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26 CHAPTER 9 Literature Review and Bibliography Literature Review In addition to the publications that are of direct relevance, there are several categories of publications that are of The Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) database was used to peripheral relevance, including: reports on cabin air quality in search the archival literature for publications relevant to the in-flight aircraft, toxicological studies of jet fuel and turbine impact of airports on local air quality. Figure 3 is a record of the lubrication oil, particulate emissions of jet engines at altitude, search terms used to interrogate the database. Web of Science physicochemical properties of gas turbine exhaust, and can be interrogated using author, subject, source, address, and particulate emissions of laboratory burners that simulate gas date terms. Most of the current search terms were of the subject turbine engines. variety, but several author search terms were used. Shown here Characterization of the particulate and trace gas emissions are searches for the author "Herndon" in "Billerica, MA." of in-flight jet aircraft has been the topic of many reports. The Though not shown here, the author search terms "B.E. Ander- team obtained electronic copies of a representative sample of son," "P. Whitefield," and "J. Froines" were also used to query these articles. Due to the influence that ambient conditions the database. ARI is concurrently reviewing the available liter- (temperature, pressure, and relative humidity) and power ature relevant to the airport-related contribution of hazardous condition (idle, taxi, approach, take-off, and cruise) are air pollutants (HAPs) to the regional air shed. In addition to expected to exert on PM emissions, the relevance of articles the articles identified in the PM-based search, the team's review devoted to describing measurements and analysis of particu- of the HAPs-related literature uncovered several articles of rel- late emissions of jet engines at altitude to the current activity evance to this activity. Of those deemed relevant, well over half may be small. of them have been retrieved in electronic form. The remainder was not readily available in electronic form at the time that this report was written. Most of the articles that have been identi- Bibliography fied as relevant but not yet retrieved are reports of air-quality This section includes the report bibliography organized by studies published in the 1970s. Obtaining hard-copy versions primary topic. The last item is an annotated bibliography that of these publications will be a future activity. includes miscellaneous PM references and deposition reports Figure 4 summarizes the articles that have been retrieved to generally not found in searches of technical literature that date and the total number that were identified. In this exhibit, were reviewed but not necessarily used for the findings of this the literature is divided into subject categories. Articles that are report. They are included here for completeness. directly relevant to the issue of airborne PM concentrations in the vicinity of airports include reports on the measurement of · General Aviation: Airport Operation and Expansion, PM emissions of on-wing gas turbine engines and ground ser- Social Costs, and Future Demands vice equipment (GSE), studies on the use of emissions data and · Air Quality in Cabins of In-Flight Aircraft dispersion models to predict the effect of airports on regional · Toxicology: Jet Fuel air quality, and measurements of air quality at airports. · Toxicology: Lubrication Oils Although GSE exhaust was not initially included in the search, · Toxicology: General one article on this topic was identified and retrieved. Subse- · PM Measurements: On-Wing Gas Turbine Engines quently, a directed search identified a second article describing · PM Measurements: Ground Service Equipment GSE exhaust, but it has yet to be retrieved. · Soot Properties: Gas Turbine Engines
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27 Figure 3. Web of Science search term history. · Soot Properties: Jet Fuel Combustion in ICE's and Other Brooker, P., Civil Aircraft Design Priorities: Air Quality? Climate Change? Burners Noise? Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 110, No. 1110, 2006, p. 517. Clarke, J. P. B., N. T. Ho, L. L. Ren, J. A. Brown, K. R. Elmer, K. O. Tong, · Modeling Air Quality at Airports and in Their Vicinity and J. K. Wat, Continuous Descent Approach: Design and Flight · Measurements of PM in the Vicinity of Airports Test for Louisville International Airport. Journal of Aircraft, · Annotated Bibliography Vol. 41, No. 5, 2004, p. 1054. Karlaftis, M. G., K. G. Zografos, J. D. Papastavrou, and J. M. Charnes, Methodological Framework for Air-Travel Demand Forecasting. Jour- General Aviation: Airport Operation nal of Transportation Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 2,1996, p. 96. and Expansion, Social Costs, Lee, D. S., B. Brunner, A. Dopelheuer, R. S. Falk, R. M. Gardner, M. Future Demand Lecht, M. Leech, D. H. Lister, and P. J. Newton, Aviation Emis- sions: Present-Day and Future. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 11, Bieger, T., A. Wittmer, and C. Laesser, What Is Driving the Continued No. 3,2002, p. 141. Growth in Demand for Air Travel? Customer Value of Air Transport. Lee, H. C., and W. C. Wang, Environmental Impacts and Policy Options Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2007, pp. 3136. for Aviation: Taiwan's Responses within the Global Framework.
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28 # Articles # Articles Subject Category Retrieved Identified PM in aircraft engine exhaust and ground 8 9 service equipment exhaust Ambient air quality at airports: measurements 2 3 and exposure assessment Impact of aviation on local or regional air 6 14 quality: models Gas turbine lubrication oil, composition, 9 9 toxicology, break-down products Gas turbine engine soot, general characteristics 4 4 Jet fuel: exposure and toxicology 4 4 Exposure studies of airport workers 3 3 Physicochemical characteristics of soot 6 7 particles generated by gas turbines Measurements and impacts of emissions from 14 Many in-flight aircraft Cabin air quality 2 4 Figure 4. Articles identified and retrieved. Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 1,2001, Lindgren, T., D. Norback, K. Andersson, and B. G. Dammstrom, Cabin p. 195. Environment and Perception of Cabin Air Quality among Commer- Lu, C. H. Y., Evaluation and Implications of Environmental Charges on cial Aircrew. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 71, Commercial Flights. Transport Reviews, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2001, p. 377. No. 8, 2000, p. 774. Mason, K. J., Observations of Fundamental Changes in the Demand for Rayman, R. B., Cabin Air Quality: An Overview. Aviation Space and En- Aviation Services. Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 11, vironmental Medicine, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2002, p. 211. No. 1, 2005, p. 19. Spengler, J. D., and D. G. Wilson, Air Quality in Aircraft. Proceedings of May, M., and S. B. Hill, Questioning Airport Expansion: A Case Study the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E, Journal of Process of Canberra International Airport. Journal of Transport Geography, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 217, No. E4, 2003, p. 323335. Vol. 14, No. 6, 2006, p. 437. Moriarty, P., and D. Honnery, Forecasting World Transport in the Year 2050. International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, 2004, Toxicology: Jet Fuel p. 151. Morrell, P., and Lu, CH-Y, Social Costs of Aircraft Noise and Engine Ritchie, G. D., K. R. Still, J. Rossi, M. Y. V. Bekkedal, A. J. Bobb, and D. Emissions: Case Study of Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport. In Trans- P. Arfsten, Biological and Health Effects of Exposure to Kerosene- portation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Based Jet Fuels and Performance Additives. Journal of Toxicology Board, No. 1703, Transportation Research Board of the National and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews, Vol. 6, No. 4, Academies, Washington, D.C., 2000, pp. 3138. 2003, p. 357451. Rayman, R. B., Passenger Safety, Health, and Comfort: A Review. Aviation Ritchie, G. D., K. R. Still, W. K. Alexander, A. F. Nordholm, C. L. Wilson, Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 68, No. 5, 1997, p. 432. J. Rossi, and D. R. Mattie, A Review of the Neurotoxicity Risk of Se- Rengaraju, V. R., and V. T. Arasan, Modeling for Air-Travel Demand. lected Hydrocarbon Fuels. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Journal of Transportation Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 118, No. 3,1992, Health. Part B, Critical Reviews, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2001, p. 223. p. 371. Tesseraux, I., Risk Factors of Jet Fuel Combustion Products. Toxicology Rice, C., Restricting Use of Reverse Thrust as an Emissions Reduction Letters, Vol. 149, No. 1-3, 2004, p. 295. Strategy. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Trans- Tesseraux, I., B. Mach, and G. Koss, Aviation Fuels and Aircraft Emis- portation Research Board, No. 1788, Transportation Research sions Risk Characterisation Based on Data of the Hamburg Airport. Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2002, pp. Zentralblatt Fur Hygiene Und Umweltmedizin, Vol. 201, No. 2, 124131. 1998, p. 135. Air Quality in Cabins of In-Flight Aircraft Toxicology: Lubrication Oils Dechow, M., H. Sohn, and J. Steinhanses, Concentrations of Selected Centers, P. W., Potential Neurotoxin Formation in Thermally De- Contaminants in Cabin Air of Airbus Aircrafts. Chemosphere, Vol. graded Synthetic Ester Turbine Lubricants. Archives of Toxicology, 35, No. 1-2,1997, p. 21. Vol. 66, No. 9, 1992, p. 679. Lee, S. C., C. S. Poon, X. D. Li, and F. Luk, Indoor Air Quality Investiga- Kauffman, R. E., A. Feng, and K. R. Karasek, Coke Formation from tion on Commercial Aircraft. Indoor Air, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1999, p. 180. Aircraft Turbine Engine Oils: Part I--Deposit Analysis and
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29 Development of Laboratory Oil Coking Test. Tribology Transac- Particles and Demonstration of an Electrostatic Personal Particle tions, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2000, p. 823830. Sampler. AIHA Journal, Vol. 64, No. 6, 2003, p. 777. Kauffman, R. E., A. S. Feng, and K. R. Karasek, Coke Formation from Childers, J. W., C. L. Witherspoon, L. B. Smith, and J. D. Pleil, Real- Aircraft Engine Oils: Part II--Effects of Oil Formulation and Time and Integrated Measurement of Potential Human Exposure Surface Composition. Tribology Transactions, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2000, to Particle-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) p. 677681. from Aircraft Exhaust. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, Kohler, M., and N. V. Heeb, Characterization of Ageing Products of No. 9, 2000, p. 853. Ester-Based Synthetic Lubricants by Liquid Chromatography with Herndon, S. C., T. B. Onasch, B. P. Frank, L. C. Marr, J. T. Jayne, M. R. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and by Electrospray Ion- Canagaratna, J. Grygas, T. Lanni, B. E. Anderson, D. Worsnop, and ization (Tandem) Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography R. C. Miake-Lye, Particulate Emissions from In-Use Commercial A, Vol. 926, No. 1, 2001, p. 161. Aircraft. Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2005, Mackerer, C. R., M. L. Barth, A. J. Krueger, B. Chawla, and T. A. Roy, p. 799809. Comparison of Neurotoxic Effects and Potential Risks from Oral Rogers, F., P. Arnott, B. Zielinska, J. Sagebiel, K. E. Kelly, D. Wagner, J. S. Administration or Ingestion of Tricresyl Phosphate and Jet Engine Lighty, and A. F. Sarofim, Real-Time Measurements of Jet Aircraft Oil Containing Tricresyl Phosphate. Journal of Toxicology and Engine Exhaust. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Associa- Environmental Health, Part A, Vol. 57, No. 5,1999, p. 293. tion, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2005, p. 583. Rubey, W. A., R. C. Striebich, J. Bush, P. W. Centers, and R. L. Wright, Schmid, O., D. E. Hagan, P. D. Whitefield, M. B. Trueblood, A. P. Rut- Neurotoxin Formation from Pilot-Scale Incineration of Synthetic ter, H. V. Lilenfeld, Methodology for Particle Characterization of Ex- Ester Turbine Lubricants with a Triaryl Phosphate Additive. haust Flows of Gas Turbine Engines. Aerosol Science and Technology, Archives of Toxicology, Vol. 70, No. 8, 1996, p. 508. Vol. 38,2004, p. 1108. van Netten, C., Multi-Elemental Analysis of Jet Engine Lubricating Oils and Hydraulic Fluids and Their Implication in Aircraft Air Quality Inci- dents. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 229, No. 1-2,1999, p. 125. PM Measurements: van Netten, C., and V. Leung, Hydraulic Fluids and Jet Engine Oil: Py- Ground Service Equipment rolysis and Aircraft Air Quality. Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2001, p. 181. Chen, Y. C., W. J. Lee, S. N. Uang, S. H. Lee, and P. J. Tsai, Characteris- Winder, C., and J. C. Balouet, The Toxicity of Commercial Jet Oils. En- tics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Emissions from a vironmental Research, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2002, p. 146. UH-1H Helicopter Engine and Its Impact on the Ambient Environ- ment. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 39, 2006, p. 7589. Chughtai, A. R., G. R. Williams, M. M. O. Atteya, N. J. Miller, and D. M. Toxicology: General Smith, Carbonaceous Particle Hydration. Atmospheric Environ- Cavallo, D., C. L. Ursini, G. Carelli, I. Iavicoli, A. Ciervo, B. Perniconi, ment, Vol. 33, No. 17,1999, p. 2679. B. Rondinone, M. Gismondi, and S. Iavicoli, Occupational Exposure Kelly, K. E., D.A. Wagner, J.S. Lighty, A. F. Sarofim, C.F. Rogers, J. Sagebiel, in Airport Personnel: Characterization and Evaluation of Genotoxic B. Zielinska, W.P. Arnott, and G. Palmer, Characterization of Exhaust and Oxidative Effects. Toxicology, Vol. 223, No. 1-2, 2006, p. 26. Particles from Military Vehicles Fuelled with Diesel, Gasoline, and JP- Iavicoli, I., G. Carelli, and A. Bergamaschi, Exposure Evaluation to Air- 8. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 53, No. 3 borne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Italian Airport. (Mar. 2003) p. 273282. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 48, Kittleson, D.B., Watts, W.F., and Johnson, J.P., On-Road and Labora- No. 8, 2006, p. 815. tory Evaluation of Combustion Aerosols, Part 1: Summary of Pitarque, M., A. Creus, R. Marcos, J. A. Hughes, and D. Anderson, Ex- Diesel Engine Results. Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 37, No. 8 amination of Various Biomarkers Measuring Genotoxic Endpoints (Aug. 2006), p. 913930. from Barcelona Airport Personnel. Mutation Research-Genetic Tox- Maricq, M.M., Chemical Characterization of Particulate Emissions icology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Vol. 440, No. 2, 1999, p. 195. from Diesel Engines: A Review. Journal of Aerosol Science, 37 (Aug. Tunnicliffe, W. S., S. P. O'Hickey, T. J. Fletcher, J. F. Miles, P. S. Burge, 2007), p. 1079. and J. G. 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31 Biswas, S., P. M. Fine, M. D. Geller, S. V. Hering, and C. Sioutas, Per- Hoffnagle, Community Impact of Aircraft Particle Emissions, TRC Envi- formance Evaluation of a Recently Developed Water-Based Con- ronmental Corporation, Fall 1996. densation Particle Counter.Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2005, p. 419. Chemical mass balance analysis of particles collected with de- Carslaw, D. C., S. D. Beevers, K. Ropkins, and M. C. Bell, Detecting and position plates on Logan Airport (BOS) and in communities sur- Quantifying Aircraft and Other On-Airport Contributions to Am- rounding the airport; airport sources examined included engine bient Nitrogen Oxides in the Vicinity of a Large International Air- swipes and tire wear/brake wear; materials from examined sources port. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 28, 2006, p. 5424. represented up to 8.5% of fallout collected on airport site; materi- Crecelius, H. J., and M. Sommerfeld, Air Quality Monitoring of Frank- als from community sites represented less than 0.3% of fallout. furt Airport. Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung Der Luft, Vol. 65, No. 1-2, 2005, p. 49. Inglewood Particulate Fallout Study Under and Near the Flight Path to Wai, K. M., and P. A. Tanner, Monitoring Long-Term Variation of Los Angeles International Airport, South Coast Air Quality Man- Aerosol Composition: A Dual Particle-Size Approach Applied to agement District, September 2000. Hong Kong. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2002, p. 275. Zhang, C. X., B. C. Huang, Z. Y. Li, and H. Liu, Magnetic Properties of Combusted oil soot particles were not present in abundance in High-Road-Side Pine Tree Leaves in Beijing and Their Environmen- the majority of samples collected during the study, but no con- tal Significance. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 24, 2006, p 3041. clusions can be drawn from this finding due to the limited sam- Zhang, Q., C. S. Zhao, X. X. Tie, Q. Wei, M. Y. Huang, G. H. Li, Z. M. pling period; the composition of the fallout is consistent with that Ying, and C. C. Li, Characterizations of Aerosols over the Beijing typically found in other areas of the Basin; there is no discernible Region: A Case Study of Aircraft Measurements. Atmospheric En- pattern of either carbon mass or total fallout mass under LAX's vironment, Vol. 40, No. 24, 2006, p. 4513. flight path that would indicate a predominant influence from aircraft fallout; the concentration and growth of gasoline and diesel powered vehicle traffic in and around the airport is a con- cern from an emissions impact perspective. Annotated Bibliography Barbosa, et al., Air Monitoring Study at Los Angeles International Airport, LAX Master Plan--Technical Report Deposition Monitoring, Camp South Coast Air Quality Management District, October 1999. Dresser & McKee, Inc., March 1998. AQMD conducted a study to address concerns about the pol- Data collected at the six monitoring stations tend to eliminate lutant levels to which LAX staff may be exposed. Although PM10 the airport as the major deposition source for the areas directly 24-hour measurement levels at LAX exceeded the South Coast adjacent to the airport; the deposition rate data implicate free- Air Basin averages on most sampling days, these levels were still way traffic for high daytime concentrations; copper composition below federal ambient PM10 standards for 24 hours. data indicate that a small fraction of the total deposition seen in the daytime is potentially from aircraft breaking. Barbosa, et al., Air Monitoring Study of Felton and Lloyd Schools, South Coast Air Quality Management District, September 2001. Stolzenbach, et al., Measuring and Modeling of Atmospheric Deposition on Santa Monica Bay and the Santa Monica Bay Watershed, Institute of Studied VOC, carbonyls, carbon (organic and elemental), the Environment, University of California, Los Angeles, and Schiff, and metals; school is in the prevailing wind trajectory of Los et al, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, September Angeles International Airport (LAX); no impact of airport was 2001. discernible. Annual rate of atmospheric transport and deposition of trace Eden, et al., Air Monitoring Study in the Area of Los Angeles International metals to Santa Monica Bay is significant; most of the mass of Airport, South Coast Air Quality Management District, April 2000. metals deposited by dry deposition on Santa Monica Bay and its watershed originates as relatively large (>10 microns) aerosols Key compounds detected in the study are associated with mo- from area sources (off-road vehicles and small businesses); for bile sources; all key compounds are lower at residential sites than metals the most important sources of emissions to the atmo- at aviation and Felton School sites, which are influenced by emis- sphere are nonpermitted area sources. sions from major highways. Fallout samples depict greater abun- dance of larger-than-PM10-sized combusted oil soot particles than is observed at most other locations in the South Coast Basin. Suarez, et al., Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Monitoring During the Ft. LauderdaleHollywood International Airport Air Runway Overlay Goldman, Alan, Soot and Odor, KM Chng Environmental Inc. Project, Broward County Environmental Protection Department, Air Quality Division, Ambient Monitoring Section, August 31 Summary of soot studies at several airports concluded that stud- October 21, 2004. ies to date have shown that deposits have been made up of fungus, minerals, and soil, particles from wood burning, particles from au- Concentrations of PM2.5 experienced at sampling site under tomobile and diesel truck exhausts, or general urban contamina- the temporary flight path were higher than at sampling site under tion. While there may be a very small contribution from aircraft ex- the normal flight path (unused during overlay project); however, haust in the deposits in the neighborhoods, the deposits are almost the differences were consistent during normal operations, which entirely made up of nonaircraft-related components. suggests that the differences are not dependent on the increased
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32 air traffic caused by the resurfacing of the primary runway at Master Plan Expansion Project EIS/EIR, Institute of Geophysics FLL; changes in concentrations at the two sites mimicked each and Planetary Physics, University of California at Los Angeles; and other, which may be indicative of the material contained in the Boyle, Department of Organismic Biology, Ecology, and Evolu- air mass over the broader area. tion, University of California at Los Angeles, July 1998. Summary of Two Logan Soot Studies, KM Chng Environmental Inc., Fall Study commissioned to characterize aircraft emissions in the 1996. vicinity of Los Angeles International Airport; jet aircraft exhaust apparently does not contribute significantly to the saturated There were no ongoing chronic soot impacts from airport- hydrocarbons found in the atmospheric particles, soils, plant related activity either for departing or arriving aircraft or from surface, and water samples evaluated from the area of potential other Logan activity; there were no indications of raw jet fuel in effect; saturated hydrocarbons present in samples appear to be the soot samples analyzed; the contribution of inorganic parti- comparably influenced by regional atmospheric deposition; with cles from brake wear and tire wear drop off rapidly and are not the exception of vanadium, aerial deposition of trace metals and observed in the nearby communities. boron is occurring in the El Segundo Dunes at levels that are con- sistent with studies of other urban areas; concentrations of trace Venkatesan, Analysis of Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals in Environ- elements in ambient PM10 were within expected valued for urban mental Samples in support of Los Angeles International Airport 2015 locations.