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10 deplaning. This improvement is the result of more efficient Local departure control systems (LDCS), flow through the airport. Because the overall airport space is Airport operational database (AODB), used more efficiently, congestion, queues, and general Common use baggage sorting systems, and crowding can be better managed and peaks in flight sched- Baggage reconciliation. ules can be spread across the airport more efficiently. Com- mon use implementation can lead to satisfied customers and Although this list is not exhaustive, it does demonstrate the result in awards to airports and airlines for improved cus- impact that technology has on making an airport common tomer service, such as the Las Vegas McCarran International use. Airport's 2006 J.D. Power & Associates award for customer service (Ingalls 2007). Common use technology implementation requires coordi- nation among several entities, which ultimately become part- As will be discussed later in this document, there are chal- ners in this endeavor. These partners include the platform lenges, concerns, and risks involved with implementing provider, the entity that provides the technology and the common use. Airport operators surveyed and interviewed for hardware; the application provider, the entity that provides this report indicated that often, airlines are not always will- the computer applications that operate on the technology and ing to make the change from proprietary, exclusive space, to the hardware; and the service provider, the entity that pro- some other step along the common use continuum. As shown vides first- and second-level support for the technology. in Table 1, as airport operators move their airports along the These partners, together with the airport operator and the air- common use continuum, airlines perceive a loss of autonomy lines, must cooperate to make any common use technology and control over their operations. implementation successful (Gesell and Sobotta 2007). Wired and wireless networks, often referred to as premises COMMON USE TECHNOLOGY distribution systems (PDS), are the backbones of all other technology systems. The PDS provides a way for technology The role of technology is critical in implementing common systems to be interconnected throughout the airport campus use because the processes needed to manage a common use and, if necessary, to the outside world. environment are complex. Technology systems can include: Although a PDS is not necessary in a common use envi- Networking--both wired and wireless, ronment, it is does allow for the management of another finite Passenger paging systems--both audible and visual, resource--the space behind the walls, under the floors, in the Telephone systems, ceilings, and in roadways. Multi-User Flight Information Display Systems (MUFIDS) (see Figure 2), Passenger paging systems are those systems used to com- Multi-User Baggage Information Display Systems municate information to the passenger. Traditionally, this (MUBIDS), system was the "white paging phone" and the audio system Resource and gate management, required to broadcast messages throughout the airport. These Common use terminal equipment (CUTE), systems are installed inside buildings in almost all passenger Common use self-service kiosks (CUSS), areas, and used by the airport staff, airlines, and public authorities. Today, these systems are expanding to include a visual paging component for those who are deaf or hard of hearing. MUFIDS are dynamic displays of airport-wide flight in- formation. These consolidated flight information displays enable passengers to quickly locate flight information and continue on their journey (see Figure 2). MUBIDS are dy- namic displays capable of displaying arriving baggage carousel information for more than one airline. MUFIDS, MUBIDS, and a resource management system should inter- act with a central AODB to aid and complement the most efficient utilization of an airport common use system. Imple- mentation of multi-user displays manages the space required to communicate flight information. Resource and gate management systems allow the airport FIGURE 2 Multi-user flight information display systems operator to effectively manage the assignment of gates and (MUFIDS). associated passenger processing resources to airlines. These