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B-1 APPENDIX B Researcher and Airport Interviews The following interviews were conducted during April 2007. John Froines Professor of Environmental Health and Head of EPA PM Center at UCLA The mentality of the PM centers is to link toxicology studies to emissions studies. This is the biggest gap. Froines has developed 6-8 assays that determine chemical/biological toxicity. Conducted a study at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). Measurements were made on the airport grounds near a runway and also in a neighborhood to the west of the airport. The focus of the studies was measurement of ultrafine [defined here as PM1.0] particles. Found evidence of a community-wide impact, both based on measurements and modeling. Although other parts of the LA basin have higher levels of air pollution, the air quality in this neighborhood was clearly influenced by the airport. There is relatively little vehicular traffic that might affect local air quality, which allows discrimination of the impact of the airport. Furthermore, measured peaks in ultrafine particle concentrations in the ambient air parallel aircraft activities. This implicates the role of the aircraft themselves. The scale of the problem is difficult to define. So far, measurements of ambient air quality have been made, but the toxicological effects are unknown. The impact to human health will define the importance of airport related emissions, but that impact has not yet been determined. There are some interesting physicochemical clues that indicate that an airport affects local air quality differently than other sources. For instance, the PAH's found to the west of the airport are much different than those on the east side of the basin which is not influenced by the airport. An outstanding research issue that should be addressed is the level of oxygenation of the hydrocarbons in the vicinity of LAX, especially as compared to other locations in the LA basin. Based on this study, measurements of particulate mass are unlikely to capture the scale of the PM problem. Ultrafine particles, which contribute very little mass, are able to penetrate cell membranes and accumulate in the mitochondria. Therefore, they are likely to have an impact on human health which is not proportional to their mass. Two collaborators conducted the field study and analyzed the data: R-C Yu (rcyu2000@yahoo.com) and Eleanor Fanning (efanning@ucla.edu). Froines recommends interviewing these two people at the same time. Froines also led a study at Santa Monica, though this was a much smaller effort. Froines believes that EPA should make ultrafine particles a research priority. In the LA area, the Coalition for Clean Air is interested in this work and may fund a study. Reports describing the activity at LAX should be available in late Spring 2007. John Pehrson Principal Camp, Dresser and McKee PM is a current problem anticipated to increase in significance in the future The driver is the need to address PM in EIS's LAX study in final stages of negotiation UCLA report (Froines) most recent study

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B-2 Need to understand the relative contributions from ground transportation, GSE etc PM and acrolein are important and not well characterized Acrolein is measurable and health effects appear to be acute Identification of aircraft component important Need an aircraft related marker or fingerprint Need ground transportation, GSE marker or fingerprint Need reliable PM data on current advanced engines e.g. GE90 also need data for GA engines. Tom Nissalke Director of Environmental and Technical Services Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL) Due to improvements with automobile emissions, airport emissions (construction, aircraft, etc.) are coming under greater scrutiny from Georgia EPA. Airports would benefit from better EPA guidelines for measuring and reporting particulate emissions as well as CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons so that regulations might be satisfied. The PM issue is always lurking, but tackling it even defining the magnitude of the problem has been hampered by imprecise definitions of PM and how to measure it. At this time, however, airport contributions to airborne particles is not a big community issue. The most likely impacts of PM emissions will be to human health, and the problem is quite open ended as compliance may require continuous monitoring. Atlanta Airport currently monitors PM via its standard air quality analyses. An inventory was conducted in 2005 and a second is planned for 2009. Donald Hagen Co-PI Delta Atlanta Hartsfield Study UMRCOE Delta-Atlanta/Hartsfield (previously known as UNA-UNA (Un-named Airline - Un-named Airport)) Study. There were two components to this study dedicated engine tests and an airport study. Report due to FAA 30 April 2007 shows the tremendous promise for a fresh perspective on the magnitude and nature of aviation emissions under `real-world' conditions. The analysis and interpretation of the data was greatly facilitated by the dedicated engine tests. These two approaches together form the basis of a combined aviation emissions characterization program which is informative, thorough, atmospherically relevant and novel. The findings from this study together with those from the other campaigns will reshape the understanding of aviation emissions associated with airport local and regional air quality and may settle several outstanding questions with respect to particulate emission from aviation sources. Finally, this report underscores a need for further analysis of these data. Carrol Bryant KB Environmental Science, Inc. Consultant for Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport (ATL) Developed State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport. From the standpoint of the airport, PM is not considered to be a big problem at this point. Their primary concern is to comply with regulations and will be concerned with PM when it is specifically cited in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). From a regulation standpoint, a particular standard for airport air quality must be defined (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) and the airports may need to consider abatement policies to reach this goal. From the standpoint of the public, there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount and toxicity of airport related emissions. There is not a clear public understanding of how harmful airport emissions may be.

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B-3 Brenda Pope Vice President Environmental Management Service Rhode Island Airport Corp. T.F. Green Airport (PVD) DEM (state environmental agency) is concerned as are neighbors. A DEM study found elevated cancer incidence in the vicinity of the airport and now there is pressure to identify the sources. Currently, there is no clear understanding if this is an issue due to vehicular traffic or airport activities. In fact, no difference was found in cancer incidence in the population downwind of the airport and that living upwind. Therefore, the findings of the DEM study may be related to the large amount of vehicular traffic in the vicinity of TF Green, traffic that is largely not related to airport activities. In terms of current activities, DEM has begun monitoring air quality but the data do not confirm the suspicions of people living in the community surrounding the airport. Their belief is that the DEM study is flawed. In addition to PM, there is concern regarding butadiene and formaldehyde. In the future, TF Green will continue to work with DEM and the Dept of Health to understand the problem. Barbara Morin Department of Environmental Management, Rhode Island Project manager for TF Green Air Quality Study As part of an air quality study at TF Green, measured PM 2.5 and black carbon soot. The total particulate mass was dominated by large particles and measurements seemed to be influenced by prevailing ambient conditions. Black carbon matter correlated with ultrafine particulate matter and was airport influenced even when PM 2.5 was not. Black carbon was difficult to measure. Black carbon soot and link with ultrafine particles is an important issue to understand with respect to impact on human health. The role of PAH's is poorly understood. Airport PM is not tightly regulated, and current studies are required to define what regulations may be needed. Airport PM is driven primarily by potential health impacts. In terms of environmental impacts, an EIS was conducted to look at soot issues. The final report for the TF Green study should be available by late Spring 2007. Donald Hagen Co-PI JETS APEX2 UMRCOE A two phase emissions study was performed at OAK in August 2005 The first phase was a dedicated engine study performed in the OAK GRE. The results are soon to be released in a CARB sponsored report entitled "The Development of Exhaust Speciation Profiles for Commercial Jet Engines. This study has resulted in the first quantitative values obtained using state of the art techniques of engine emission factors for PM and some TOG for the most common classes of gas turbine engines currently operating in the US domestic fleet. This study reports the emissions of CO, CO2, NOx, PM mass, speciated PM and speciated hydrocarbons at six thrust settings: 4%, 7%, 30%, 40%, 65% and 85%, measured from both engines on four parked 737 aircraft at the Oakland International Airport. Measurements were made on 4 of the engines at 1m and 50m downstream of the exhaust nozzle and on all 8 engines at 1m downstream. The engine types were selected to represent both old and new technologies. Tests were performed to determine whether or not all engines studied were operating in a representative manner. Of the 8 engines studied, only one was found to have performance deterioration and it was excluded from the engine average results. Size distributions from 5nm to 1m were measured for all test points and associated aerosol shape parameters, and mass and number-based emission indices were evaluated along with real-time chemical speciation for some hydrocarbons. This work was conducted by the University of Missouri-Rolla and Aerodyne Research Inc. The emission factors reported lead to the following conclusions: Measurement of NOx indicated that the general emissions performance of the engines was in keeping with certification measurements for the engines studied.

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B-4 Measurements of individual hydrocarbon species suggest that the Emission Indices for most of the major species decrease with increasing engine power, in proportion to each other, and specifically with formaldehyde, which is one of the most plentiful emitted hydrocarbons and can be measured accurately. The particle composition includes both sulfate and organic volatile fractions at downstream distances, adding to the carbonaceous aerosol that is present already at the engine exit plane. The sulfate contribution has little dependence on engine power, while the organic contribution is smallest at intermediate engine powers. The relative distributions of the substituted naphthalenes to non-substituted naphthalenes for the idle modes are in general agreement with the work from Spicer et al.1992, 1994. Chromium (VI) results, for all but one of the engines studied, were as expected. Size distributions for exit plane were generally lognormal. Strong and sometimes non-linear dependencies were observed with engine power settings. The aerosol Soluble Mass Fraction was found to increase with distance from the engine exit plane. Its value was negligible at the engine exit plane and was ~10% at 50m. The bulk of the TOG speciation was pursued using off-line filter sampling approaches conducted by the University of California-Riverside. After the field campaign was completed it became apparent that a leak had occurred in the sampling system for the sub-set of filters designated for light hydrocarbon and carbonyl analysis and the emission indices for these species are not quantifiable. The second phase was an advected plume study conducted during normal operations at OAK from 7:00am thru 7:00pm on Friday 26 August 2005. The prevailing wind was from the W/NW and the sampling location was situated downwind of the eastern end of the runway at OAK. The location selected for sampling the advected plumes was unique in the sense that it provided an opportunity to measure emissions as aircraft taxied to departure, departed, and landed on the single runway. Real-time PM and emission gas measurements, provided emission factors, size distributions and chemistry for over 300 aircraft under normal operating conditions. Aircraft tail numbers were also recorded for identification of the airframe and engine. Plume processing in the exhaust plume results in the production of a large number of small particles not present at the engine exit plane. The production of these small particles serves to shift Dgeom to smaller values and results in at least an order of magnitude increase in EIn when the plume data are compared to those acquired at the engine exit plane. These new particles do not significantly contribute to the mass dependent parameter values and no significant changes are observed in DgeomM and EIm. In some cases, because of the unique aircraft traffic patterns, sampling location, and prevailing wind direction at OAK, take-off and taxi plumes for different aircraft are found to mix prior to sample extraction, greatly complicating data interpretation. The PM data from these mixed plumes can be deconvolved to yield single aircraft specific information and such analysis is currently underway. On average for the -700 series, a newer technology engine, EIm is less than half that for the older technology -300 series. Britt Johnson Airport Environmental Planner Oakland International Airport (OAK) (submitted health risk assessment as a result of survey) From Britt's perspective the number one environmental issue for OAK is acrolein. At this time PM is a secondary issue for OAK however the observations of ultra-fines described in the UCLA study lead him to believe that PM will become a first priority issue also. OAK is developing a plan for a third runway and his primary concern in the required EIS is reliable data on acrolein. It is his opinion that the current estimates available are too high. He is aware that acrolein was measured during JETS APEX2 and feels that the anticipated report once released by CARB will shed much needed light on the acrolein issue. Although he was not the OAK POC for JETS APEX2 (that was Renee Dowlin who has since moved to Portland OR) he feels this research study will provide much needed input on PM and air toxics.

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B-5 Paul Manasjan Environmental Affairs Director San Diego International Airport (SAN) (submitted section of recent EIS) SAN is conducting an air quality emission inventory as a first step towards master plan for expansion. SAN is implementing an EMS For SAN, PM is an immediate problem Issue deposition of PM? on surfaces in the vicinity of SAN; persistent periodic complaints Acrolein is not on the "local radar" in San Diego PM from non-aviation sources a problem e.g. dust from unpaved areas The driver is the need to address PM in EISs Need to understand the relative contributions from ground transportation, GSE etc. PM is important and not well characterized Identification of aircraft component important Need a aircraft related marker or fingerprint Need ground transportation, GSE marker or fingerprint Roger Gardner Chief Executive, OMEGA Manchester Metropolitan University Center for Air Transport and the Environment, UK Mass estimates for PM from brakes and tires are estimated to be similar to that for engine generated PM Need air-side vehicle emission factors Need operations details to estimate loading from source emissions data As automobiles get cleaner then environmental impact from aviation in and around airports takes on greater significance Need to study potential environmental impacts of alternative (synthetic) fuels Need a full understanding of what is produced in and around airports.