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18 faced surfaces. The lengths of the counters for each airline will Technology Infrastructure Closets/Intermediate vary, reflecting the individual designs that were installed over Distribution Frames/Main Distribution Frames/Core Rooms time. Several of the counter positions may have been retrofitted or changed out by the airlines to include self-service units Airport operators often require additional rooms and closets imbedded in the counters. In the common use environment, any and utility resources for use with communications infrastruc- counter (gate or ticket) specifically configured for an airline ture, network electronics, and computer servers/workstations must be reconfigured in a manner that allows that counter to be to implement the common use systems. Depending on the de- used by any airline. This standardization may also reveal that cisions the airport operator makes regarding management of although the gates and ticket counters look the same, the over- these rooms, access control and other security measures can all dimensions of the gates and ticket counters can be drastically also be affected. Other shared uses of space noted include different. This podium size standardization can enable the air- training rooms and testing facilities. It should be noted that port operator to gain useable space at the gates and additional these spaces can also generate rental revenue while main- ticket counters at the check-in desks. taining an overall common use approach. Signage Passenger, Concessionaire, and Vendor Airport operators often replace static signage with dynamic Communications signage designed for common use. The primary areas include Airport operators need to consider the impact of common use ticket and gate counters, but also may include new areas on passengers, concessionaires, and other vendors at the air- where free-standing CUSS kiosks have been installed. Al- port. When an airport is full common use, passengers can though it is not necessary to change to dynamic signage, it is become disoriented and confused as to where to find their more efficient than using static signage. The change in sign- flight. It is important that an airport that chooses to move to age may require reinforcement or reconstruction of the back a full common use model enhance way-finding and other walls to ensure that the walls or overhead are sturdy enough modes of communication to passengers. Concessionaires are to support the weight of dynamic signage. also affected by common use, because the products they sell are marketed based on the airlines that are operating. Off-Gate Parking Airport operators need to maintain good communications Airport operators changing to common use often need to re- with vendors and concessionaires so they will know which consider space needed to park aircraft. In an exclusive use airlines are operating out of which terminals or concourses. airport, airlines may choose to park an aircraft at their exclu- In this way, they can appropriately target their product selec- sive use gate. In a common use airport, parking an aircraft at tion to the airline clientele served in various airport locations. a gate may not be considered a valid use of the gate. When calculating physical space needs, airport operators must factor in the off-gate space required to park aircraft that pre- COMPETITION PLANNING viously were parked at a gate. This change results in new parking formulas that allow the airport operator to calculate As presented in previous chapters, it has been determined accurately the required off-gate parking per use of gate by a that there are many reasons why airport operators choose to given airline. Figure 5 shows an example of off-gate parking. move toward common use. For U.S. airports that receive FAA grants and passenger facility charges (PFCs), the air- port operator is obligated to ensure access for new entrant airlines. In some cases, the FAA requires the airport operator to submit a competition plan that defines how competitive access is achieved. Usually it is only a limited number of large- and medium-sized hub airports that the FAA will determine need to prepare and submit such a plan. These air- ports are characterized by having one or two airlines control- ling more than 50% of the annual passenger enplanements. For those airports that are required to prepare a competition plan, movement along the common use continuum can be a part of the strategy that is outlined in their plans. FISCAL MANAGEMENT Changes in technology, space management, and services resulting from the common use implementation affect the FIGURE 5 Off-gate parking. fiscal requirements and financial management of the airport