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OCR for page 8
8 is available for use by any airline. The goal of the full common use model is to minimize the amount of time any given airline resource is not in use, as well as maximize the full use of the airport. Airports benefit from increased utilization of existing resources. In a full common use airport, airlines are assigned with no preferences given to any individual airline, similar to the air traffic control process. For example, each aircraft is put Exclusive Preferential Common in the queue and assigned to a gate that best fits the needs of the Mixed Use airport gate management process. Technology plays a key role Use Use Use in the full common use model. To manage resources properly, computer software and systems are put in place to perform Airport Passenger Processing "Common Use" Continuum complex calculations, monitor usage, and provide status re- porting. There are no dedicated spaces in a full common use airport. All resources are managed very closely by the airport FIGURE 1 Common use continuum. operator, and the result is an efficient use of limited resources. Airlines are less comfortable with this model because it unable to add more gates, the growth of service to that airport removes direct control over their gate assignments within the stops. Likewise, as airlines add more flights into their sched- market. The benefit of this model to the airlines, however, is ule to a specific market, they must manage these flights based more flexibility. Gates and ticket counters that were once ex- on the physical limitations of the exclusive space leased. At clusively held by a competing airline 24 hours a day, 7 days some point, the only way to add new flights or new airlines a week now become available for everyone's use. under the exclusive use model is to remove other services or wait until another airline relinquishes space. Airlines can enter markets, expand in markets, and even exit markets much easier under this model because the lease In the exclusive use model, passengers are affected by the changes from exclusive to common use. Although there are peaks and valleys caused by the flight schedules of the various many models for leasing, airlines begin paying for only the airlines. In all areas of the airport, a peak demand of flights is portion of the airport used. In addition, there are more the root cause of congestion. "Passengers are eager to reduce options available to airlines should a flight be delayed. The the time spent `processing'" (Behan 2006). To the passenger, airline no longer has to wait for one of its exclusive gates to the airport is not the destination, but merely a point along a become available; the flight can be assigned to any available journey. The goal should be to move passengers through that open gate. A common use airport allows "...carriers to focus point as expeditiously as possible. The exclusive use model on what they do best: moving passengers from one destina- may be a reasonable choice for airports that do not have a large tion to another" (Guitjens 2006). number of airlines servicing the airport. If the airport has one or two dominant carriers, or if a particular terminal within an Airport operators must manage airport space at a more de- airport is dominated by a few carriers, the airport operator may tailed level under the full common use model. The airport choose not to implement common use. If the airport is not re- operator takes on full responsibility for the common use infra- quired to complete a competition plan, or is not planning to add structure; any service that is space-specific must now be additional airlines, then a traditional exclusive use model will viewed as common use. For example, jet bridges are now pur- probably remain and limited common use strategies and tech- chased and maintained by the airport operator. Again, tech- nologies may be implemented instead. For instance, for a hub nology plays a large role in allowing this to take place. As with airport, where 60% or more of the airport usage is dominated space-specific resources, the common use terminal equipment by one airline (e.g., Salt Lake City International Airport), a (CUTE) systems and hardware also become the airport opera- common use strategy may not make sense. The remaining tor's responsibility, except in the cases of CUTE Local User 40% (or less) of airport capacity, however, may represent an Boards (CLUB) models. Airports benefit from increased uti- excellent opportunity for common use implementation, be- lization of existing resources. A CUTE CLUB is a system in cause the remaining 40% of the gates may be in high demand. which the airlines make the decisions on how the CUTE sys- As will be discussed later, these "hub" airport operators need tem will be paid for, operated, and maintained, for the benefit to consider all potential scenarios that could result if one of of all the CUTE CLUB members. Under this scenario, the air- their dominant airlines ceased operations, or declared bank- port operator does not usually own the CUTE system. In the ruptcy, necessitating drastic changes in its operations. United States this model is sometimes modified, where main- tenance of the common use system is under a "CUTE CLUB" FULL COMMON USE MODEL type model, while the airport retains ownership of the assets. At the other end of the common use continuum is the full com- The passengers' experience in the full common use model mon use model. In this model, all airline usable airport space is improved as they flow through the process of enplaning or
OCR for page 9
TABLE 1 COMMON USE CONTINUUM Models Exclusive Use (EU) Mixed Use (MU) Preferential Use (PU) (Full) Common Use (CU) Passenger Processing Some investment and conversion Substantial investment and conversion to Complete commitment to CU equipment, Facilities (PPFs), technology, to CU PPF technology and CU technology and systems. PU systems, and agreements. (Few or no EU and agreements are Approach systems. CU equipment may be agreements are established, allowing select or PU agreements.) CU may extend predominately owned/leased installed but not implemented, tenants priority over space under specific beyond terminal curbs and walls (to ramps and operated by singular pending renegotiation. terms. and other facilities). users. CUTE in new/remodeled areas, CUTE at all PPFs, including ticket Common Some baggage claim devices, CU may extend to ramp area: gate international gates/jet bridges, counters and in gate management. Use paging systems, access management, ground handling (GH), and CCTV, CUSS, remote check- Extensive computer/phone system Locations control, building systems, etc. other airport and non-airport areas. in/out, information displays, etc. hard/software acquisition and integration. Stakeholders EU tends to: MU tends to: PU tends to: CU tends to: Increase efficient use of underutilized Maximize efficient use of space and Create underutilized spaces spaces Increase efficient use of technology Deter new air service Reduce future expansion needs/costs selected underutilized spaces Require high initial technology entrants Increase technology costs/expenditures Reduce space expansion needs investment, but result in longer term per Airports Help to ensure air service Offer more consistency for users than Prompt renegotiation of passenger savings continuation by some MU existing agreements Reduce future expansion needs/costs existing airlines in Require staff/vendor for CU Familiarize tenants with CU Allow increased access to new entrants precarious markets maintenance and IT functions. (Assume Require staff/vendor for GH functions risks with outages.) Be relatively uncomplicated Increase PPF choices Increase PPF choices Increase PPF choices and allow ease in way- Passengers Complicate way-finding, if not Offer elevated tenant consistency, which Support way-finding if coupled with finding consistently used supports way-finding effective dynamic signage Limit PPF choices Lessen tenant autonomy Lessen tenant autonomy Offer high tenant autonomy Lessen tenant autonomy Prompt branding concerns, unless Prompt branding concerns, unless and perception of ́control " Lessen opportunity for addressed with dynamic signage addressed with dynamic signage Support traditional branding traditional branding of spaces Require CU technical training (learning Require CU technical training (learning of physical spaces Require CU technology curve) curve Tenant/Airline Allow use of existing training (learning curve) Create dependence on non-airline Additionally create dependence on non- company Allow some increased access personnel (for CU system maintenance) airline personnel for ground handling equipment/programs, so no and cost benefits Provide space for emergencies and new Provide space for emergencies and new retraining/learning curve Create delays in transactions service service Limit access to competitors attempted on CU equipment Allow for cost savings when Allow for cost savings when underutilized spaces are released underutilized spaces are released CUTE = common use terminal equipment; CCTV = closed-circuit television; CUSS = common use self-service; IT = information technology.