Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
AIRPORT ACRP SYNTHESIS 8 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice

OCR for page R1
ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Chair: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka JAMES WILDING Vice Chair: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Independent Consultant Berkeley Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR JEFF HAMIEL MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Metropolitan Airports Commission ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg JOHN D. BOWE, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA MEMBERS LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson JAMES CRITES DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern DallasFt. Worth International Airport Corporation, Norfolk, VA RICHARD DE NEUFVILLE WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID S. EKERN, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UCG Associates University of Virginia, Charlottesville JOHN K. DUVAL JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Beverly Municipal Airport EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC STEVE GROSSMAN WILL KEMPTON, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Oakland International Airport SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City TOM JENSEN MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia National Safe Skies Alliance Institute of Technology, Atlanta CATHERINE M. LANG MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Federal Aviation Administration Arlington GINA MARIE LINDSEY NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Los Angeles World Airports PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City CAROLYN MOTZ SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Hagerstown Regional Airport TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR RICHARD TUCKER ROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Huntsville International Airport Atlanta HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., EX OFFICIO MEMBERS St. Louis, MO C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of SABRINA JOHNSON Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency LINDA S. WATSON, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando RICHARD MARCHI STEVE WILLIAMS, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Airports Council International-- North America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS LAURA McKEE Air Transport Association of America THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC HENRY OGRODZINSKI JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT National Association of State Aviation REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Officials Smyrna, GA MELISSA SABATINE PAUL R. BRUBAKER, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Executives Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. SEAN T. CONNAUGHTON, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC SECRETARY EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN H. HILL, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Research Board Transportation Officials, Washington, DC CARL T. JOHNSON, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC NICOLE R. NASON, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT JAMES RAY, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT JAMES S. SIMPSON, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT ROBERT A. STURGELL, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2008. *Membership as of May 2008.

OCR for page R1
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 8 Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice CONSULTANT RICK BELLIOTTI Barich, Inc. Chandler, Arizona S UBJECT A REAS Aviation Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

OCR for page R1
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 8 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in Project 11-03, Topic S10-02 transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and ISSN 1935-9187 international commerce. They are where the nation's aviation sys- ISBN 978-0-309-09805-2 tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal Library of Congress Control Number 2008925354 responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and 2008 Transportation Research Board operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. COPYRIGHT PERMISSION The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For and Transit Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and adminis- NOTICE tration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from resources of the National Research Council. airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and sec- are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National retariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program spon- Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. sor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Department of Transportation. Academies formally initiating the program. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- panel according to procedures established and monitored by the port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and Board of the National Research Council. research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited period- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National ically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because and expected products. they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, reporting. appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Published reports of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, are available from: ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys p urposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation depart- ments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research BURR STEWART Programs Port of Seattle EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS ACRP SYNTHESIS STAFF GARY C. CATHEY STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs California Department of Transportation JON M. WILLIAMS, Associate Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE GAIL STABA, Senior Program Officer Unison Consulting, Inc. DON TIPPMAN, Editor BERTA FERNANDEZ CHERYL Y. KEITH, Senior Program Assistant Landrum & Brown JULIE KENFIELD TOPIC PANEL Jacobs GERRY ALLEY, San Francisco International Airport CAROLYN MOTZ CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board Hagerstown Regional Airport SAMUEL INGALLS, McCarran International Airport HOWARD KOURIK, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority FAA LIAISON ALAIN MACA, JFK International Air Terminal, LLC LORI PAGNANELLI TIM McGRAW, American Airlines ROBIN R. SOBOTTA, EmbryRiddle Aeronautical University ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON GIL NEUMANN, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) RICHARD MARCHI TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks are extended to Dr. Robin Sobotta for her major con- Thanks to Alexandra, Mykenzie, Courtney, Gabriella, and Lyndsee. tributions to the common use continuum table and chart. Additional Special thanks also to San Francisco Airport, Las Vegas Airport, and thanks are extended to members of the Topic Panel. Thanks are also JFK Terminal 4 for providing images of their airports for inclusion in extended to Frank Barich, Ted Melnik, Paul Reed, Justin Phy, Yvonne this paper. Esparza, and Theresa Belliotti for their editing and content updates.

OCR for page R1
FOREWORD Airport operators, service providers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- By Gail Staba mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- Senior Program Officer tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, Transportation full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its Research Board solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day- to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Coopera- tive Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a con- tinuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis study is intended to inform airport operators, stakeholders, and policy makers about common use technology that enables an airport operator to take space that has previously been exclusive to a single airline and make it available for use by multiple air- lines and their passengers. Common use is a fundamental shift in the philosophy of airport space utilization. It allows the airport operator to use existing space more efficiently, thus increasing the capac- ity of the airport without necessarily constructing new gates, concourses, terminals, or check-in counters. Common use, while not new to the airlines, is a little employed tactic in domestic terminals in the United States airport industry. This synthesis was prepared to help airport operators, airlines, and other interested par- ties gain an understanding of the progressive path of implementing common use, noted as the common use continuum. This synthesis serves as a good place to begin learning about the state of common use throughout the world and the knowledge currently available and how it is currently employed in the United States. It identifies advantages and disadvan- tages to airports and airlines, and touches on the effects of common use on the passenger. This synthesis attempts to present the views of both airlines and airports so that a complete picture of the effects of common use can be gathered. The information for the synthesis was gathered through a search of existing literature, results from surveys sent to airport operators and airlines, and through interviews conducted with airport operators and airlines. Rick Belliotti, Barich, Inc., Chandler, Arizona, collected and synthesized the informa- tion and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the pre- ceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 5 Purpose, 5 Scope, 5 Data Collection, 6 Document Organization, 6 7 CHAPTER TWO COMMON USE CONTINUUM Exclusive Use Model, 7 Full Common Use Model, 8 Common Use Technology, 10 State of Airports Along the Continuum, 11 13 CHAPTER THREE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMMON USE Advantages of Common Use, 13 Airport Considerations for Common Use, 13 17 CHAPTER FOUR AIRPORTS--IMPLEMENTING COMMON USE Technology, 17 Physical Plant, 17 Competition Planning, 18 Fiscal Management, 18 Maintenance and Support, 19 21 CHAPTER FIVE AIRLINES OPERATING IN COMMON USE Additional Resources for Planning, Design, and Implementation, 21 Airline Operations, 22 Common Use Hardware and Software, 22 Additional Costs, 22 Branding, 23 Local Support, 23 25 CHAPTER SIX REAL-WORLD EXPERIENCE Airlines, 25 Airports, 28 30 CHAPTER SEVEN AIRPORT CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMMON USE IMPLEMENTATIONS Political Backing, 31 Business Model and Business Case, 31 Assessing Impact on All Airport Operations, 31 Understanding Airline Operations, 32 Airline Agreement Modifications, 32

OCR for page R1
33 CHAPTER EIGHT ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTION Survey, 33 Literature, 39 Industry Sources and Experience, 39 42 CHAPTER NINE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 45 GLOSSARY 47 REFERENCES 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 APPENDIX A CUTE AND CUSS IMPLEMENTATIONS, WORLD-WIDE 64 APPENDIX B CASE STUDIES 69 APPENDIX C SURVEY INSTRUMENT 78 APPENDIX D COMPILED SURVEY RESULTS 116 APPENDIX E FAA INITIATIVE SUMMARIES 121 APPENDIX F SURVEY RESPONDENTS