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4 CHAPTER 2 Background The Clean Air Act requires airports to demonstrate com- ACRP Report 6 presents the project results. A survey of pliance with PM emission standards for current operations as 80 airports was conducted, ranging from large hubs to small well as for expansion and construction projects. Currently general aviation airports, inquiring about the significance of airports must meet these requirements using very limited PM emissions at that airport. Interviews were conducted data on PM emissions from aircraft engines and no data on with airport operators and researchers who have specific PM emissions from auxiliary power units (APUs). Data on knowledge about PM emissions at airports. The team also other sources vary in quality and availability, and only limited conducted a literature review of available information and data are available on ambient PM around airports. ongoing research about PM emissions at airports. Aviation engine PM data are rapidly evolving and with this Based on the findings from the survey, the interviews, the evolution there is an urgent need to consolidate the work literature review, and the professional knowledge of the done in the past with the most recent state-of-the-art meas- team, the researchers prepared an assessment of the current urements. The scientific community's understanding of the state of knowledge of aviation PM emissions. This final nature of aircraft-related PM emissions is hindered since cur- report assesses research needs relative to PM emissions and rent data remain incomplete for large fractions of common presents problem statements for future research to meet the engines operating in the domestic and global fleets. While most critical needs that would be of significant benefit to air- there are no data available on APU PM emissions, APUs are port operators. essentially small jet engines that consume much less jet fuel Chapter 3 of this report presents a primer on PM emissions and consequently emit much less than aircraft main engines, from aviation to provide a baseline of information for readers even in the airport vicinity. Their emissions are believed to be who may be unfamiliar with PM emissions generally and issues similar in composition to main engine emissions but this is faced by the aviation community specifically. Chapter 4 sum- yet to be determined. marizes the findings of the PM survey of airports and inter- The need to fill existing data gaps has been identified and views with airport operators and PM researchers. Chapter 5 de- initial steps taken in projects recently funded by FAA, NASA, scribes current knowledge and gaps regarding PM emissions and Transport Canada in their Partnership for AiR Trans- from aircraft engines. Chapter 6 describes the current state of portation Noise and Emissions Reduction (PARTNER) knowledge concerning other airport emission sources and Center of Excellence. Quite a bit of data have been acquired, Chapter 7 summarizes research needs. Chapter 8 includes a especially in the last 3 years, on both military engines--much prioritized research agenda and problem statements for proj- under DOD's Strategic Environmental Research and Devel- ects to address airports' highest priorities. Chapter 9 includes opment Program (SERDP) sponsorship--and on commercial- the literature review and the project bibliography. Appendix A type wide-body transports and regional jets. Many gaps re- includes a list of airports receiving the survey, a copy of the main, however. The current state of available data is described survey, and a summary of the survey responses. Appendix B in this report. From this, gaps in the current knowledge base includes notes recorded during the interviews. Appendix C are identified. Understanding the gaps guided the develop- presents a summary of hazardous air pollutants for reference. ment of project statements for future research. A glossary of key terms is also included.