24 and chemical composition analysis for each emission Problem Statement 2 source studied. The results should include emission fac- tors suitable for EDMS. I. PROBLEM TITLE Atmospheric Evolution of Aviation PM to Identify V. ESTIMATE OF THE PROBLEM FUNDING Properties at Point of Exposure AND RESEARCH PERIOD II. RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT Recommended Funding: A total of $500,000 is esti- Particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft engines mated for completing the program. and other emission sources at airports are growing in im- Research Period: A one-year program is proposed. portance as demand for air travel grows. Without better information about PM emissions, airports will face in- VI. URGENCY AND PAYOFF POTENTIAL creasing barriers to expansion. One distinguishing fea- Airports are currently being required to estimate PM ture of all aviation emissions is the presence of volatile emissions from airport-related sources without suffi- particle precursors (sulfate and organic material) which cient data to confidently compute the inventories. On will, with proportions depending on the environment, this basis, the need to be able to quantify PM emissions condense on preexisting particles or nucleate new PM, from the sources of this study is critical. The payoff of forming nanometer-sized particles as the hot exhaust the proposed research would be emissions estimates gases cool. The makeup of PM in the exhaust plume, in- that could be used directly in developing airport inven- cluding particle composition, size, and count, changes tories needed to support airport expansion plans and to rapidly as the plume ages and moves across and eventu- make decisions on how to most cost-effectively mitigate ally off the airfield. Information regarding the evolution PM emissions when and if needed. of these particles is required to assess airport impacts on local and regional air quality but the mechanisms and VII. RELATED RESEARCH time-scales of these processes are poorly understood, as The proposed work would be a new project for APUs, are the contributions from the various sources. To ad- GSE, and tire and brake emissions. Measurement of dress this lack of understanding a study of the atmo- APU emissions has been suggested as a component of spheric evolution of PM emissions--coupling source future aircraft engine measurement campaigns but is not emissions in the near field and far field with operational currently planned. Research on aircraft engine PM emis- factors and ambient atmospheric conditions--is needed. sions similar to that proposed for these sources has been done under APEX (1-3), Delta/Atlanta-Hartsfield, and III. OBJECTIVE similar field campaigns. Recent work under PARTNER Perform a measurement campaign of PM emissions Project 11 also has looked at time-integrated emissions from aircraft engines, GSE, and APUs that evaluates from an airport in total. both the source emissions and the near filed and far field emissions, allowing correspondences to be made, and VIII. PERSON(S) DEVELOPING THE PROBLEM how they depend on operational factors and ambient Sandy Webb, Environmental Consulting Group, LLC atmospheric conditions. These measurements should be in association with: Phil Whitefield (Whitefield Scien- made in conjunction with coincident ambient PM mon- tific Consulting), Richard C. Miake-Lye (Aerodyne, itoring in order to explore fractional source apportion- Inc.), and Ted Thrasher (CSSI, Inc.). ment estimates. IX. PROCESS USED TO DEVELOP PROBLEM IV. RESEARCH PROPOSED STATEMENT The research proposed would be envisaged to follow This problem statement is the product of ACRP the approach defined in the APEX 2 and Delta Atlanta Project 02-04, carried out by the authors of this Prob- Hartsfield studies. lem Statement. Task 1--Select and coordinate measurements at two X. DATE AND SUBMITTED BY airports. Important selection criteria for the chosen air- This problem statement is submitted by Sandy Webb, ports includes: willingness of the airports and tenant Environmental Consulting Group, LLC in association airlines to participate, ambient temperature expected with: Phil Whitefield (Whitefield Scientific Consult- during measurement campaign with a hot, dry airport ing), Richard C. Miake-Lye (Aerodyne, Inc.), and Ted and a cool, humid airport preferred to evaluate PM Thrasher (CSSI, Inc.) as part of the project report for temperature dependence, and a mix of aircraft and GSE ACRP 02-04 on December 21, 2007. types representative of many commercial airports.