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Wage and Benefit Data 11 Table 2-1. (Continued). Number of Respondents: 360 Number of States: 45 COMPENSATION - WAGES Do you provide overtime pay for your employees? No 52 18% Yes 235 82% Estimate the percentage of overtime wages to total wages. 6.2% Average COMPENSATION - BENEFITS Please tell us about the benefits your organization or agency offers for employees Health Insurance - employee 247 88% Health Insurance - family members 176 63% Disability Insurance 147 52% Life Insurance 204 73% Retirement Plan 219 78% Vacation 266 95% Sick Leave 250 89% Compensatory Time for Overtime Hours 136 48% Educational Opportunities 115 41% Wellness Program 75 27% Total 281 100% Are these benefits available for? All employees 51 18% Full-time employees only 181 65% Part-time employees 46 17% System and Service Types in Relation to Compensation Levels To understand how your system compares with the systems surveyed, it is important to under- stand how similar your system is to other systems in the database of survey responses. The research project explored whether any or all of the factors described above can be used to explain differences in compensation both wage levels and benefits. These data are explored in the following sections. More detail on the survey wage and benefit data, including ranges and stan- dard deviations2 for salary levels, can be found in the appendixes: Appendix B disaggregated by service area descriptors Appendix C disaggregated by system size descriptors Appendix D disaggregated by organizational descriptors Appendix E disaggregated by transit service descriptors Appendix F disaggregated by selected employee characteristics Detailed information was collected on benefits provided by the systems surveyed, including which benefits are offered and which are subsidized by the transit operator. These detailed results are included in the appendixes. However, to explore the relationship between benefits and system/service characteristics, the research team assessed the overall level of benefits provided by each respondent categorizing them as follows: Poor/fair (generally providing few if any benefits and no transit system subsidy); Moderate (generally providing some benefits, but few transit system subsidies); and 2 The standard deviation is a statistic that tells you how tightly all the various examples cluster around the mean in a set of data. When the data are tightly bunched, the standard deviation is small. When the standard deviation is relatively large, the data are spread apart. One standard deviation away from the mean in either direction (plus or minus) accounts for somewhere around 68 percent of the data in a particular group. Two standard deviations away from the mean account for roughly 95 percent of the data.

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12 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas Good/excellent (generally providing a wide range of benefits with the transit system partici- pating in the cost). This benefit rating scheme was used in the following analysis. Service Area Proximity to Urban Areas in Relation to Compensation The researchers postulated that there would be a clear link between how close a system is to an urban area and wage and benefit levels. In fact, the research indicates that systems serving an urbanized area as part of their primary service area have higher wages. Although benefit levels are only slightly better at systems serving an urban area, small urban systems receiving S.5307 funds offer significantly better benefits than systems serving non-urbanized areas and receiving S.5311 funds. Wages Wages are highly correlated with whether a transit system serves an urbanized area as part of its core service area. As indicated in Table 2-2, transit systems serving urbanized areas consis- tently pay higher salaries for most jobs. Another measure of the urban/rural nature of a system's service area can be seen in the type of federal funding it receives. Table 2-3 includes wage rates for systems receiving S.5311 (non-urban) versus S.5307 (small urban) funding. These data also indicate that systems serving non-urbanized areas have lower wage rates than systems serving small urban areas. These sets of data reflect the influence that urban area proximity has on wage rates and the higher overall wage rates in urban areas (probably linked to higher cost of living and greater competition for the labor pool). For those transit systems that do not serve an urban- ized area regularly, the distance to the nearest urban area is not a major factor. For those systems that do not have an urbanized area in their primary service area, there does not appear to be a correlation between wage levels and distance to the nearest urban area. Table 2-2. Survey wage data by rural-urban area served. Service Area No Urban Area Includes Urban Job Category Served Area Administration (Annual) Transit Director $42,121 $54,815 Administrative Assistant $25,468 $30,549 Transit Planner $27,892 $39,822 Finance Clerk $26,716 $32,743 Marketing Specialist $29,150 $39,374 Computer Operator $21,573 $43,199 Safety and Training Manager $30,260 $35,324 Rideshare Coordinator $31,962 $28,479 Trainer $26,072 $31,698 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $9.83 $12.09 Operations Supervisor $15.26 $19.32 Street Supervisor $14.60 $16.91 Scheduler/Call taker $10.86 $11.96 Dispatcher $10.56 $12.55 Maintenance Manager $15.07 $20.48 Maintenance Clerk $11.45 $13.96 Mechanic $14.22 $16.85 Mechanic Assistant $10.21 $12.49 Utility Worker $10.05 $12.19 Driver - CDL $10.17 $12.05 Driver - Non-CDL $8.58 $9.46

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Wage and Benefit Data 13 Table 2-3. Survey wage data by federal funding source. Federal Funding S.5311 Non-Urban S.5307 Small Urban Both S.5311 and Job Category Only Only S.5307 Administration (Annual) Transit Director $43,175 $58,242 $62,278 Administrative Assistant $25,848 $33,225 $35,256 Transit Planner $28,366 $45,020 $42,082 Finance Clerk $28,494 $33,405 $32,335 Marketing Specialist $29,057 $41,133 $40,383 Computer Operator $26,667 $39,980 $43,956 Safety and Training Manager $28,864 $36,438 $37,922 Rideshare Coordinator $27,207 $36,356 $19,452 Trainer $25,876 $33,249 $40,187 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $9.91 $12.32 $11.72 Operations Supervisor $15.81 $20.28 $20.27 Street Supervisor $14.57 $18.13 $16.96 Scheduler/Call taker $10.65 $11.70 $12.01 Dispatcher $10.50 $14.68 $13.20 Maintenance Manager $16.67 $21.16 $18.66 Maintenance Clerk $10.32 $14.78 $15.31 Mechanic $14.69 $16.86 $17.14 Mechanic Assistant $10.26 $12.74 $11.37 Utility Worker $10.22 $12.29 $12.93 Driver - CDL $10.27 $13.35 $12.88 Driver - Non-CDL $8.65 $12.61 $10.81 Table 2-4. Overall benefit level by rural- urban area served. Urban/Rural Service Area No Urban Includes Urban Benefit Level Area Served Area Poor/Fair 29% 34% Moderate 21% 15% Good/Excellent 50% 51% Benefits Unlike wages, differences in the level of benefits provided to employees of transit systems that operate in urban areas and those that do not serve an urban area are not significant (Table 2-4). As shown in Table 2-5 however, benefit levels at transit systems funded under the S.5307 (small urban) program are significantly higher than at transit systems funded under the S.5311 (non- urban) program. This phenomenon probably is attributable to the fact that systems funded Table 2-5. Overall benefit level by federal funding source. Federal Funding S.5311 Non- S.5307 Small Both S.5311 and Benefit Level Urban Only Urban Only S.5307 Poor/Fair 27% 25% 11% Moderate 22% 5% 18% Good/Excellent 51% 70% 71%

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14 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas under S.5307 are more likely to be unionized and/or operated by governmental units, both having better benefits. Service Area Size in Relation to Compensation Wages Table 2-6 presents wage rates by service area characteristics. There seems to be an inverse corre- lation between the size of the area served and wage rates--systems serving larger areas have lower Table 2-6. Survey wage data by service area (Average 2006-2007). Service Area Single Municipal Multi-Town Single County Multi-County Job Category Service Area Service Area Service Area Service Area Administration (Annual) Transit Director $52,119 $49,305 $45,987 $48,537 Administrative Assistant $29,669 $29,943 $27,791 $27,631 Transit Planner $43,055 $25,981 $35,297 $41,331 Finance Clerk $29,858 $34,682 $29,269 $29,394 Marketing Specialist $37,400 $46,216 $32,480 $35,292 Computer Operator $50,000 $20,000 $38,221 $39,476 Safety and Training Manager $33,308 $34,439 $37,233 $32,636 Rideshare Coordinator $24,211 $45,548 $26,780 $24,579 Trainer $35,922 $29,120 $31,092 $26,381 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $12.10 $12.23 $10.63 $10.60 Operations Supervisor $17.85 $20.73 $16.74 $17.24 Street Supervisor $17.74 $20.55 $15.39 $14.27 Scheduler/Call taker $13.18 $9.30 $11.91 $11.06 Dispatcher $13.01 $12.83 $11.12 $10.91 Maintenance Manager $20.44 $22.49 $17.62 $16.29 Maintenance Clerk $15.29 $16.15 $11.35 $11.64 Mechanic $16.54 $17.99 $15.84 $13.93 Mechanic Assistant $13.51 $10.55 $10.74 $11.36 Utility Worker $12.12 $12.19 $11.52 $9.39 Driver - CDL $12.02 $12.70 $10.65 $10.35 Driver - Non-CDL $9.79 $8.46 $8.86 $8.89 Table 2-7. Service area characteristics. Service Area Single Municipal Multi-Town Single County Multi-County Urban/Rural Classification Service Area Service Area Service Area Service Area No. % No. % No. % No. % Urban/Rural No Urban Area Served 27 36% 21 43% 73 54% 57 58% Service Area includes Urban Area 49 64% 28 57% 61 46% 41 42% Federal Funding Sources S.5311 Non-Urban Only 36 55% 25 60% 99 88% 73 87% S.5307 Small Urban Only 23 35% 14 33% 3 3% 3 4% Both S.5311 and S.5307 7 11% 3 7% 10 9% 8 10%

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Wage and Benefit Data 15 wage rates. This is probably related more to the fact that systems serving single municipalities and multi-towns tend to be small urban systems, influenced by the urban labor market, whereas county- based systems tend to operate in more rural setting (Table 2-7). Among survey respondents, over 73% of the systems not serving an urban area are county-based. This pattern also can be seen when looking at federal funding sources. For the survey respondents that receive only S.5311 funds, almost 74% serve counties, while only 26% serve towns/municipalities. For systems receiving S.5307 funds, over 85% serve towns/municipalities, and only 15% are county-based. Benefits As with wages, transit systems serving counties or groups of counties provide lower overall benefits to employees than transit systems serving smaller geographic areas (Table 2-8). Again, this probably reflects the higher benefits provided by small urban operators, because small urban providers service smaller geographical areas than do their rural counterparts. Transit System Location in Relation to Compensation--Regional Differences One of the most important compensation obstacles you face as the manager of a transit sys- tem is whether you can offer salaries/wages that are at or above "market rates" for your area. The region of the country that you operate in has a significant effect on whether your wages are com- petitive with other employers in your area. Although the market rates for transit employees will be specific to your local community, comparison with national, regional, and state-specific data is also informative. Regional Differences in Wages To explain regional and state differences in wages, in addition to the survey data, the research team reviewed various national datasets on wages. These included an in-depth review of the BLS national data on wage levels (by job, region, and sector) and the APTA data on driver and mechanic wages. This subsection reports on national transit worker data from the BLS, data from APTA on oper- ator and maintenance worker wages, and a comparison of wage rates by region from the survey data. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The BLS maintains and provides access to a comprehensive array of labor-related information. Information concerning industry-specific wages, earnings, and benefits can be found through the BLS website (www.bls.gov).3 The research team attempted Table 2-8. Overall benefit level by service area. Service Area Single Single Multi- Municipal County County Service Multi-Town Service Service Benefit Level Area Service Area Area Area Poor/Fair 33% 29% 33% 30% Moderate 5% 12% 26% 19% Good/Excellent 62% 59% 41% 51% 3 Information concerning industry-specific wages, earnings, and benefits can be found through the BLS website by choosing "Bus Drivers, Transit, and Intercity." Once the major category has been chosen, an industry profile is provided. The profile includes wage information for employment in the following bus industry segments: local government, urban transit systems, charter bus industry, interurban and rural bus transportation, and other ground transportation. Information on other job titles within the sub-industry can be accessed by choosing Interurban and Rural Bus Transportation, which then provides information on a number of non-driver posi- tions that can be found in the rural bus industry. For the broader category of Bus Drivers, Transit, and Intercity, a brief job description as well as national estimates for the occupation, an industry profile, state profiles, and met- ropolitan profiles are included.

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16 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas to compare wages at urban and rural organizations, but found that BLS data are only reported by state and metropolitan areas. Thus, the data presented below compare wage rates for com- mon transit jobs by state and BLS region. Table 2-9 provides 2006 medium hourly salary rates for Intercity/Transit Drivers and Mechanics by BLS region4 while Table 2-10 includes median wage rates for various transit- related jobs for each state. These data are based on information collected through the BLS National Compensation Survey, which produces information on wage rates by occupation for a number of cities, regions, and nationally. Appendix G provides the BLS job definitions consid- ered in this research and includes, by job category, a series of tables presenting the mean and median wages by state. Table 2-9. Median hourly salaries for drivers and mechanics by BLS region. MEDIAN HOURLY WAGES ($) FOR MEDIAN SALARY ($) FOR BUS AND INTERCITY AND TRANSIT DRIVERS TRUCK MECHANICS Pacific* 16.87 Pacific 20.80 Middle Atlantic* 16.32 Middle Atlantic* 20.00 East North Central* 15.42 New England 18.66 New England 14.19 East North Central* 18.40 Mountain 12.67 Mountain 18.02 West South Central* 12.36 South Atlantic 17.89 South Atlantic* 12.20 West North Central* 17.09 West North Central* 11.67 West South Central* 15.71 East South Central 10.62 East South Central* 15.59 * No data from Delaware, Washington, D.C., Illinois, * PMSA and CMSA data not included Louisiana, Missouri, or Oregon. Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA) and Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) data not included. The nine BLS Census divisions are made up by the following states: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Also includes the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island CMSA (which consists of parts of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania) and the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City PMSA (which consists of parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland). East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Also includes the Cincinnati-Hamilton PMSA (which consists of parts of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana). West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Also includes the St. Louis MSA (which consists of parts of Missouri and Illinois) and the Minneapolis-St. Paul MSA (which includes parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin). South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Also includes the Louisville MSA (which consists of parts of Kentucky and Indiana) and the Memphis MSA (which consists of parts of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi). West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey, 2006. 4 BLS data are aggregated for nine BLS regions called Regional Census Divisions. Regional data include mean hourly and weekly earnings, are published by job type and level, and are broken down by private industry and state and local government.

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Wage and Benefit Data 17 Table 2-10. Median hourly wages for selected job categories. First-Line Intercity Bus and Truck First-Line Managers of Dispatcher (not Supervisors/Managers of and School Bus Mechanic (Diesel Office and State Police, Fire, or Transportation and Transit Drivers Engine Administrative Support Ambulance) Material-Moving Machine Drivers Specialists) Workers and Vehicle Operators Alabama 7.76 6.42 14.17 15.56 18.02 18.02 Alaska 13.98 14.22 18.82 23.57 21.64 21.64 Arizona 12.70 10.88 14.73 17.19 20.38 20.38 Arkansas 10.19 8.76 14.83 15.65 16.64 16.64 California 16.88 14.36 16.34 20.46 22.78 22.78 Colorado 14.10 13.47 15.90 19.49 21.71 21.71 Connecticut 12.92 12.89 16.41 21.13 22.97 22.97 Delaware na 12.27 15.09 20.20 22.14 22.14 D.C. na na 16.21 20.99 27.12 27.12 Florida 11.45 11.45 13.95 17.28 19.81 19.81 Georgia 13.46 7.05 15.93 18.25 19.80 19.80 Hawaii 16.31 14.41 14.37 20.59 19.97 19.97 Idaho 10.96 11.50 14.70 16.26 17.50 17.50 Illinois na 12.37 16.88 19.84 21.57 21.57 Indiana 12.52 12.53 15.23 17.45 19.56 19.56 Iowa 10.69 12.54 15.04 16.18 19.94 19.94 Kansas 10.57 10.84 15.06 16.47 18.08 18.08 Kentucky 15.04 12.67 14.67 15.74 17.77 17.77 Louisiana na 6.90 13.91 15.46 15.76 15.76 Maine 14.48 12.64 15.05 15.85 17.75 17.75 Maryland 16.50 12.72 15.57 20.3 21.93 21.93 Massachusetts 14.10 14.35 17.48 20.95 23.74 23.74 Michigan 14.06 14.69 16.94 19.24 21.54 21.54 Minnesota 15.43 13.77 17.69 18.94 21.17 21.17 Mississippi 8.71 6.68 12.83 14.43 18.17 18.17 Missouri na 11.46 14.28 17.53 20.82 20.82 Montana 12.16 11.81 13.82 16.11 16.68 16.68 Nebraska 12.31 11.63 15.77 18.75 19.48 19.48 Nevada 13.41 14.28 13.95 20.41 19.11 19.11 New Hampshire 15.16 11.79 15.42 18.88 20.54 20.54 New Jersey 14.86 13.07 17.91 21.13 23.43 23.43 New Mexico 11.73 9.28 14.46 15.97 17.31 17.31 New York 21.08 14.70 14.56 21.48 23.48 23.48 North Carolina 12.04 10.75 14.84 17.11 19.23 19.23 North Dakota 10.41 13.13 16.34 16.67 18.09 18.09 Ohio 18.43 13.22 15.82 17.38 20.13 20.13 Oklahoma 11.57 7.80 13.90 15.58 17.25 17.25 Oregon na 12.55 15.42 18.94 20.64 20.64 Pennsylvania 13.02 10.85 15.19 17.40 21.41 21.41 Rhode Island 15.49 12.57 14.26 20.02 21.98 21.98 South Carolina 8.79 8.08 14.12 15.66 18.58 18.58 South Dakota 10.60 11.22 12.28 15.11 18.83 18.83 Tennessee 10.98 7.27 15.76 16.64 18.51 18.51 Texas 15.33 9.49 15.06 16.14 20.07 20.07 Utah 14.83 13.43 15.27 18.86 18.21 18.21 Vermont 12.99 12.80 16.14 16.51 21.58 21.58 Virginia 12.52 11.57 15.21 17.61 22.26 22.26 Washington 19.66 15.46 18.28 20.46 23.59 23.59 West Virginia 10.64 10.14 12.75 13.61 16.32 16.32 Wisconsin 16.68 11.52 16.09 18.11 20.51 20.51 Wyoming 11.45 10.15 16.19 19.84 17.31 17.31 Source: BLS National Compensation Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2006.

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Table 2-11. APTA top hourly wage rate summary May 2007. Bus Operators Full-Time Rates Population Geographical Area 2 Million and over 500,000 to 1,999,999 250,000 to 499,999 100,000 to 249,999 50,000 to 99,999 Under 50,000 Average Great Lakes 18.93 18.94 17.28 17.92 15.15 13.63 16.98 Middle Atlantic 21.70 19.07 16.67 17.51 15.71 12.95 17.27 New England 26.55 19.88 18.68 19.54 15.60 20.05 North Central 18.56 16.29 14.30 16.99 17.09 16.65 Pacific 21.40 23.54 19.51 19.92 19.77 17.75 20.32 Southeast 17.27 17.60 14.90 14.84 13.19 15.56 Southwest 17.63 16.29 14.22 14.72 18.05 16.18 Average 17.64 14.88 14.69 16.96 16.35 15.36 15.98 Part-Time Rates Population Geographical Area 2 Million and over 500,000 to 1,999,999 250,000 to 499,999 100,000 to 249,999 50,000 to 99,999 Under 50,000 Average Great Lakes 20.81 16.59 15.94 14.25 13.14 13.63 15.73 Middle Atlantic 22.41 12.81 16.42 17.64 13.71 12.95 15.99 New England 26.55 11.07 18.36 20.08 19.02 North Central 19.44 12.71 12.26 17.82 13.57 15.16 Pacific 19.47 18.78 17.24 18.98 18.62 Southeast 12.09 14.90 14.93 8.70 12.00 8.00 11.77 Southwest 14.38 14.53 12.68 14.01 14.44 14.01 Average 16.53 15.45 15.47 15.13 14.22 12.04 14.81

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Table 2-11. (Continued). Bus Maintenance Employees Full-Time Rates Population Geographical Area 2 Million and over 500,000 to 1,999,999 250,000 to 499,999 100,000 to 249,999 50,000 to 99,999 Under 50,000 Average Great Lakes 21.05 21.87 19.13 19.25 18.63 16.86 19.47 Middle Atlantic 25.08 19.82 18.12 18.48 17.28 29.40 21.36 New England 28.09 20.66 20.72 21.91 21.94 22.66 North Central 20.49 17.83 18.74 23.04 22.59 20.54 Pacific 25.87 26.36 22.92 25.10 23.83 21.80 24.31 Southeast 18.61 18.19 17.95 16.44 16.74 15.50 17.24 Southwest 21.47 19.38 17.67 19.50 21.65 19.93 Average 20.02 16.31 16.79 19.92 20.44 21.23 19.12 Southwest/ Non- Great Lakes Middle Atlantic New England North Central Pacific Southeast Mountain Continental Illinois Delaware Connecticut Iowa California Florida Arizona Alaska Indiana Maryland Massachusetts Kansas Oregon Georgia Colorado Hawaii Michigan New Jersey Maine Minnesota Washington North Carolina Idaho Puerto Rico Ohio New York New Hampshire Missouri South Carolina Montana Wisconsin Pennsylvania Rhode Island North Dakota Virginia New Mexico Urban areas of Duluth- DC Vermont Nebraska Alabama Nevada Superior, Minneapolis, Virginia suburbs South Dakota Arkansas Oklahoma St. Louis and Kentucky of DC Kentucky Texas suburbs of Cincinnati Louisianna Utah Mississippi Wyoming Tennesee West Virginia Source: American Public Transit Association (APTA), Top Hourly Wage Rate Summary: First Quarter 2007, May 2007.

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20 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas APTA Wage Data. APTA collects information on the top hourly wages of the two labor cat- egories representing the highest wages (drivers and maintenance workers). Table 2-11 summa- rizes by region the top hourly wages (May 2007). Survey Data on Wages by Region. Table 2-12 presents survey data on the wages by the same regions used by the BLS. Similarly, Table 2-13 presents wage data from the survey presented by APTA regions. As shown, while the Pacific region is the highest, the Middle Atlantic and New England are also higher than other regions. Benefits Tables 2-14 and 2-15 present overall benefit levels from the survey disaggregated by BLS and APTA regions. As shown, no pattern can be seen in benefit levels among the regions. Cost-of-Living Comparison One factor contributing to lower wage rates in rural and small urban areas is that the cost of living in these areas is lower than in larger urban areas. Unfortunately, cost-of-living data among labor markets are not readily available in any consistent and reliable form. Few data are available on the relative cost of living in rural and urban areas; cost-of-living data are available only for specific metropolitan areas (although some state comparisons do exist). Specific studies (gener- ally confined to one state) have shown that the cost of living in rural areas can be 6% to 13% lower than in urban areas. Generally, it will cost more to live in rural areas with resorts or sig- nificant tourist activity. Some online tools can be used to make cost-of-living comparisons among various urbanized areas. www.salary.com allows users to choose a job category, a state, and a metropolitan area. Once this information is entered, the minimum, mean, and maximum salaries are displayed, along with benefits. This site is used primarily by jobseekers and employers. Cost-of-living cal- culators provided by www.money.cnn.com and www.cityrating.com allow users to type in one Table 2-12. Survey wage data by BLS region (Average 2006-2007). Region New Middle East North West North South East South West South Job Category England Atlantic Central Central Atlantic Central Central Mountain Pacific Administration (Annual) Transit Director $58,621 $69,698 $44,390 $36,684 $50,960 $52,185 $44,384 $48,572 $76,507 Administrative Assistant $29,638 $25,209 $26,644 $27,190 $29,354 $27,632 $26,981 $28,788 $36,978 Transit Planner $34,261 $48,950 $36,640 $26,500 $52,949 $46,350 $24,331 $22,708 $47,183 Finance Clerk $31,913 $34,875 $30,872 $26,838 $28,412 $29,073 $24,084 $27,747 $40,908 Marketing Specialist $28,300 $36,824 $45,326 $20,800 $46,871 $38,453 $31,990 NA $43,530 Computer Operator NA $31,490 NA NA $35,916 NA NA $48,500 $41,888 Safety and Training Manager $39,860 $44,485 $33,831 $36,811 $34,411 $24,403 $22,678 $41,513 $37,394 Rideshare Coordinator $29,120 $27,040 $55,736 $26,520 $29,120 $28,565 $19,452 $23,545 NA Trainer NA $30,750 $27,040 $31,200 $31,977 NA $27,434 $35,402 $31,546 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $11.89 $12.53 $10.72 $8.26 $11.05 $10.79 $10.52 $11.74 $13.49 Operations Supervisor $17.93 $22.92 $17.60 $15.27 $17.95 $16.26 $15.04 $19.19 $21.34 Street Supervisor $18.14 $14.75 $17.46 $13.85 $16.16 $16.36 $16.11 $17.24 $18.50 Scheduler/Call taker $11.40 $15.12 $10.06 $8.94 $11.52 NA $10.35 $13.04 $15.32 Dispatcher $12.80 $14.21 $10.54 $10.95 $12.16 $9.59 $10.32 $12.31 $14.10 Maintenance Manager $22.29 $22.61 $17.38 $13.74 $17.86 $17.71 $15.56 $21.43 $23.82 Maintenance Clerk $17.12 $9.99 $11.94 NA $16.33 $8.86 $11.04 NA $13.63 Mechanic $16.80 $17.48 $14.77 $15.55 $14.99 $13.71 $14.08 $17.72 $20.79 Mechanic Assistant $12.42 $11.15 $9.85 NA $13.42 $7.95 $10.98 $13.90 $13.49 Utility Worker $13.46 $10.69 $14.90 $11.83 $10.42 $11.34 $9.93 $12.24 $11.13 Driver - CDL $12.40 $13.51 $11.31 $9.75 $11.67 $9.58 $9.59 $11.93 $13.19 Driver - Non-CDL $9.72 $10.85 $8.62 $8.56 $9.18 $8.98 $8.29 $9.29 $13.27

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Wage and Benefit Data 21 Table 2-13. Survey wage data by APTA region (Average 2006-2007). APTA Region Middle Southwest/ Job Category New England Atlantic Great Lakes North Central Southeast Mountain Pacific Administration (Annual) Transit Director $58,621 $67,450 $44,390 $36,684 $48,562 $46,683 $79,884 Administrative Assistant $29,638 $28,210 $26,644 $27,190 $28,043 $27,919 $38,288 Transit Planner $34,261 $48,950 $36,640 $26,500 $35,298 $28,573 $47,183 Finance Clerk $31,914 $33,030 $30,872 $26,838 $28,841 $23,495 $41,559 Marketing Specialist $28,300 $41,118 $45,326 $20,800 $35,543 NA $43,530 Computer Operator NA $31,490 NA NA $35,916 $48,500 $41,888 Safety and Training Manager $39,860 $44,485 $33,831 $36,811 $26,635 $33,725 $37,341 Rideshare Coordinator $29,120 $27,040 $55,736 $26,520 $28,842 $22,180 NA Trainer NA $38,500 $27,040 $31,200 $21,181 $31,681 $31,546 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $11.89 $13.16 $10.72 $8.26 $10.40 $11.16 $13.49 Operations Supervisor $17.93 $23.34 $17.60 $15.27 $16.05 $17.53 $21.34 Street Supervisor $18.14 $16.35 $17.46 $13.85 $15.73 $16.69 $18.50 Scheduler/Call taker $11.40 $14.18 $10.06 $8.94 $10.43 $12.47 $14.30 Dispatcher $12.80 $14.28 $10.57 $10.95 $11.62 $11.19 $14.11 Maintenance Manager $22.29 $22.72 $17.38 $13.74 $17.04 $17.96 $26.02 Maintenance Clerk $17.12 $15.57 $11.94 NA $12.36 $11.53 $13.63 Mechanic $16.80 $18.10 $14.77 $14.55 $14.21 $15.69 $20.79 Mechanic Assistant $12.42 $11.15 $9.85 NA $11.12 $12.82 $13.49 Utility Worker $13.46 $10.91 $14.90 $11.83 $10.15 $11.57 $11.13 Driver - CDL $12.40 $13.66 $11.31 $9.76 $10.78 $10.74 $13.10 Driver - Non-CDL $9.72 $11.82 $8.62 $8.56 $8.70 $9.02 $14.54 Table 2-14. Overall benefit level by BLS region. BLS Region East West East West New Middle North North South South South Benefit Level England Atlantic Central Central Atlantic Central Central Mountain Pacific Poor/Fair 21% 14% 33% 29% 24% 30% 29% 51% 41% Moderate 12% 22% 17% 25% 21% 10% 22% 2% 14% Good/Excellent 67% 64% 50% 46% 55% 60% 49% 47% 45% Table 2-15. Overall benefit level by APTA region. APTA Region New Middle Great North Southwest/ Benefit Level England Atlantic Lakes Central Southeast Mountain Pacific Poor/Fair 21% 15% 33% 29% 30% 39% 45% Moderate 12% 25% 17% 25% 18% 11% 10% Good/Excellent 67% 60% 50% 46% 52% 50% 45% salary amount and two different metropolitan areas. The CNN website also breaks down the cost of groceries, housing, utilities, transportation, and healthcare. System Size in Relation to Compensation The size of a transit system appears to be linked to employee compensation. In general, the larger the system, the higher the wage rate and overall benefit levels. Several measures of system size were considered:

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22 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas Number of employees, Operating costs, and Number of vehicles. The measure of system size that appears to be most highly correlated with wage rates is the number of employees. Wages As shown in Table 2-16, organizations with more employees have higher wage rates. This trend is also evident in Table 2-17 which presents wage data related to operating costs. That larger systems have higher wage rates probably is explained by the facts that the larger systems tend to have Fewer part-time staff, A higher percentage of vehicles requiring CDL drivers, An urban area in their service area, A transit authority, A union, and Few, if any, volunteers. On the other hand, larger systems have higher turnover rates (although the relationship between turnover rates and wages is not strong). Benefits As a mirror to wage trends, systems with more employees and higher operating costs provide a higher level of employee benefits (see Table 2-18 and Table 2-19, respectively). Table 2-16. Survey wage data by total employees (Average 2006-2007). Total Employees 1-9 10-24 25-49 50-99 100+ Job Category Employees Employees Employees Employees Employees Administration (Annual) Transit Director $34,067 $41,846 $53,373 $64,861 $74,179 Administrative Assistant $20,748 $25,608 $29,088 $31,154 $35,967 Transit Planner $17,769 $22,880 $38,072 $41,838 $50,723 Finance Clerk $24,514 $27,065 $29,880 $34,333 $32,401 Marketing Specialist NA $31,990 $35,520 $37,971 $38,628 Computer Operator NA $22,360 $34,440 $42,188 $43,042 Safety and Training Manager $17,069 $27,280 $31,822 $37,464 $40,363 Rideshare Coordinator $22,880 $19,452 $30,940 $34,026 $25,722 Trainer $29,120 $21,611 $32,160 $30,437 $34,975 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $9.64 $9.31 $11.78 $11.95 $13.60 Operations Supervisor $13.17 $15.26 $17.80 $20.55 $22.52 Street Supervisor $19.64 $12.63 $16.52 $16.69 $16.69 Scheduler/Call taker $11.90 $9.56 $11.90 $12.12 $15.54 Dispatcher $9.76 $10.52 $12.29 $13.20 $13.58 Maintenance Manager $7.50 $14.01 $17.49 $22.09 $21.46 Maintenance Clerk $6.68 $14.99 $14.16 $14.77 $11.41 Mechanic $16.04 $15.01 $14.76 $17.08 $17.23 Mechanic Assistant $7.35 $11.30 $11.17 $11.70 $13.92 Utility Worker NA $10.44 $10.54 $12.79 $11.80 Driver - CDL $9.33 $10.33 $11.67 $12.79 $13.25 Driver - Non-CDL $8.44 $8.55 $9.47 $10.45 $10.33

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Table 2-17. Survey wage data by total operating costs (Average 2006-2007). Operating Costs Less than $50,000 to $100,000 to $250,000 to $500,000 to $750,000 to $1M to $1.25M to More than Job Category $50,000 $100,000 $250,000 $500,000 $750,000 $1M $1.25M $1.5M $1.5M Administration (Annual) Transit Director $27,919 $29,244 $36,097 $39,324 $44,662 $51,950 $50,814 $48,690 $65,998 Administrative Assistant $26,884 $21,840 $24,509 $23,834 $27,602 $26,534 $28,705 $23,737 $32,659 Transit Planner NA $17,531 $15,600 $23,920 $30,000 NA $55,000 NA $43,799 Finance Clerk $20,800 $18,720 $21,978 $27,089 $30,903 $33,291 $26,089 $29,693 $34,619 Marketing Specialist NA NA NA $22,880 $41,101 NA NA $17,040 $39,138 Computer Operator NA NA NA NA $22,360 $47,000 NA $20,000 $43,066 Safety and Training Manager NA $12,730 $17,680 $19,760 $26,000 $39,283 $27,040 $19,760 $37,835 Rideshare Coordinator NA NA $22,880 NA $26,520 NA NA NA $30,295 Trainer NA NA NA NA $21,611 $28,350 $27,040 $15,816 $33,682 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support NA $8.15 $9.33 $9.51 $8.61 $11.23 $10.21 $10.11 $12.54 Operations Supervisor NA $13.95 $14.07 $13.36 $16.10 $17.22 $15.89 $14.47 $21.04 Street Supervisor NA NA NA $19.64 NA $15.69 $13.15 NA $16.86 Scheduler/Call taker NA $8.38 $7.17 $11.00 $10.22 $13.03 $10.37 $10.12 $12.51 Dispatcher $7.12 $8.56 $9.45 $10.08 $11.18 $11.68 $11.50 $11.27 $14.06 Maintenance Manager NA $10.30 $7.50 $12.40 $11.16 $20.46 $17.39 $17.31 $20.83 Maintenance Clerk NA $6.68 NA NA NA $14.99 $7.05 NA $14.64 Mechanic NA $10.00 $12.13 $13.10 $16.31 $15.16 $14.98 $13.37 $16.68 Mechanic Assistant NA $7.35 $6.83 NA $10.98 $14.12 $9.37 $8.57 $12.45 Utility Worker NA $11.10 NA $9.41 $11.83 NA $8.24 $9.62 $12.28 Driver - CDL $9.28 $8.37 $9.25 $9.88 $10.80 $12.08 $10.53 $10.84 $13.07 Driver - Non-CDL $7.39 $8.18 $8.51 $9.14 $8.39 $9.43 $10.13 $8.84 $10.26

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24 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas Table 2-18. Overall benefit level by total number of employees. Total Employees 1-9 10-24 25-49 50-99 100+ Benefit Level Employees Employees Employees Employees Employees Poor/Fair 29% 23% 15% 14% 12% Moderate 25% 21% 16% 18% 13% Good/Excellent 46% 56% 69% 68% 75% Table 2-19. Overall benefit level by operating costs. Operating Costs $100,000 $250,000 $500,000 More Less than $50,000 to to to to $750,000 $1M to $1.25M than Benefit Level $50,000 $100,000 $250,000 $500,000 $750,000 to $1M $1.25M to $1.5M $1.5M Poor/Fair 54% 29% 18% 24% 37% 27% 22% 6% 23% Moderate 8% 25% 44% 26% 13% 8% 22% 27% 10% Good/Excellent 38% 46% 38% 50% 50% 65% 56% 67% 67% Transit Organization Type in Relation to Compensation The type of organization and whether systems provide transportation directly or through a contract is only somewhat significant when explaining compensation differences. Wages Table 2-20 presents wage data by the type of organization. Although there are no significant differences in wage rates among the types of agencies, it appears that transit authorities and gov- ernmental departments pay higher wages than private-nonprofit agencies. This may be because transit systems operated by transit authorities and governmental units (particularly cities) oper- ate in the small urban areas and tend to be larger systems. Table 2-21 presents wage data disaggregated by those agencies that directly operate service and those that use a contractor in addition to their own employees (wage data for services that are only contracted out were collected through the contractor). It appears that the presence of a con- tractor may influence wage rates (increasing them) but only slightly. Benefits As with wages, it appears that transit authorities and governmental departments have better benefits than private-nonprofit agencies (Table 2-22). There are little or no differences in bene- fits if the transit system contracts for part of its services (Table 2-23). Transit Service Type in Relation to Compensation Wages Fixed-route services, or those systems that have a mix of fixed-route and paratransit, have higher wage rates than systems that only operate demand-responsive or subscription services (Table 2-24). These differences probably result from the fact that fixed-route operations tend to be in small urban areas, are somewhat larger systems, are less likely to use volunteers, and are more likely to have a union (see below).

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Table 2-20. Survey wage data by organizational type (Average 2006-2007). Type of Organization* Private Non-Profit Private Non- Transit County City (Transportation Profit Job Category Authority Department Department Only) (Multipurpose) Other Administration (Annual) Transit Director $55,419 $46,584 $52,793 $46,567 $41,162 $55,967 Administrative Assistant $31,369 $29,667 $29,474 $28,978 $22,471 $30,540 Transit Planner $33,603 $36,682 $43,340 $44,240 $32,539 $37,594 Finance Clerk $34,236 $27,015 $36,345 $30,156 $25,593 $33,480 Marketing Specialist $40,116 $35,000 $42,808 $28,080 $27,006 $43,680 Computer Operator $38,689 $29,350 NA $47,000 $39,720 NA Safety and Training Manager $37,456 $41,866 $33,866 $38,125 $24,448 $31,180 Rideshare Coordinator $25,204 NA $39,973 $28,253 $25,722 NA Trainer $24,752 $27,000 $34,659 $34,975 $24,771 $32,760 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $11.88 $12.56 $11.71 $11.40 $9.54 $10.54 Operations Supervisor $18.33 $18.81 $19.59 $16.70 $15.16 $17.64 Street Supervisor $15.76 $16.00 $18.35 $13.81 $16.75 $12.25 Scheduler/Call taker $11.94 $10.87 $12.77 $11.96 $10.51 $11.02 Dispatcher $11.94 $12.75 $12.93 $11.29 $9.48 $10.44 Maintenance Manager $20.21 $16.24 $22.23 $16.91 $16.17 $17.81 Maintenance Clerk $14.15 $16.18 $15.70 $8.94 $7.77 $15.89 Mechanic $15.75 $16.09 $17.12 $15.78 $13.45 $16.64 Mechanic Assistant $11.30 NA $13.27 $13.41 $7.62 $12.02 Utility Worker $10.73 $13.29 $12.80 $10.75 $9.66 NA Driver - CDL $12.39 $11.77 $12.56 $10.54 $9.15 $9.61 Driver - Non-CDL $9.97 $9.19 $9.78 $9.64 $8.44 $8.94 * There were too few Private-for-Profit operators to report on accurately. Table 2-21. Survey wage data by type of operation (Average 2006-2007). Operation Type* Combination Direct Job Category Direct Operation Operation and Contract Brokerage Administration (Annual) Transit Director $46,447 $54,544 $48,985 Administrative Assistant $27,862 $30,178 $26,740 Transit Planner $34,581 $40,413 NA Finance Clerk $28,803 $33,923 NA Marketing Specialist $36,039 $41,658 NA Computer Operator $39,382 $37,202 NA Safety and Training Manager $33,610 $32,107 NA Rideshare Coordinator $29,875 $22,880 NA Trainer $31,601 $29,440 NA Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $10.84 $11.80 NA Operations Supervisor $17.32 $18.95 $16.27 Street Supervisor $16.63 $15.43 NA Scheduler/Call taker $10.94 $12.16 $8.75 Dispatcher $11.44 $12.17 $12.23 Maintenance Manager $18.28 $20.93 $16.25 Maintenance Clerk $13.37 NA NA Mechanic $15.59 $17.02 $11.50 Mechanic Assistant $11.41 $12.90 NA Utility Worker $11.60 $11.36 NA Driver - CDL $11.06 $11.64 $10.98 Driver - Non-CDL $8.74 $9.56 $10.46 *Wages were not reported for systems that only contract for service.

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26 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas Table 2-22. Overall benefit level by organization type. Organization Type Private Non-Profit Private Transit County City (Transportation Non-Profit Benefit Level Authority Department Department Only) (Multipurpose) Other Poor/Fair 21% 23% 31% 28% 30% 7% Moderate 10% 20% 4% 30% 28% 29% Good/Excellent 69% 57% 65% 42% 42% 64% Table 2-23. Overall benefit level by type of operation. Operation Type* Combination Direct Direct Operation and Benefit Level Operation Contract Brokerage Poor/Fair 21% 20% 40% Moderate 19% 24% 40% Good/Excellent 60% 56% 20% *Wages were not reported for systems that only contract for service. Table 2-24. Survey wage data by service types (Average 2006-2007). Service Type Fixed-Route / Deviated Paratransit / Fixed-Route / Paratransit / Job Category Fixed-Route Subscription Subscription Mix Administration (Annual) Transit Director $48,066 $40,393 $54,019 Administrative Assistant $26,758 $24,640 $30,425 Transit Planner $23,027 $29,584 $41,171 Finance Clerk $33,041 $25,009 $32,649 Marketing Specialist $40,000 $29,070 $39,080 Computer Operator $34,360 $38,909 Safety and Training Manager $26,690 $29,937 $34,618 Rideshare Coordinator $35,360 $22,951 $31,259 Trainer $31,200 $23,696 $33,668 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $11.92 $9.63 $11.62 Operations Supervisor $19.52 $15.37 $18.61 Street Supervisor $18.04 $16.16 $16.08 Scheduler/Call taker $11.84 $10.53 $11.88 Dispatcher $13.51 $10.09 $12.37 Maintenance Manager $16.98 $15.40 $19.93 Maintenance Clerk $18.29 $7.05 $13.47 Mechanic $17.29 $14.44 $15.93 Mechanic Assistant $10.55 $8.80 $11.99 Utility Worker $11.86 $10.82 $11.64 Driver - CDL $11.70 $9.51 $11.94 Driver - Non-CDL $9.07 $8.49 $9.51

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Wage and Benefit Data 27 Table 2-25. Overall benefit level by service type. Service Type Fixed-Route/ Fixed- Deviated Fixed- Paratransit / Route/Paratransit/ Benefit Level Route Subscription Subscription Mix Poor/Fair 29% 31% 27% Moderate 12% 25% 15% Good/Excellent 59% 44% 58% Benefits Transit systems that operate fixed-route services or those systems that have a mix of fixed- route and paratransit have better overall benefits than systems that only operate demand- responsive or subscription services (Table 2-25). Employee Characteristics in Relation to Compensation Wages The data indicate that systems with more part-time drivers have lower compensation rates (wages and benefits). Further, systems that do not use volunteers (Table 2-26) and systems with unions (Table 2-27) have higher wages. Again, this is probably linked to the higher use of part- time employees and fewer unions in rural areas. According to the survey data, systems with staff shortages (primarily drivers) do not pay higher wages (Table 2-28), nor does there appear to be any consistent explanation for why driver shortages occur (e.g., even unemployment rates do not explain shortages). The only indicator Table 2-26. Survey wage data by volunteer use (Average 2006-2007). Use Volunteers Job Category Yes w/Paid Staff No Volunteers Administration (Annual) Transit Director $45,904 $48,789 Administrative Assistant $26,833 $28,592 Transit Planner $40,975 $35,274 Finance Clerk $27,097 $30,625 Marketing Specialist $24,400 $39,626 Computer Operator $43,490 $37,248 Safety and Training Manager $26,229 $34,832 Rideshare Coordinator $24,700 $30,295 Trainer $38,750 $30,290 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $10.50 $11.32 Operations Supervisor $17.43 $17.73 Street Supervisor $18.63 $16.41 Scheduler/Call taker $11.96 $11.63 Dispatcher $10.27 $11.82 Maintenance Manager $18.70 $18.65 Maintenance Clerk $6.68 $13.79 Mechanic $14.88 $16.02 Mechanic Assistant $12.20 $11.68 Utility Worker $11.10 $11.65 Driver - CDL $10.05 $11.39 Driver - Non-CDL $9.21 $8.91

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28 Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas Table 2-27. Survey wage data by labor union (Average 2006-2007). Labor Union No Yes Administration (Annual) Transit Director $44,805 $62,673 Administrative Assistant $26,865 $32,078 Transit Planner $34,703 $39,409 Finance Clerk $28,294 $34,683 Marketing Specialist $31,046 $41,713 Computer Operator $34,720 $40,389 Safety and Training Manager $28,301 $42,232 Rideshare Coordinator $26,396 $35,662 Trainer $27,592 $35,740 Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $10.06 $13.26 Operations Supervisor $16.31 $21.20 Street Supervisor $15.17 $17.96 Scheduler/Call taker $10.78 $14.34 Dispatcher $10.78 $14.42 Maintenance Manager $16.22 $23.72 Maintenance Clerk $11.63 $14.32 Mechanic $14.62 $17.48 Mechanic Assistant $10.72 $13.48 Utility Worker $10.66 $12.34 Driver - CDL $10.29 $13.73 Driver - Non-CDL $8.71 $11.92 Table 2-28. Survey wage data by staff shortage (Average 2006-2007). Staff Shortage Driver Shortage Short Drivers Other Staff Job Category No Shortage Only Plus Other Staff Shortage Only Administration (Annual) Transit Director $48,640 $48,468 $44,379 $50,254 Administrative Assistant $29,592 $26,116 $26,098 $31,103 Transit Planner $36,327 $35,504 $37,876 $45,685 Finance Clerk $29,285 $31,539 $23,727 $30,160 Marketing Specialist $38,596 $37,111 NA $22,880 Computer Operator $34,142 $40,310 $50,000 NA Safety and Training Manager $32,571 $37,494 $32,750 NA Rideshare Coordinator $27,554 $31,609 NA NA Trainer $30,150 $29,778 $37,317 NA Operations (Hourly) Administrative Support $11.32 $11.11 $10.31 $11.61 Operations Supervisor $17.38 $17.97 $17.00 $22.04 Street Supervisor $14.54 $19.18 $14.46 $20.84 Scheduler/Call taker $11.65 $11.44 $11.82 $13.46 Dispatcher $12.09 $11.13 $10.66 $12.28 Maintenance Manager $17.79 $19.51 $25.81 $20.31 Maintenance Clerk $12.98 $13.85 NA $16.18 Mechanic $15.76 $16.69 $14.06 $14.94 Mechanic Assistant $11.23 $12.23 $13.14 $12.45 Utility Worker $10.91 $12.45 $11.40 $16.95 Driver - CDL $11.29 $11.09 $10.21 $12.20 Driver - Non-CDL $8.96 $8.87 $9.15 $11.06

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Wage and Benefit Data 29 that may explain shortages is whether the system wages are at or above the "going market" lev- els for the area (expressed as an opinion by survey respondents). Respondents that have staff shortages (Table 2-29) are more likely to have the opinion that their wage rates are below the market rate for their area. As will be discussed in Section 4, most systems with driver shortages attribute this situation to low pay and/or benefits. Benefits The benefits at transit systems with unions are far better than at systems without unions (Table 2-30). The data also indicate that systems that do not use volunteers (Table 2-31) and systems with a lower percentage of part-time staff offer better benefits. Systems with staff shortages (pri- marily drivers) do not have significantly poorer benefits (Table 2-32). Table 2-29. Wage levels and staff shortages. Staff Shortages No Driver Wage Levels Shortages Shortages Above Market 15% 12% About Market 57% 52% Below Market 28% 37% Table 2-30. Overall benefit level by labor union. Labor Union Benefit Level No Yes Poor/Fair 21% 13% Moderate 25% 5% Good/Excellent 55% 82% Table 2-31. Overall benefit level by volunteer use. Use Volunteers Benefit Level Yes w/Paid Staff No Volunteers Poor/Fair 24% 19% Moderate 24% 20% Good/Excellent 52% 61% Table 2-32. Overall benefit level by staff shortage. Staff Shortage Short Drivers No Driver Plus Other Other Staff Benefit Level Shortage Shortage Only Staff Shortage Only Poor/Fair 14% 12% 8% 29% Moderate 23% 20% 23% 43% Good/Excellent 63% 68% 69% 29%